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Full text of "The masterpieces of the Centennial international exhibition illustrated.."

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THE 



MASTERPIECES 



OF THE 



Centennial International 



EXHIBITION 



VOLUME II 




I5lDIESS0Ii."WraZ sc 






TITES-lSOSAn, 1156- 



TMH BTIM© ILIOSrSSS. 



TJ. S lateTii.a1ioiial&chaiUon_l87 6, 



KEBBIE SEAKKlE 






THE 



MASTERPIECES 



OF THE 



Centennial International Exhibition 



ILLUSTRATED 



VOLUME II 



INDUSTRIAL ART 



BY 



Prof. Walter Smith 



fvMAA/NPG LIBRARY 

AUG 2 1 1990 




SiVllTHSONiAN INSTITUTION 



PHILADELPHIA 

GEBBIE & BARRIE 



rs^TA^ 



Contents of Volume II. 



The Ixdustrial Art of the Exhibition, By Walter Smith i 

The Lesson of the Exhibition 497 



■ ENGRAVING ON COPPER. 
The Dying Lioness. Professor Wolf, Sculptor. P. Moran, Engraver 



Frontispiece. 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL ART. 



BRASS AND BRONZE. 

PAGE. 

Amphora. Susse freres, Paris 203 

Benvenuto Cellini Helmet. Italian Court .... 260 
Benvenijto Cellini Shield and Helmet. Italian 

Court 316 

Brass Corona. Mitcliell &: Vance, New York . . . 307 
Brass Gate. " " " • ■ 33' 

Br.\zen Salver, Engr.vved. Egyptian Court .... 353 

Bronze Alhambr.-v V.\se. Spanish Court 218 

Bronze and Crystal Chandelier. Mitchell & Vance, 

New York 145 

Bronze and Marble Clock and Vase. Mitchell & 

Vance, New York 226 

Bronze CANnEL.A.BRA. Collective Exhibit of France . 411 

Bronze Candel.4BRA. M. Luton, Paris 450 

Bronze Helmet OF Henry IV. Italian Court . . .150 

Bronze Inkstand. Henri Perrot, Paris 107 

Bronze J.^rdiniere. M. Luton, Paris • 432 

Bronze Lamp. " " 450 

Bronze Lamp. Collective Exhibit of France .... 207 
Bronze L.\mp and Stand. Collective Exhibit of 

France 393 

Bronze Railing. Mitchell & Vance, New York . . 147 
Bronze St.and AND Vase. Collective Ex. of France . 197 
Bronze Standard. Mitchell & Vance, New York . 196 

Candelabra. French Collective Exhibit 247 

Candelabra. Susse freres, Paris .112 

G.\ndelabra — Louis XIV. Susse freres, Pari, , .259 



PAGE. 

Challenge Prize of the National Musical Union. 

Cox & Son, London S 

Chandelier. Cornelius & Son, Philadelphia .... 20 
Chandelier and Hall Lamp. Cornelius cS: Son, Phila- 
delphia 42 

Chandelier. Mitchell & Vance, New York .... 29 

Chimney-Piece. M. Marchand, Paris 61 

Clock. Austrian Court 341 

Clock. Susse frdres, Paris 113 

Clock — Louis XIII. Susse freres, Paris 258 

Corneile Clock. French Collective Exhibit .... 141 
Copies from Antique Statuary. Italian Court . . 422 

Cupid and Psyche Statue. Italian Court 401 

Egyptian Column and Bust. Mitchell & Vance, 

New York 96 

Egyptian Clock. Mitchell & Vance, New York . . 97 
Greek Vase. Mitchell & Vance, New York .... 97 

Hall Lamp. Joint Stock Co. of Berlin 295 

Hercules and Stag. Elkington, London 472 

Hindoo Bronze Vase. Indian Court 512 

Jewel Casket. Austrian Court 375 

Lampidiare. Susse frdres, Paris 100 

Lamp. J.ipanese Court 3^4 

Lamp, Pillar and Epergne. German Court . . . 250 

Mercury — Bronze. Italian Court 69 

Ormolu Clock. French Collective Exhibit 293 

Phryne Statuette. Susse freres, Paris 163 

Pitcher. Collective Exhibit of Fr.ince 202 



LIST OF ILLUSTRAT/OXS 



PAGE. 

Sanxtuary Lamp. Mitchell & Vance, New York . . 246 

Shield OF Fran'Cis I. Italian Court 151 

Shield OF Henry IV. " " 261 

Snake Ch.vrmer. Cox & Son, London 15 

T.\BLE Lamp. German Court .■ . . . 294 

V.\SE. Japanese Court 172 

Vase. " " 173 

V.\SE. " " 282 

Vases. " " 12S 

CABINET FURNITURE. 

Bedstead — Rex.-uss.-vnce. Herts & Co., New York . 26 

Bent-Wood Furniture. Austrian Court 420 

Book-Case. Prof. E. Gijani, Italy 47 

Buffet or Sideboard. Allen cS: Bro., Philadelphia . 13 

Buffet. CoUinson & Lock, London 240 

Cabinet. " " " 492 

Cabinet. CoUinson & Lock, London 16S 

C.VBINET — Side View. CoUinson & Lock, London . .169 

Cabinet. Cooper & Holt, London 409 

Cabinet. Cox & Son, London 345 

C.A.EINET and Chimney'-Piece. Cooper & Hoit, London, 349 
Cabinet, Inlaid with Ebony' and Pearl. G. Parvis, 

Cairo, Egypt 55 

C.VBINET, Inlaid avith Rosewood and Pearl. G. 

Parvis, Cairo, Egypt 24 

Carved Bedstead. Eerrie & Bartolozzi, Florence . . 387 

Carved Cabinet. Italian Court 431 

Carved Cabinet. " " 440 

Curved Mirror Frame. Italian Court 292 

Carved " " •' " 361 

C.A.RVED Panel. Luigi Frullini, Florence 136 

ClI-MR. R. ilazaroz, Paris 171 

Console Table. Wright cS: Mansfield, London . . . 476 

Door. Allen & Bro., Philadelphia 39 

Ebony Cabinet. O. B. Frederick, Dresden 241 

Ebony Inlaid Cabinet. S Coco, Italy 321 

Hindoo Sandal- Wood C.-vsket. Indian Court . . . 519 

M.\NTEL-PlECE. Cox & Son, London 211 

Oak Cabinet. Snyei-s, Rang & Co., Brussels .... 153 
Walnut Book-Case. F. Romenelli, Florence .... 285 

Walnut Cabinet. Frullini, JMilan 470 

Wardrobe. G. Volmer 73 

Wood Carving. Luigi Frullini, Florence 236 

Pompeiian Ruin — AVood Carving. Italian Court . . 274 

SiDEBO.ARD. Cooper & Holt, London 264 

Sideboard. Wright & Mansfield, London 2S8 

CARPETS. 

Brussels Carpet. Netherlands Court 176 

Brussels Carpet. Spanish Court 367 



PACE. 

Kidderminster Carpet. J. Templeton & Co., 

Glasgow 337 

Kidderminster Carpet. Tomkinson & Adam, 

England 3S2 

Kidderjiinster Carpet. Tomkinson & Adam, 

England 3SS 

Kidderminster Carpet. Tomkinson & Adam, 

England 463 

Kidderminster Carpet. • Tomkinson & Adam, 

England 491 

Turkey Carpets. Biglow Carpet Co., Boston, Mass. . 51 

Tapestry Carpets. French Court 377 

Wilton Carpet. J. Templeton & Co., Glasgow . . .413 
Wilton Carpet. '■ " "... 433 

CASHMERE FABRICS. 

Sh.awl. Compagnie des Indes 500 

Sh.«vl. " " 501 

Shawl. E.xhibit of Saxony 217 

Shawl. " " 496 

CHINA, MAJOLICA, FAIENCE AND POTTERY. 

Aurora Vase. Royal Porcelain Works, Berlin . . , 17S 

Ceramics and I\'0RY. Egyptian Court 4S2 

" Pipe AND Swinging Vase. Egj'ptian Court . 477 

China Plaque and B.asin. French Court 391 

Chimney- Piece. Rorstrand & Co., Sweden 71 

Dessert Plates. Brownfield & Sons, London ... 43 
Dessert Plates. " " " ... 44 

E.-vrthen Vessels. Turkish Court 1S8 

F.-viENCE. Count Von Thun, Klosterel, Bohemia . . . 490 

FaIence. French Court 263 

Faience. " " 460 

FAfENCE of Gien et Loiret. French Court .... 346 

F.AIF.NCE. Indian Court , 272 

F.-VjENCE. Russian Court 273 

Faience. " " 2S0 

Faience Vase. Italian Ccurt 394 

Font. Doulton & Co., London 28 

Fou.ntain. " " " S9 

Greek Vases. Daniell & Son, London 90 

Green Crockery. Turkish Court 386 

German Stoneware. Merkelbach & Wick, Grenz- 

hausen 1^5 

Group of Artistic Pottery. Gu-stafsberg & Co., 

Sweden 9' 

Group of China. Brown, Westhead & Co., Stafford- 
shire 379 

Group of China. Brown, Westhead & Co., Stafford- 
shire 3"' 

Group of L.\mbeth Faience. Doulton & Co., 

London 251 



TO THE INDUSTRIAL ART OF THE EXHIBITION. 1S76. 



Group of Lambeth Faience. Doulton & Co., 

London 319 

Group of Vases. German Court 210 

Hi>"D00 Water Bottles. Indian Court 517 

J.\RDINIERES AXD Vases. French Court 300 

Krug Jug. Count Von Thun, Klosterel, Bohemia . . 356 

KrugJugs. Austrian Court 31S 

LoiRET Faie>"CE. French Court 453 

Majolica Clock .\>'d 'Weather-Glass. Daniell & 

Son, London 130 

Majolica Epergne. Daniell & Son, London .... 429 
" Epergne. " " " . . . . 2S1 

" Flower Vase. ■■ '■ " . . . . 1S2 

" Fol"ntain. '• " " . . . . 289 

" Fruit St.\nd. " " " . . . . 478 

M.\jOLic.\ Pro.methean Vase. Daniell & Son, 

London 224 

iL-\jOLlCA V.ASE. Daniell & Son, London 159 

Ornament.vl Tiles. Brown, Westhead & Co., Staf- 

ford.shire 371 

Ornamental Tile Mantel-Piece. Minton, HoUis & 

Co., London 385 

Ornamf.nt.\l Tiles. Minton, HoUis & Co., London . 41S 
Orn.\siental Tile Mantel-Piece. Minton, HoUis & 

Co., London 419 

P.\LISSY Pl.ite. Barbizet & Son, Paris 232 

Pitchers of Faience. Doulton & Co., London . . 428 
PoRCELAi.N Krug. Count Von Thun, Klosterel, 

Bohemia 234 

PoRCEL.\iN Ornaments. Japanese Court 291 

Porcelain Plaque. French Court 243 

Porcelain Tea Service.- Royal Porcelain Works, 

Berlin 215 

Porcel.\in Vase. Chinese Court 239 

Porcelain " " " 265 

Porcelain " " " 475 

Porcelain V.\se. French Court 252 

Porcelain " " " 262 

Porcelain Vase — God of Contentment. Chinese 

Court ' 301 

Porcelain V.vse. Japanese Court 395 

Porcelain Vases. Austrian Court 336 

Porcelain Vases. Chinese Court 509 

Porcelain V.-vses. Japanese Court 290 

Porcelain Vases, (Sir Richard W.illace). Daniell & 

Son, London 117 

ViSSY,. Royal Porcelain Works, Berlin 79 

Vase of SfeVRES Ware. French Government . . . .137 
Vases, (Porcelain). Daniell & Son, London .... 49 
Vases OF Sevres Ware, French Government . . . .221 
Vases " " " .... 449 

Vases " " " .... 474 

Vases " " " ... 506 



Vases of Sevres Ware. French Government 
Wine Cooler. Royal Porcelain Works, Berlin 



P.\GE. 

• 5°7 

• 79 



ECCLESIASTICAL FURNITURE, VESSELS, 
AND ORNAMENTS. 

Altar Cloth. French Court 198 

Banner and Stole. Belgian Department 339 

C.ANDELABR.A. Hart cSc Son, London 369 

C.\RVED Church Seat. Ferri Bartalozzi, Florence . 183 
Curved Pulpit. J. A. & H. Goyers, Louvain, 

Belgium 139 

Chandelier. Hart & Son, London 412 

CoM.MUNiON Service. Cox & Son, London 233 

Communion Vessels. R. P. Poussielgue, Paris . . . 36S 

Crucifix. R. P. Poussielgue, Paris 225 

Lectern. Hart & Son, London 445 

Monu.mental Brass. Singer & Co., Frome, England, 298 
Monumental " <t <i « .... 299 

Pulpit. Hart & Son, London 444 

Stole. Belgian Department 406 

ENAMELED WARE. 

Card Case. French Court 229 

Casket (Jewel). Emile Philippe, Paris log 

Enameled Plaque. Ovchinikoff, Russia 485 

Enameled Plaque. Elkington & Co., London . . . 502 
En.mieled Reproduction. Elkington & Co., London, 485 

Pelican Vase. Chinese Court 155 

Vases. French Court 503 

FANS. 

Decorated Fans. French Court 186 

Decorated " " " 310 

Lace Fans. French Court 311 

GLA.SS— CUT, COLORED AND ORNAMENTAL. 

Blue Plaque. Lobmeyer, Vienna 3S4 

Bohemian Glass Vase and Pedestal. Lobmeyer, 

Vienna 269 

Bohemian Glassware. Austrian Court 362 

Crystal Chandelier. J. Green & Nephew, London, 461 
Cut-Glass Decanter. James Millar & Co., Edinburgh, 443 
Cut-Glass " " " " 50S 

Cut-Glass Decanters and Goblets. J. Green cS: 

Nephew, London 396 

Crystal Epergne. English Court 332 

Crystal Pitcher (Engraved). J. Green & Nephew, 

London 357 

Decanter, Engraved Glass. English Court . . . 334 
Decanter, " " " "... 335 
Dessert Dishes. Lobmeyer, Vienna 423 



LIST OF 1 L LVSTR ATI 0.\S 



^ PAGn. 

Epergne. Lobmeyer, Vienna 192 

Epergne and Candelabra. Lobmeyer, Vienna . . 35 

Glass Hanging Lamp. Egyptian Court 479 

Group of Bohemian Glass. Lobmeyer, Vienna . . 355 
Group of Colored Gl.\ss. " " . . 67 

J.A.RDINIERE AND Plaque. •' " . . 328 

Jeweled Scent-Bottle. French Court 329 

Kalian or Pipe. Persian Court 466 

Mirror. Lobmeyer, Vienna 37 

PERSI.A.N Vase .and Pedestal. Lobmeyer, Vienna . . 93 

T.4BLE Glassw.^re. Lobmeyer, Vienna loS 

Vase .\nd Epergne. " " 441 

Vase of Colored Glass. " " 84 

Venetian Glassware. " " 216 

" Mirror. " " 222 

GOLD AND SILVER. 

Antique Chalice. Elkington & Co., London . . . 315 
Antique Drinking-Cup. Elkington & Co., London . 314 
Aurora Plaque. Elkington & Co., London .... 4S7 

B.vsket. Trostrup, Norway 317 

B.athsheba Plaque. Elkington & Co., London . . .351 

Beer Jug. M. Sassikoff, Russia 400 

Bryant Vase. Tiffany & Co., New York 276 

Buffalo Hunt. Meriden Britannia Co., Connecticut . 45 
Candelabra. JL Christensen, Copenhagen .... 87 
Card Case, Filigree Silver. C. Salvo & Sons, Genoa, 166 
Card Case, " " " " " 479 

Card Receivers, &c. M. Houry, Paris 37S 

Casket (Jewel) and Engraved Lid. Erhard & Sons, 115 

Century V.4SE. Gorham Manufacturing Co 52 

Century Vase, Det.^.ils of. Gorham Manufacturing 

Co 53 

Chess Table. Elkington & Co., London i5o 

Chess T.able, Top. Elkington & Co., London . . . 161 
Chili Cup. Reed & Barton, Taunton, Massachusetts . S3 
Crepuscule Plaque. Elkington & Co., London . . . 488 
Dam.\scened Casket. Elkington & Co., London . . 4S3 
Dancing Faun Plaque. Elkington & Co., London . 365 
Dessert Group. Elkington & Co., London .... 309 
Dessert Service. " " " .... 206 
Dessert Service. Meriden Britannia Co., Conneciicat, 187 
Entree Dish (Repousse). J. E. Caldwell & Co., Phila- 
delphia 40 

Epergne. E. G. Zimmerman, Hanau 392 

Epergne. Elkington & Co., Birrningham 206 

Epergne, The Neptune. Meriden Britannia Co. . . 22 

Fairy Plaque. Elkington & Co., London 364 

Flower Stands and Music and Poetry' Vase. 

Elkington & Co., London 370 

Helicon Vase. Elkington & Co., London 135 

iNDUSTRiiVL Cup. Elkington,& Co., London . . . .421 



PAGE. 

jARDlNliiRE. Reed & Barton 213 

Jewel Casket. C. Salvo & Sons, Genoa 483 

Jewel Casket. E. G. Zimmemian, Hanau 330 

Jewel Casket, Lid. E. G. Zimmemian, Hanau . . . 436 

Mirror Fr.ame. Emile Phillipe, Paris 144 

Mirror (Silver Framed). Elkington & Co., London, 81 
Neptune Tazza. Elkington & Co., London .... 230 

Perfume Bo.\. Ritter & Co., Hanau 437 

Ph/Eton Cup. Elkington &.Co., London 473 

Pitcher (Repousse). J. E. Caldwell & Co., Phila- 
delphia 10 

Plated Tea Service. Reed & Barton, Taunton, 

Massachusetts 426 

Plated Tea Service. Reed & Barton, Taunton, Massa- 
chusetts 427 

Pompeiian Toilet Plaque. Elkington & Co., London, 125 
Progress Trophy, Reed & Barton, Taunton, Massa- 
chusetts 63 

Punch-Bowl and Cups. Middletown Plate Co., Con- 
necticut 208 

Punch-Bowl and Goblets. Meriden Britannia Co., 

Connecticut ...■■■ 60 

Punch-Bowl, Silver and Gilt. M. Sassikoff, Russia, 148 

Race Cup. Tififany & Co., New York 6 

Repousse Plated Pitchers, Etc. Reed & Barton, 

Taunton, Massachusetts 271 

S.^lver. Ritter & Co., Hanau 417 

Silver and Glass Centre-Piece. Elkington & Co., 

London 415 

Silver and GL.Jiss Centre-Piece. Elkington & Co., 

London 416 

Silver Casket. Austrian Court 399 

Silver Epergne. Reed & Barton, Taunton, Massa- 
chusetts 425 

Silver F.viry' Table. Elkington & Co., London . . 45S 
Silver Fairy Table, Top. Elkington & Co., London, 459 
Silver. Pl.yteau. E. G. Zimmerman, Hanau .... 99 

Silver Tazza. Emile Phillipe, Paris 209 

Silverware, Queensland Court iSi 

Tankard. Emile Phillipe, Paris 165 

Tea Service. Bailey & Co., Philadelphia 85 

Tea Ser^'Ice. M. Christensen, Copenhagen .... 132 

Tea Services. " " 435 

Testimonial Vase. Tififany & Co., New York . . . 237 
The Months' Plaque and Imprudentia Tazza. 

Elkington & Co., London 4S0 

The Seasons' Pl.aque. Elkington & Co., London . . 284 

The Viking V.ase. Swedish Court 424 

Tureen and Salver (Repousse). J. E. Caldwell & 

Co., Philadelphia 40 

^VASHINGTON RACE CuP. Tiffany & Co., New York . 256 
Water Pitcher. Reed & Barton, Taunton, Massa- 
chusetts 174, 



TO THE INDUSTRIAL ART OF THE EXHIBITION, 1876. 



INTERIOR DECORATIONS. 

PAGE. 

Upholstered Budoir. Carrington, DeZouche & Co., 121 
Wall Paper — La Margarete. Jeffrey & Co., London, 5 

IRON AND STEEL WORK. 

Enlarged Side G.ate. Barnard, Bishop cS: Barnard . 343 
FouxTAiy. The G. L. Mott Iron Co., New York . . 106 

Iron Bedstead. Pej-ton & Peyton, London 44S 

Iron Fire-Place. Steel & Garland, Sheffield . . . . 3S3 

Jewel Casket. Emile Phillipe, Paris 484 

Jewel Casket, D-A>l\scexed. Zuloaga & Son, Madrid, 238 
Mirror Frame, Damascened Iron. Zuloaga, 

Madrid 156 

ORNAMENT.4.L FuRN.ACE DooR. Swedish Court . . . 498 
Ornament.^L G.\te. Barnard, Bishop & Barnard . .175 
Orn.^mental Iron Work. Swedish Court .... 430 

Pl-AQUE of Iron. Zuloaga & Son, Madrid 184 

Steel Fire-Place. Steel & Garland, Sheffield . . . 344 
Sunflower Railing. Barnard, Bishop & Barnard . 403 
The Aii.\zoN (Bronzed Zinc). The G. L. Mott Iron 

Co., New York 270 

The Seasons G.ate. Barnard, Bishop & Barnard . . 342 
Wrought-Iron Flower-Stand. Barnard, Bishop & 

Barnard 1S5 

Wrought-Iron Gate. H. R. Ives & Co., Montreal .In 

JEWELRY. 

Bracelet. Krumbiigel, St. Petersburg 278 

Bracelets and Pin. Krumbiigel, St. Petersburg . . 375 

Brooches. Emile Phillipe, Paris 123 

Brooches and Ear-Rings. Krumbiigel, St. Petersburg, 374 

Cairngorm Brooches. English Court 360 

Cameos. Starr & Marcus, New York 456 

Diamond Bonbonniere M. Boucheron, Paris . . . 279 
Diamond Necklace. Starr & Marcus, New York . . 58 
Diamonds and Pearls. United States Court .... 489 

Ear-Rings, Krumbiigel, St. Petersburg 340 

Ear-Rings. N. a. Bellezza,' Rome 167 

Garnet Set. Goldschmidt, Prague 223 

Gold Br.^CELET. German Court 297 

Gold Bracelet. Turkish Court 312 

Gold Brooch, Ear-Rings, &c. Morgan & Headly, 

Philadelphia 17 

Golden Coronet with Cameos. German Court . .167 

Gold Necklace. A. Castellani, Rome 297 

Gold Necklace. Egyptian Court 214 

Irish Bog-Oak Brooches. J. Goggin, Dublin . . . 323 
Jeweled Pendants. Starr & Marcus, New York . . 279 

Necklace. A. Castellani, Rome 191 

Necklace. Jerardini, Milan 333 

Necklace. " " 374 

Necklace. N. A. Bellezza, Rome 190 



PAGE. 

Necklace. N. A. Bellezza, Rome 326 

Necklace. " " 327 

Necklace and Breastpin. Morgan & Headly . . . 103 
Necklace and Cross. Salvo & Co., Rome .... 333 
Necklace and Ear-Rings. A. Castellani, Rome . . 199 
Necklace and Ear-Rings. Egyptian Government . 123 
Necklace of Tortoise-shell. J. S. Adams & Co. . 36 
Necklace, Pendant and Ear-Rings. Geissel & 

Hartung, Hanau 248 

LACE. 

Border. Verde de Lisle Bros., Brussels 494 

Border. " " " " 235 

Coll.ar. (Women's Pavilion). French Court . . . 34S 

Corner of Robe. Court of Switzerland 404 

Corner of Shawl. " " 405 

Curtain. Court of .Switzerland i8i 

Curtain. English Court . , 253 

Curtain. French Court 245 

Curtain. M. Jacoby, Nottingham 455 

Curtain. " " 495 

Curtain. Verde de Lisle Bros., Brussels 26S 

Curtain. " " " " 2S6 

Parasol Cover. Collective Exhibit of Brussels . . 1S9 
Portion of Robe. " " " . . 205 

Portions of Sh.awls. Court of Switzerland .... 201 

Shawl. Collective Exhibit of Brussels 179 

Shawl.. French Court 283 

Shawl. " " 363 

Shawl. Verde de Lisle Bros., Brussels 447 

Window Curtain. Maison Blanc, Paris 373 

Window " " " " 414 

Window Curtain. Ileyman & Alexander, Not- 
tingham 244 

Window Curtain. Heyman & Alexander, Not- 
tingham 446 

Window Curtain. Simon, May & Co., Nottingham . 157 

LEATHER GOODS, SADDLERY, BOOK- 
BINDING, ETC. 

Bookbinding. M. Lorlic, Paris 325 

Bookbinding. " " 407 

Card Cases. German Court . . . . ' 471 

Harness — Two Saddles and a Bridle, Egyptian 

Court 467 

Saddle-Bag. Egyptian Court 220 

MARBLE, GRANITE, ETC. 

Chimney-Piece. French Court 3S9 

Marble Font. Struthers & Sons, Philadelphia . . . loi 
Memory. New England Granite Co.,. Hartford, Con- 
necticut 34 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS TO THE INDUSTRIAL ART. 



Onyx Vase. French Court • . . 242 

The Minute Man. New England Granite Co., 

Hartford, Connecticut 18 

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

Ebony-Cased Piano. Hallet, Davis & Co., Boston . 120 
Ebony-Cased Piano. R. Ibach & Son, Barmen, 

Germany 227 

Organ (Eastlake). Mason & Hamlin, Boston ... 32 
Walnut Organ — Ornaiiental Carving. Mason & 

Hamlin, Boston 204 

PRINT PATTERNS. 

The American Print ^YoRKs. Fall River, Massa- 
chusetts 77 

STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. 

"Feed My Sheep." W. H. Constable, England . .358 
" Mary Has Chosen the Better Part." W. H. 

Constable, England 359 

St. P.\UL, Samuel West, New York 11 

The Birth of Christ. F. X. Zettler, Munich . . . 313 
The Sermon on the Mount. Co.k & Son, London . 75 

TAPESTRY AND NEEDLE-WORK. 

Aubusson Tapestry. French Court 398 

Bed-Cover. Japanese Court ■ 228 

Chair. French Court 304 

Chair. " " 305 

Curtain. Royal School of Needle-Work, London . 177 
Curtain Borders. Royal School of Needle- Work, 

London 277 

Curtain Borders. Royal School of Needle-Work, 

London 347 

Cushions and other Designs. Royal School of 

Needle- Work, London 95 

Designs from Panels of Tapestry. Belgium Court, 105 
Door-Hanging. Royal School of Needle-Work, 

London 65 

Embroidered Chair. Royal School of Needle-Work, 

London 127 



PAGE. 

Fire-Screen. Royal School of Needle-Work, London, 249 
Fire-Screen. " " " " " 372 

FiRE-ScREEN AND CoMMODES. Royal School of 

Needle-Work, London 143 

Panel of Tapestry. French Court 302 

Panel " " " 303 

Panels. French Court 465 

Panels. " " 499 

Pin-Cushion. Royal School of Needle-Work, London, 257 
Sofa Covered with Tapestry. French Court . . .170 
Tapestry, after Thorwaldsen's Christ and the 

Apostles. English E.xhibit 133 

The Queen's CuRT.-iiN. Royal School of Needle- 
Work, London 200 

TERRA-COTTA. 

Eve Nursing C.mn and Abel. Watcomb Terra-Cotta 

Co., England 254 

Fau.n. Italian Court 410 

Ganymede. The Window Ipsen, Copenhagen . . . 402 

L.4.VORI. Italian Court 408 

Nymph and Concha. Watcomb Terra-Cotta Co., 

England 30 

Sappho. Watcomb Terra-Cotta Co., England .... 12 
The Amazon V.-iSE. Doulton & Co., London .... 138 
The Grapplers. S. H. Godenius, Stockholm ... 72 
Thorwaldsens Ganymede. The Widow Ipsen, 

Copenhagen 255 

Vases — Antique Reproductions. The Widow Ipsen, 

Copenhagen 25 

TISSUES, SILK, DAMASK, ETC. 

Figured Silk. Beauvais, France 194 

Figured Silk. Collective Exhibit of France .... 193 

Furniture Silk. Beauvais, France 267 

Furniture " " " 481 

Furniture Silk. Russian Court 376 

Furniture Silk. Saxony Court 442 

Furniture " " " 452 

Furniture Silk. Spanish Court 454 

Table Cover. Turkish Court 397 



ELECTROTYPED BY MACKELLAR, SMITHS A JORDAN, PHILADELPHLl. 



PRINTED BY GRANT, FAIRES & RODGERS, PHILADELPHIA. 




Industrial Art 



OF THE 



mm 

' Wits 



International Exhibition 



BY 



Vol. 11, 



WALTER SMITH. 



4" 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the j}-ear /Sys. *>■ GEBBIE &■ EARKfE, 
in the Q^e of the Librarian of Congress, at JVashiugton. 



The International Exhibition .876. 




ISTORY," it has been said, "repeats itself;" and this saying, like many 
other glibly-worded truisms which have become proverbial, has 
been repeated so olten that its true meaning is often lost 
sight of. Of course, where the same general conditions exist, 
it is reasonable to suppose that similar effects will be produced; 
and since — as has been justly observed — the repetitions that are 
recorded in historical chronicles are the result of periodical recurrences 
of great combinations of events, coupled with certain general coincidences 
in the motives and aims that govern and influence human conduct, the 
careful inquirer would probably discover under the motives and aims 
that suggested the celebration of the nation's centenary by a grand International 
Exhibition of the world's products, the same condition of things as actuated 
Europe and England — at intervals in the past — to institute similar displays. It 
is evident, however, that before there can be repetition there must be precedent, 
and while we may be, and probably are, following in the same grooves as other 
older nations, we are, to all intents and purposes, making our own history; 
and, as in this instance, to the great majority of our people such an event as 
this Exhibition is an absolutely new experience. 

Of the inestimable practical, as well as speculative or theoretical advantages 
of periodical illustrations of the world's progress we have spoken in another 
place, our province here is simply to direct attention to one particular depart- 
ment of this Exhibition. But what a grand and comprehensive division it is ! 
Industrial Art! The union of the two great elements of civilization — Industry, 



4 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

the mere mechanical, manual labor, and Art, the expression of something not 
taught by nature, the presentation of that ideal, the mere conception of which 
raises man above the level of savagery. 

In ancient times the Arts comprised two great divisions: the Liberal and 
the Servile. The latter were about equivalent to what we to-day call mechanical 
arts, and they received the name of servile because their practice was relegated 
to the slaves ; whereas the Liberal Arts, which included grammar, dialectics, 
rhetoric, music, arithmetic, geometry and astronomy, were practiced by freemen 
alone. At the present time, however, the world, while retaining the former 
term, makes a different division. We speak of the Fine Arts as distinguished 
from those which are simply useful or mechanical ; and by Fine Arts we mean 
poetry, music, sculpture, painting and architecture. But when we add to an 
article which, in itself, supplies a mere bodily want, such ornamentation as makes 
it lovely or pleasing to look upon, attractive to the eye, ministering to the wants 
of the mind, we at once place it in that great middle ground between Fine 
Art and mere mechanical execution, which is known as the field of Industrial 
Art. 

Thus, only excluding the production of raw material. Industrial Art might 
be made to include every branch of labor. But, as a matter of fact, the appli- 
cation of art to industry, while affecting all branches of manufacture, has found 
its chief expression in a number of special directions ; as in the decoration of 
textile fabrics, whether by stamping a pattern on, or weaving it in to, the material , 
in the making of tapestry, lace and embroidery ; in ornamental printing and 
bookbinding; in furniture, upholstery, paper-hangings and papier-mache ; in the 
manufacture of iron, steel and copper, and especially in braziery ; in working the 
precious metals and their imitations, as in jewelry ; and in the production of 
glass and pottery. 

This, then, is the scope of this division of our Catalogue, and it shall be our 
endeavor to illustrate these pages with examples of the most admirable and 
artistic specimens of the widely different Art Industries contained in the Exhibition. 
To point out their particular merits, to give such descriptions of their construc- 
tion as will be of interest to the unlearned as well as the learned reader, and 
to give such general information — wherever it is pertinent — on the details 
of the manufacture as will render the work a valuable book of reference both 



INDUS TR /A L AR T. 




DTO-\v'HO.--lDO-YE-OWEte-YO'.'P..- SERVICE? a-V/HlCH-WILLVL IIONOVR "->Tt:LL- ME- IPKAT-THIS-VERE^-TIIF-LEAF OIVTIIE rLOWEB?g 




La Margareie Paper': Jeffrey &> Co., London. 



6 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

for the artist, the manufacturer and the artizan, and for the student of Industrial 
Art. 

Before entering upon the work ot illustration, however, it will be well to give 
some general rules by the application of which any one, no matter how ignorant 
of historical art, or of those superb examples ot manufacture made in days 
" when art was still religion," when the artist and the artizan were one, may form 




Race- Cup, Silver: Tiffany &= Co, 

comparatively a just estimate of the claims of an object of Industrial Art to be 
considered worthy of commendation. The first thing to do, in this as in all 
other branches of industry, is to consider the purpose for which the object has 
been made. Exercise common-sense. If it is something for use — say a shovel 
— do not let the eye distract the judgment by dv/elling upon the beauty of its 
ornamentation. Look at it from a utilitarian standpoint. Ask the question, 
does it accomplish its use? If on the other hand, it is an object of ornament, 
as a brooch, the questions of design and ornamentation are of primary import- 
ance. In both — shovel and brooch — the quality of the workmanship is the next 



INDU ST RIAL ART. 



consideration. Is it good, honest work, or is it sham? And in both, too, the 
taste and skill displayed in the application of ornament or decoration of any 
kind, above and beyond what their utility requires, is the third and final consider- 
ation. The first requirement from that which proposes to serve is efficient 
serv^ice ; the next, elegance of manner in which the service is performed. If an 
object is so lacking in good design as to be homely, it is poor work ; if it is 
so loaded down with ornamentation as to be unhandy or useless, it is bad work. 
The happy mean between the two, which combines the utility that serves the 
body with the beauty that satisfies the mind, constitutes true art. 

Our first illustration is an engraving representing a beautiful specimen of 
Paper- Hanging, manufactured by Messrs. Jeffrey & Company, Paper-Stainers, 
of London, especially for this Exhibition. The design was furnished by Mr. 
Walter Crane, also of London, an architect of ability who has recently been 
making a specialty of interior decoration, artistic designs for furniture, etc. Mr. 
Crane has given this paper the name of "La Margarete," and the daisy has 
been chosen as the motive of the design, in the Chaucerian sense; — 

As she that is of alle flowres flour, 
Fulfilled of all virtue and honour 
And ever alike fair and fresh of hue. 

PROLOGtTE : Legend of Good Women. 

The frieze shows : " The God of Love, and in his hand a Queen," — Alcestis, 
the queen of wives — crowned with the daisy and clothed in its colors as Chaucer 
describes in his Prologue, quoted above. Next in order are placed as not 
inappropriate attendants on the ideal wife, such domestic virtues as Diligence, 
Order, Providence and Hospitality, which will not be considered out of place in 
any house, and may fitly be represented as caryatides supporting the roof 
Between the figures, the alternate plants suggest the text inscribed below them 
from Chaucer's " Flower and the Leaf." In the daisy pattern below is intro- 
duced the burden of the song in praise of the flower from the same poem : — 

"Si douce est la Margarete." 

This pattern in the paper consists of four rows of festoons, but we have been 
obliged to cut off two of them in order to reduce the engraving to the size of our 
page. In the Dado, the Purity and Innocence which the poet does not "clepe 
folye," is further symbolized by the Lilies and the Doves. 




Challenge Prize of the National Musical Union . Cox &- Sons, London. 



I NDUSTRIAL ART. 



Turning now from this admirable production of Mr. Crane's, we give an 
illustration of a totally different branch of industry, in a specimen of work from 
the establishment of one of our own manufacturers. The "Comanche Cup" is 
exhibited by Messrs. Tiffany & Co., of New York. The main figure represents 
a Comanche hunter armed with a rifle, clinging dexterously to a galloping mustang 
in such a way as to shield his body and retain the use of his arms for defence or 
attack. The bas-relief on the pedestal is a fine specimen of repousse chasing. 
Including the base, it is wrought wholly of sterling silver. 

That our readers may have an opportunity of comparing the art workman- 
ship of this country with that of other nations in a department of art — that of 
the goldsmith — which is not only one of the most ancient, but also one of the 
most durable in the world, we give on the preceding page an illustration of a 
celebrated production of the Messrs. Cox & Sons, London. This beautiful work 
is from a design made by Mr. S. J. Nicholls, architect, of London, and 
was selected from eighteen other designs furnished by other artists of note. It 
was selected in open competition for the Challenge Prize of the National 
Musical Union, valued at ^looo, and was executed for the Crystal Palace Com- 
pany by Messrs. Cox & Sons. 

The design consists of a loving-cup, that is, a cup holding sufficient liquor 
to allow of its being passed round among several persons — a custom doubtless 
originated at the ancient love-feasts or Agapse — supported by a pedestal and 
platform, all of silver gilt, richly adorned with enamels and jewels ; the whole, 
with the cover, standing over 36 inches high. The cup itself is 10^ inches 
high, and is enriched with repousse work, filigree work, enamels and engraving. 
The enamels — which are beautifully executed — comprise figures of Saint Cecilia 
and King David. The bowl, 10 inches in diameter, is supported on a stem and 
foot of varied plan, and is pierced with tracery and adorned with jewels. The 
inscriptions and devices, which are in enamel and engraving, upon the stand and 
also upon the cup commemorate the object of the design. The cover is sur- 
mounted by a crown and wreath enamelled, and the latter encloses a shield on 
which is engraved the title and device of the society which won the cup. This 
shield is so made that it can be hung within the wreath or suspended in one of 
the panels of the cover as the prize changes ownership, or, rather, holding. The 
pedestal is 18 inches square, and comprises a platform surrounded by open 



lO 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHfBITION, 1S76. 



tracery and enamelled scrolls, bearing suitable inscriptions. Each angle is occu- 
pied by canopied niches, containing statues of Guido, Aretino, Palestrina, Handel, 
and Mozart. 

It would be interesting to describe the processes which such a piece of 
work as this undergoes from the time the drawing of the design is put in the 
hands of the modeller until it comes from the polisher all burnished and ready 



for exhibition. Such 
a description, to be 
done properly, would 
take up more space 
than could be given 
to it at the present 
time, but while we 
are upon the subject 
we can speak of one 
branch of goldsmith's 
work which is rep- 
resented in the arti- 
cle we have just de- 
scribed and which 
is excellently well 
illustrated in a Pit- 
cher from the Phila- 
delphia house of J. 
E. Caldwell & Co. 
This sort of work is 




Pitcher: Refousse Silver: 7. E. Caldwell &= Co. 



called rcpousse,\s\\\ch. 
expresses with exact- 
ness the method of 
its production. In 
this Pitcher — for 
example — after the 
base, bowl and neck 
had been formed and 
the lip hammered 
into shape, the flori- 
ated pattern was 
penciled upon its 
surface and then, by 
means of blunt chas- 
ine tools, was ham- 
mered outward, not 
to the form in which 
it now appears, but, 
so to speak, in mas- 
ses. Thus, one of 



roses, which now shows each leaf with distinctness, was simply a sniooth, 
rounded surface, like an apple. After the design had been raised in this 
manner to its proper heights, the pitcher was filled with a cement of pitch and 
rosin, which hardens and makes a solid foundation for the chaser to work upon. 
This man then, with other chasing tools, goes over the details of the pattern and 
works into position the parts which are to be "set back," or repousse. The 
chaser's work, although it has nothing to do with the designing, is very important 
and requires skilled and artistic workmen, for it is in their power to give to a 



I NDUSTRIAL ART. 



II 




Si. Paul; Stained Glass : Samuel Wesl. 



12 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



poor design considerable finish and expression, or to ruin a fine pattern by working 
it in a spiritless, characterless manner. This process has always been a favorite 
one on account of the fine artistic effects of which it is capable. 

In a subject like that which we illustrate on the preceding page the engraving 
speaks for itself It is a design for a stained glass window exhibited by Mr. 
Samuel West, of Boston. The figure itself will be recognized at once as that 



of the Saint Paul 
in Raphael's cele- 
brated picture of 
Saint Cecilia. Of 
course, it is impos- 
sible to give even 
a suo-o-estion of the 
rich color which 
ap pears in the 
stained glass, but 
the imagination can 
conceive the effect 
of the sunlight il- 
luminating the halo 
round the head, 
making it a veri- 




Sappho ; IVatcomb Terr- Cotta Company. 



let and embroidery 
of the robe with 
tints such as even 
Raphael could not 
paint. 

The engraving 
on this page is se- 
lected from the ex- 
hibits of the Wat- 
comb Terra-Cotta 
Company of Eng- 
land. It is a 
beautiful example 
of the high artistic 
qualities of a ma- 
terial too little em- 
ployed in this kind 
of work. Terra- 



table nimbus, and 
enrichinof the scar- 

cotta — meaning burned or baked clay — has been used from the earliest ages 
as a material for jugs, jars and ornamental figures, and during the five centuries 
preceding the seventeenth it was largely used by the Italians in architectural 
decoradon. In England its manufacture became an important industry toward 
the end of the last century, and it was much used instead of carved stone orna- 
mentadon. A notable modern example of this is in the handsome fagade of the 
South Kensington Museum, where its superior adaptability and durability for 
such uses has been proven. Michael Angelo employed this material in making 
models and sketches for his work, and it is used in that way to this day. 
But, when a material is capable of such fine manipulation as to produce this 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



13 




Buffet or Sideboard : Allen 6^ Brother, Philadelphia. 



Sappho and to be employed in large masses — as for the ornamentation of a 
building — its value in Industrial Art can hardly be over-estimated. 



14 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

On the previous page we illustrate an article of furniture, the importance 
of which, as a means of making or marring the artistic appearance of an apart- 
ment can hardly be over-estimated. In England this piece of furniture would 
be called a Buffet, but in this country it is almost universally known as a Side- 
board. The prominent position which a sideboard occupies in a dining-room, 
its use for the display of silver and china, as well as for the necessary articles 
pertaining to the meals while the latter are going on, make the consideration 
of artistic design and harmony in its construction a matter of primary 
importance. 

The subject of our illustration is an admirable specimen of its kind, and 
is an excellent example of the character of the workmanship for which its 
manufacturers, the Messrs. Allen & Brother, of Philadelphl\, have more than 
a mere local reputation. The wood principally used in the construction of this 
handsome piece of furniture is American walnut, the veneering of the panels 
and fillets being French walnut. The under portion of the sideboard is divided 
into three parts, each of which contains a closet for the safe-keeping of china, 
etc. The doors to these closets are paneled and ornamented with artistic 
designs. On either side of the outer divisions rise walnut columns, with orna- 
mental bases and capitals, supporting slabs of French Jasper. Above these 
slabs rises the back of the sideboard, its middle portion being occupied by one 
large sheet of plate-glass, separating the two sides, which also are backed by 
plate-glass from each other. In front of these latter an artistic arrangement 
of shelves, supported by floriated pillars, furnishes a means of effectively dis- 
playing rare vases, china or bric-a-brac of any kind. These outer columns are 
surmounted by ornamental vases, which serve to balance and give harmony to 
the elaborate entablature which surmounts the inner columns. The carving 
upon the upper portion of this is well worthy of a careful and critical 
examination. 

For many years France has asserted and maintained her supremacy in the 
manufacture of bronzes — a supremacy doubtless due to the superiority of her 
Schools of Art, where her workmen are specially prepared and educated in 
correct principles of design. In this special industry — that of the bronzists — a 
thoroughly organized and widespread system of education prevails, and the 
result to the nation is shown in what has been almost a monopoly of a par- 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



15 



ticular industry of immense pecuniary value. Recently, however, other nations 
have entered the field in competition with the French bronzists. Germany has 
developed some excellent talent; and more recently England, by devoting 
herself just as France has so long done — gradually to training the young 



workmen up from the 
Art School to desigfning 
and modeling for metal- 
work — has gained for 
herself an excellent rep- 
utation. Such work as 
is exhibited by Messrs. 
Cox & Son, of London, 
a house whose produc- 
tions are known all over 
the world, could not be 
produced by any but 
workmen whose educa- 
tion has been not only 
in the workshop and 
foundr}', but also in the 
studio. 

We ask the reader 
to give this work of 
art-manufacture the de- 
gree of attention which 
it merits. The material 




Snake- Charmer : Cox &> Son, London. 



is bronze — first cast in 
a mould, and afterwards 
finished with the chisel. 
The subject is an Indian 
Snake-charmer, a class 
of men frequently met 
with in Asia and India 
and throughout the 
tropics. Observe the 
ease and gracefulness 
of the pose. One arm 
is raised, the hand hold- 
ing a wand round which 
the snake is twined. 
The man's head is bent 
backward as he watches 
the reptile, while in the 
other hand he holds the 
small pipe, just remov- 
ed from his mouth, by 
which he has created 
the charm. The left 



foot, placed firmly upon the ground, supports the weight of his body; the other, 
resting lighdy upon the lid of the closed basket, suggests the idea that the 
snake upon the wand is but one of several — the others being confined in the 
basket. The figure is in a sitting posture, and yet there is no relaxadon to 
the muscles. We can see that the man is on the qui-vive, though the moment 
chosen is one when he naturally would be perfectly motionless. Herein lies 
one of the greatest merits of the work in a purely arUstic sense. To attempt 
to convey a sense of motion in a statue or carving is not good art. Move- 



l6 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

ment belongs entirely to the domain of the painter. The Laocoon, one of the 
grandest works of ancient art preserved to us, while at first view it may seem 
to contradict our assertion, will be found on a careful inspection to be but a 
proof of what we say; and we do not remember a single instance of what is 
generally acknowledged to represent the best efforts of antique sculpture which 
can be cited against us. • 

We turn now to a branch of manufacture which is but a civilized expres- 
sion of a desire inherent to human nature — the love for personal adornment. 
It is the same in the savage of the wilderness as in the citizen of Paris. The 
Indian woman smearing her face with colored clays, the negro hanging her 
string of shells about her neck, the lady at her toilette fastening jewels in her 
ears or clasping a bracelet upon her arm, each and all are actuated by the 
same desire to beautify themselves. The art of the goldsmith and jeweler 
owes its perfection to this feeling. On the next page our engraving illustrates 
specimens of this work from the establishment of Messrs. Morgan & Headley, 
of Philadelphia. Looking at these objects from a utilitarian standpoint, what 
could be more useless than they? How senseless it seems to weight one's 
body down with metal trinkets ! Fortunately, however, the refinements of 
civilization find other expression than in requiring all objects to be useful. 

We are now considering its other great want — the ornamental. Here are 
six pieces, each one of which helps to supply this want. Of the lockets, all 
gain increased beauty from another art, of which we shall speak at some 
future time — the art of the cameo-cutter or lapidary. Each of the designs is 
different, some suggesting the study of antique models, others the artists' own 
design. The cross is of a different pattern from any of the other specimens. 
It is made in two different colors of gold, the points of the lighter-colored 
metal. This is a favorite style of workmanship at present, and is capable of 
excellent effects. The sixth specimen, as far as the goldsmith's work is con- 
cerned, is but the setting of a dozen gems. In the centre of the pin is a large 
amethyst surrounded by a narrow rim of gold, about which again is a string of 
small pearls. The whole effect is very neat and pretty. 

No more appropriate exhibit could have been made by the New England 
Granite Company, of Hartford, Connecticut, to our Centennial than the spirited 
statue, an engraving of which we present to our readers on page 18. It is a 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



17 



statue typifying the brave company of men wlio banded themselves together in 
the early days of the Revolution, swearing to be ready at a moment's notice to 
stop whatever work they might be at and take up their arms against the invader. 
It is a " Minute-Man," one of those brave fellows whom Paul Revere, in his 









yewelry ; Morgan &= Headky. 



memorable ride of the i8th of April, 1775, called from the fields and the plow, 
shouting to them as he went galloping past, "The British are coming!" In a 
few hours, over a hundred men of the " train-band " — as it was sometimes called — 
were collected together, and the next morning, under gallant Captain John Parker, 
the little band stood drawn up in the streets of Lexington determined to fight 



i8 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



for those liberties which were dearer to them than hfe. Every schoolboy is 
iamiliar with the events of that day — the famous 19th of April — and the part 




}■■ 

Carl Conrads. Sc. xhe Minute Man : New England Granite Co. 



played by the famous Minute-Men afterwards. But we can appropriately intro- 
duce here those charming verses delivered by Ralph Waldo Emerson on the 



INDU ST RIAL ART. 19 

unveiling of the statue last year on the one-hundredth anniversary of the famous 
batde : — 



By the rude bridge that arched the flood, 
Their flag to April's breeze unfurled ; 

Here once the embattled farmers stood, 
And fired the shot heard round the world. 

The foe long since in silence slept ; 

Alike the conqueror silent sleeps ; 
And Time the ruined bridge has swept 

Down the dark stream which seaward creeps. 

On the green bank, by this soft stream, 

We set to-day a votive stone ; 
That memory may their deed redeem 

When, like our sires, our sons are gone. 

Spirit that made those heroes dare 
To die, and leave their children free. 

Bid Time and Nature gently spare 
The shaft we raise to them and Thee. 



The statue itself needs but little description. The reader can see for him- 
self how admirably the artist has embodied the idea. The man stands in strong, 
free position, one hand resting upon the plow he is about leaving, the other 
grasping the musket is extended forward, and over the arm is thrown the cloak 
as if hastily picked up at the sudden summons. The face wears a look of deter- 
mination — the look of one who is ready to do and die if need be — and the 
sculptor has given with rare art a loftiness, a look almost of prophesy to the 
expression. 

Our next engraving is from an exhibit made by a Philadelphia firm, who 
have had the products of their factories in every one of the great exhibitions 
where their work, by its beauty and finish, as well as its artistic design, has always 
attracted great attention. But Cornelius & Sons, the firm of whom we are 
speaking, quite outdo themselves in the quality of the work they have prepared 
for exhibition in this our first great International Exposition. The illustration 
we give on the next page is in every respect a work of art. It is a seventy- 
two-light Chandelier of Lacquer gilt in imitadon of fine unalloyed gold. In 
style it is Greco-Medieval. The arcs springing from the central globe and 



20 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 




Chandelier : Cornelius &= So/is, Philadelphia. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 21 



supportinor the highly ornate fixtures, are surmounted by "grotesques," intro- 
duced with excellent effect. All the proportions of this beautiful piece of work 
have been carefully studied, and the result is before us in this illustration, — one 
of the most graceful and harmoniously arranged specimens of this famous firm's 
productions which we have seen. 

From the fine collection exhibited by the Meriden Britannia Company, we 
have selected for illustration tlie beautiful Epergne, destined, doubtless, some 
day to adorn the board of some lover of true art. Nothing adds so much to 
the effect of a handsomely-arranged table, spread for a feast, as the graceful 
centre-piece, which should be the most attractive, as well as elaborate, piece of 
table ornament present. But an ornament such as this is not intended to be 
admired only in tlie dining-room ; in the library, in the parlor, or in the drawing- 
room it is equally appropriate. There, its various receptacles filled with tastefully 
arranged flowers, it will always be attractive. The Company furnishing this 
exhibit — which we present on the following page — make a specialty of silver- 
plated ware, and of these goods their immense works at West Meriden, Con- 
necticut, turn out thousands of beautiful specimens each year. The example 
before us is an Epergne of unusually large size. It stands 48 inches in height 
upon a base of 40 inches in length. Its general material is what is usually 
called German Silver, hardened with white metal. This material admits of a 
very perfect finish either in silver or gilt, both of which methods have been 
used in the present instance, and the whole is further adorned by the engraver's 
chisel. From the base — which is made of nickel-silver polished like a mirror to 
represent water — rise four graceful columns supporting a dome. On either side 
of the pillars, standing in shells of a conventional pattern, are figures. On one 
side, Amphitrite drawn by walrusses ; on the other, Neptune, his car attached to 
a pair of Tritons who are heralding his approach. From the centre of the dome 
rises a central shaft supporting a bowl of very graceful design, around whose 
base rise four arms curving outward and holding suspended from their extremities 
four other bowls of similar pattern to the first, presenting as a whole an extremely 
graceful and appropriate design. 

From distant Cairo comes one of the gems of the Exhibition, of which we 
give an engraving on page 24. It is a Cabinet, designed in a style of the 
purest Arabic, one of the contributions of the celebrated Farvis, whose atelier is 



22 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 




The Neptuue Eperg7ie : Meriden BrUannia Co. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 23 



well known to all art lovers who have visited the interesting city of the East. 
This fine example of the cabinet-maker's skill is built of sycamore-wood and 
ebony. It is inlaid widi ivory and mother-of-pearl, in those highly effective 
patterns that are at once the admiration and the wonder of other nations. 
Every detail has been worked up and studied trom the specimens of the best 
period of Arabic art. Nothing could be more effective than the result. There 
is but little car\'ing — none indeed in high relief — and yet an effect has been pro- 
duced more ornate than any carving. The richness of the tracery in the central 
panel is particularly fine, and taken as a whole it deserves commendation of the 
highest description. The possessor of such a piece of work as this Cabinet 
would never tire of it, simply because the harmony of its parts would be con- 
stantly asserting themselves, and, like in a good picture, new beauties would con- 
stantly be revealing themselves. 

This form of decoration, consisting of fantastic combinations of flowers, 
fruits and branches, or, indeed, of almost any intertwinings of graceful forms 
and lines in a repetition of the same pattern, is a characteristic of Moorish 
architecture that has been given a distinctive name — Arabesque. Ornamentation 
of this kind, either in sculpture or painting, has been found wonderfully effective; 
but it requires the exercise of the nicest discrimination. The perfection of its 
use is to be found in the Alhambra, the most perfect specimen of the best 
Moorish architecture existing at the present time. Its walls are particularly 
rich in Arabesques of various patterns, some of them of an astonishing intricacy 
and beauty. From Arabia the use of this style of ornamentation spread to 
Europe, and thence over the civilized world. We see examples of it every day 
in the ordinary' decorations of our walls and houses and in the ornamentation 
of our vessels in common use. Painters and sculptors find it of the greatest 
assistance in making effective frameworks for their productions. Raphael's 
famous Arabesques in the Vatican will be recalled by many of our readers; and 
the use made by Kaulbach, quite recently, of some of these forms in his fresco 
painting is familiar to many. For the cabinet-maker a knowledge of the best 
specimens of these beautifully artisdc designs is of great advantage. No better 
treatment of precious woods in marqueterie has been found than to follow, or, 
rather, to learn from, the forms designed by the old Arabians. Beautiful as is 
the exact imitations by the Florentines and Indians of natural objects such as 



24 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, 1876. 



birds, flowers, etc., tlieir copies, as a rule, show poverty of invention; whereas, 




Cabinet ■ G. i'arms, Cairo, -Hgypt- 



the Moorish work, while sufficiently conventionalized, shows a freedom from 
mannerism and richness of fancy that can hardly be too highly commended. 



IND US TRIAL ART. 



25 



Our next illustrations are from a region the antipodes of Egypt in climate 
and character. The terra-cotta manufactories of Copenhagen are amone its 
chief attractions; and the Widow Ipsen's great establishment is one of those 
to which all travellers pay their respects, and from which they bring back the 







Vases, Terra-CoHa : The Widow Ipsen, Copenhagen. 



conviction that Art has found a home amid the snows of Denmark. The firm 
is fully represented in the Exhibition, occupying a separate room in the Danish 
department. We select four vases and a ewer, which fairly illustrate the grace 
and beauty of which terra-cotta is susceptible under artistic treatment. 



26 



THE IKTERXATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 




Bedstead, Re/iaissa72ce : Herts ^ Co, 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 27 



The baking of earth, especially of the stiffer pipe-clays, to form utensils, 
is one of the earliest achievements of men emerging from the savage state. 
At first, of course, there was no attempt at ornament. Then a rough checker- 
board pattern was scratched upon the sides of the pots and jars. The next 
stage was to lay a sort of scroll-work in black glaze over the earthen ground; 
and the pattern soon developed into conventional representations of plants and 
animals, of which the graceful foliated pattern around the neck of the larger 
vase is a beautiful instance. A still further refinement was the covering of 
the ground with the black glaze, leaving the pattern prominent in the natural 
color of the earth. The shape of the vases selected is simply charming, and 
gives a striking idea of the ductility of the material to the shaping of fire. 
The decoration is painting by hand, and the artistic feeling evinced in the 
patterns causes a regret that the finished product should be at the mercy of 
a careless servant. But this is an age when we have our treasures in earthen 
vessels, and we must assume that the buyer of such shapely ware will suffer 
no profane hands to be laid upon his terra-cotta. What an education for the 
eye it would be if Mr. Eastlake's suggestion were everywhere adopted, and 
the tasteless china upon our wash-stands replaced by this beautiful ware, with 
its Greek figures and clear-cut conventional foliage! 

The household furniture in the Exhibition is especially worthy of note. 
The English division abounds with beautiful apartments, fitted up with all the 
vteublerie of a parlor, dining-room or bed-room. The influence of the South 
Kensington Museum and of the Schools of Industrial Art, which derive their 
stimulus from that Museum, is nowhere so apparent. But pending the estab- 
lishment of similar institutions in this country, we have some good work to 
show. The bedstead from Messrs. Herts & Company, of New York, which is 
represented on page 26, is in the "Renaissance" style, as the ordinary phrase 
is — a style sufficiently comprehensive to cover much variety in design and 
treatment. The richness and the character of the ornamentation are exceed- 
ingly striking. The contrast of the birdseye and mottled maple with the 
carved mouldings of flowers and fruits, of St. Domingo mahogany, is very 
rich. The draperies are of raw silk, drab and blue, and the canopy is of 
light blue silk tufted. Notice especially the graceful ornament in the circular 
panel at the head of the bedstead proper. It represents roses branching from 



28 



THE IXTERXATIOXAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



a stem in true Renaissance fashion, and much resembles the flower-pot deco- 
ration shown in the Margarete wall-paper on page 5. 

A most exquisite display of Faience ware is made by the Doultons, whose 
pottery is better known as the Lambeth Faience. The general characteristics 
of this pottery are well known — its softness of tone, its careful contrasts of 
subdued tints and avoidance of brilliant color. This is combined with an 
elaborate and beautiful ornamentation, in which foliage and sometimes gro- 




Font ; Doidton &= Co., Lambeth, London. 



tesques alternate with compositions in low relief which might come from the 
hand of a painter. Thus, in the Font which is the subject of our next illus- 
tration, the lower part, and especially the sustaining columns, are covered with 
a delicate tracery of leaves, or paneled in a minute diamond-shaped pattern, 
while the upper projecting portion is separated by smaller columns into panels, 
each of which is occupied by a Scriptural scene, chosen with reference to the 
purpose of the font. The beauty of these panels cannot adequately be 
represented by any engraving; but our picture will show the complexity of 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 




CkaadeLier : Milchett Si' Vance, New York. 



30 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



the detail, and the vio-orous attitudes and frestures of the human actors in 
each little drama. We can see also that the middle panel turned towards the 
spectator represents "The Slaughter of the Innocents," and that "The Judgment 
of Solomon" and "The Adoration of the Wise Men" are the subjects respect- 
ively of the right and left panels. "The Dove of Peace" broods over the 
font. Each column is Avreathed with the acanthus or the lily. There is a 
solidity and strength in the architectural arrangement which satisfies the eye. 



The columns seem 
worthy supporters 
of the heavy entab- 
lature, while the 
finish of detail is 
never allowed to 
mask the construc- 
tion. This is true 
Art, Avhether in a 
church or a cabinet. 
Industrial Art 
does not fully 
achieve its end un- 
less all articles of 
domestic use are 
redeemed from the 
hopeless ugliness 
into which they 
have fallen, so that 




Nymph and Concha : Wafconib Terra- Cotta Co. 



our eyes shall be 
pleased and not 
pained by the sur- 
roundings of our 
daily life. It is 
noteworthy that 
most of this ugli- 
ness is produced 
by the desire to 
decorate, which, in 
the work of men 
destitute of artistic 
taste, results in 
meaningless and 
disagreeable per- 
version. There is 
a certain beauty in 
fitness, and a coal- 
scuttle or a kitchen- 



pail which is evidently constructed so as best to fulfil its purpose is fully 
justified. If, in addition, the lines of structure can be made pleasing to the 
eye, so much the better ; but the first requisite is that the thing shall do honest 
work. But a curved or twisted or bedizened piece of furniture, whose shape 
or ornament interferes with its function, is hateful to gods and men. Then, 
too, we must recognize that some pieces of furniture, such as cabinets or side- 
boards, lend themselves naturally to a beautiful construction, while others, such 
as chandeliers, offer much greater difficulty. The problem is to suspend a 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 31 



large and heavy mass in the air, and yet to overcome, by the grace of its 
oudines and the beauty of its ornament, the reluctance of the eye to see the 
law of gravitation apparently violated. This difficulty proves too great for 
most designers, and frequently, in attempting to elaborate and ornament their 
work, they fall into more positive ugliness. A really graceful design, there- 
fore, for a chandelier, deserves much higher praise than the facile prettiness 
of a vase. Such a design is shown in the eight-light chandelier of Messrs. 
Mitchell & Vance, of New York, on page 29. Their design has achieved a 
decided success in the present case. The ornamentation is elaborate but not 
overloaded, and the chandelier has an appearance of lightness in spite of its 
broad girth. The bell over the central lamp is a happy conception, and much 
of the glass decoration is gracefully executed. The designer has had more 
difficulty in a construction of metal than he would have met with in glass, 
which, we are glad to see, is coming extensively into use. There is something 
peculiarly appropriate and artistic in the use of glass for a centre of brilliancy, 
and we may soon hope to see our parlors and dining-rooms lighted up by 
lustrous chandeliers which shall reflect the light in every prismatic color. 

"When Music, heavenly maid, was young," Pan piped upon a reed and 
Apollo played upon his flute ; and both reed and flute were the essence of 
simplicity and grace. When David exorcised the evil spirit from Saul with his 
harp, the instrument was still picturesque and beautiful. But when music 
became more complex and more specialized, the difficulty of putting the "soul 
of sound" into a worthy dwelling-place became evident. What can be uglier 
than an ordinary piano, with its carved legs supporting a clumsy oblong mass 
of mahogany or rosewood? It is one of the mysteries of cabinet-making that 
we cannot get straight-legged furniture. The makers have got it into their 
heads that the curve is the line of beauty, and it is of no use to urge that 
the grain of wood is straight, and that, in consequence, every deviation from 
a right line must detract from the strength of the material. We must meet 
them on the aesthetic ground, and say at once that a bow-legged piano or 
table is as ugly as a bow-legged man. 

The beauty of musical instruments, moreover, should always lie rather in 
their shape and adaptation to their purpose than in the richness of their orna- 
mentation, which is in better taste if subdued and simple. In this respect the 



32 THE INTERNATIOXAL EXHIBITION, jSjd. 

instrument selected for illustration is without fault. Messrs. Mason & H.vmi.ix 
have constructed an organ which we doubt not has all the excellent qualities 




Eastlake Organ : Mason 6^ Hamlin. 



of tone and resonance for which their instruments are noted, and whose 
exterior is pleasant to the eye. The decoration is quiet and massive, and often 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 33 



of great beauty. It is conceived in the Eastlake design, so far as that can be 
carried out in the construction of an organ. Our own taste would suggest an 
even simpler arrangement of the mouldings and panelings, and a straightening 
of the lower lines ; but we ought to be sincerely grateful to Messrs. Mason 
& Hamlix for giving us an instrument free from all the abortions in the 
shape of ornament with which many pretentious instruments are disfigured. 
The public taste in this respect is rapidly improving. There are some beautiful 
pianos in the English department of the Exhibition — faultless in style and 
taste, though generally at a price beyond the ordinary reach. But this expen- 
siveness is an accident, and will soon disappear. When once machinery has 
been constructed for turning straight legs, straight legs will be no more costly 
than crooked. In the meanwhile we must pay the penalty for living in an 
age of transition. After a time, perhaps, we shall not regret even the pipe of 
Pan, "blinding sweet by the river," or the flute of Apollo victorious over 
Marsyas. That sweet easy melody of an age when performer and artificer 
were one has given place to grand orchestras and full choruses. Music has a 
power and a scope undreamed of by the ancients. When we listen to 
Wagner's Centennial March, we feel that the visible form and body of so 
potent a spirit as that which resides in a full orchestra is a matter of secondary 
importance. 

Our next illustration is drawn from one of the Fine Arts — that of Sculp- 
ture — which becomes Industrial only by its adaptation to machinery and 
susceptibility of reproduction. We do not expect from any machine the 
qualities of imagination and -creative thought which make a great sculptor, yet 
when the conception is simple, and especially when the shaping hand of the 
artificer is allowed to give the final touch, the result may be a memorable 
one, to such perfection have mechanical processes now arrived. Our illustra- 
tion represents a more legitimate use of such appliances than American 
chromo-lithographs. "Memor}'," from the workshop of the New England Granite 
Company, who gave us the fine "Minute Man" already illustrated, is repre- 
sented by a female figure, whose face indicates the time of life between 
girlhood and middle age. She is old enough to have a past, regrets and 
losses, happy and unhappy memories ; but life is still high in her veins, and 
the future is still before her. Her thoughts now are with the past. She is 



34 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



seated on a mass of rock, in the attitude of remembrance and retrospection. 
Her face shows a softened, half-regretful mood ; her eyes are downcast and 
half closed ; she has forgotten time and place. The left hand, lying on the 
lap, holds a chaplet of roses. The right arm lies across the left. Notice the 



ease of the po- 
sition, and yet the 
absorption indica- 
ted in every turn 
of limb. One knee 
is raised, and the 
foot supported 
upon a slab of 
rock ; the other 
foot is upon a 
lower stone, half 
slipping ofif, yet 
supported by the 
heel. The attitude 
and feelinof of the 
statue are difficult 
to render by means 
of Industrial Art, 
and the designer 
has achieved a re- 
markably good 
result. 

Perhaps there is 
no surer test of 
civilization than the 
desire for regular 



and comfortable 
meals. The savage 
tears his food to 
pieces wherever he 
finds it. He passes 
days of hunger, and 
makes amends by 
a gluttonous feast. 
The civilized man 
eats at the same 
hours every day, 
and surrounds the 
time and place of 
his dinner with 
safeguards against 
interruption and 
appliances of com- 
fort. Eating as a 
fine art may be said 
to have begun with 
the Greeks, who lay 
on couches around 
their tables, and 
made their dinner 
the reunion and 
^ chief event of the 

day. The Romans followed in the same path ; and when manners grew milder 
with the decay of feudalism, the coarse revel of the great hall gradually gave 
place to the elegant dinner of the gentleman. 

The luxurious court of Louis XIV was especially noted for the magnificence 




Memory : New England Granite Co. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



35 



of its table appointments; and in more recent times it has come to be almost 
a test of refinement that a lady shall secure for the inmates and guests of her 
house a pleasant hour over the principal meal of the day, when the cares of 
the morning shall be laid aside, and all the surroundings shall add to the 
gratification of the palate. No single element is so necessary to this result as 




Hpergne and Candelabra : Lobmeyr, Vienna. 



a pleasant light. The brilliancy of gas, desirable in some ways as it is, has 
great drawbacks. Its light is glaring and harsh, and when thrown into the 
eyes of the diner is extremely disagreeable. So too is the heat which, as the 
meal goes on, a large chandelier begins to radiate. Then, too, the position 
of the light, directly above the heads of the guests, is very amendable. To 
meet these objections, we may suppose, Herr Lobmeyer has designed the 
Candelabra- Epergne, which is given on this page. A glance will show how 



36 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



many requisites are united in this admirable Epergne. It stands upon the 
centre of the table, holding a dozen wax or spermaceti candles, whose soft 
light is equally shed on every side. The top is a bowl for flowers, while the 
larger dishes below may be used either for flowers or fruit, according to the 
taste of the hostess. The shape of the Epergne is such that it does not 
interrupt the vision — a capital point, for it is frequently disagreeable to bea 
shut off from your vis-a-vis. The candelabra are simple and strong-looking, 
not liable to break. The ornamentation is quiet and effective. If we add to 
the Epergne a pair of gas-burners fastened against the side of the wall, at 




Necklace, Tortoise-Shell : J. S. Adams &=• Co. 

such a height as not to be offensive to the eyes of the guests at table, we 
shall have the perfection of light in our dining-room. 

Tortoise-shell is a material so beautiful In itself, and in some respects so 
easily worked, that in spite of Its fragile nature and the loss which manufac- 
turers undergo from breakage In the process of working. It has been found so 
profitable as to insure for It a permanent place In our jewelry shops. The 
play of light upon such a necklace as that represented in our engraving, from 
the establishment of Messrs. J. S. Adams & Company, Providence, Rhode 
Island, is really enchanting. The eye loses itself In the soft depths of the 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



37- 



shell. The pattern is simple, but very pretty, and the pendant shows to great 
perfection the beauty of the material. As jewelry for the morning, to wear 




Alirror : Hcrr Lobineyr, Vienna. 



against a simple house-dress or a walking-suit, there is nothing so serviceable. 
It is easy to put on, beautiful to see, contrasts well with dress of any color, 
and is comparatively inexpensive. An artistic design is nowhere more exquisitely 
effective than m tortoise-shell. 



38 THE IXTER.VATIOXAL EXHIBITIOX, iSj6. 

It is a curious fact that for many centuries before glass was made into 
plates, or thin slabs with flat surfaces, it was blown and turned and twisted 
into the most delicate and artistic shapes, such as bowls, goblets and vessels 
of all sorts for holding liquids, and some of the more ancient specimens of 
this art — things fragile and as intricately interwoven as a spider's web — pre- 
served uninjured through the ages that have witnessed the overthrow and 
destruction of the cities where they were made, are now to be found treasured 
in our museums, the wonder and despair of the glass factor of to-day. 

But could an ancient Phoenician, say one of those who, by a process now 
a lost art, constructed one of these fairy-like vases — could he be brought face 
to face with the common things of every-day use made from the same materials 
as his vase, what would be his astonishment! — to see himself, for instance, 
reflected in the Mirror, on preceding page, which is one of the exhibits of 
LoBMEYR, of Vienna. Another ego looking him in the eye, from some unde- 
finable position in space — a moving, breathing human being whom he cannot 
touch, whose lips move but do not speak, who walks without sound, who 
vanishes from beyond or behind the frame in which he appears ! The phe- 
nomena of reflection, to us so simple, would be, to one seeing it under such 
circumstances, above all things, marvelous. The knowledge that he was looking 
at his own image would not come until later. He would simply see a man like 
himself, moving as he moved, under the group of cupids floating above him. 

But to us, with whom the use and character of the mirror is familiar, the 
special attraction is not, or presumably should not be, what we see reflected 
from its surface. Certainly our present interest is in its beautiful surroundings. 
The grace and artistic merit of the design gilded on the panels of the side 
rails; the happy way in which the leaf and flower ornamentation of the corner 
panels is treated ; the harmony of all the minor details to the severe simplicity 
of the whole — all of these are deserving of praise, and should gain for the 
workmen and the artist places in the first rank with their comrades. The idea 
of using the surface of the upper part of the mirror as a ground on which 
to paint a picture is peculiarly charming — more especially for such a one as 
this. Obviously, In such a position and on such a surface but one idea can 
be conveyed suitably; that is, floating in the air. And this the artist has 
done most successfully. It is a lovely group, well conceived and capitally 



IXD us TRIAL ART. 



39 



drawn — the little cupid guiding the swan seeming, indeed, to be floating 
along. 




Door: Allen Sy Brother, Philadelphia. 



Our next engraving is of a kind to require but little description other 
than to call attention to its technical merits and to indicate the materials and 



40 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



mediod of its construction. It represents a pair of large double doors, verj' 
highly polished, suitable for the entrance into a drawing-room, or into any of 
the more elaborate apartments of a mansion. It is an excellent specimen of 




Entree Dish, Repousse Silver: y. E. Caldwell &• Co. 




Tureen and Salver, Repousse Silver : y. E. Caldwell &= Co. 



the work of Messrs. Allen & Brother, of Phil.\delphia. The leaves of this 
door are composed of highly-polished walnut, with ornamented panels of alter- 
nate strips of precious woods of different colors, giving a pleasing relief and 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 41 



effect of light and shade. Scroll patterns and some curved lines are introduced 
into the lock-rail and break the severity of the outlines. On each of the main 
panels a finely-finished bit of hand-carving has been affixed by way of orna- 
mentation, and the scroll surrounding them is happily introduced to lighten the 
upper panels. The lower divisions of the jambs are inlaid with slabs of 
finelv-variegated marbles, above which, and separated by fillets of a chaste 
design, are narrow panels of the same precious woods as the door ; the whole 
being surmounted at the lintel by an elaborate design in high relief, which 
gives to the jambs the effect of pillars of which these reliefs are the capitals. 

It is remarkable that common as was the use of doors among the ancient 
Egyptians, none of those used in their temples have ever been found. But that 
there were doors is evidenced by the holes in the side-posts or pillars in which 
the hinge-pins were fastened. It is possible that as the Egyptians were metal- 
workers these doors were of metal, but those used in their houses were usually 
framed of wood and often stained first, as at the present day. These doors were 
either double or single, and fastened by a bolt or bar similar to those now in 
use. The Bible contains many allusions to the door and entrance to the house, 
and in several places allusion is made to the custom of placing a man against 
the door-post and pinning his ear to it with an awl, in token of servitude. In 
the description of the building of Solomon's Temple we have the following 
description of the magnificent carved doors of the oracle and the temple: — 

"And for the entering of the oracle he made doors of olive tree: the lintel 
and side posts were a fifth part of the wall. The two doors also were of olive tree ; 
and he carved upon them carvings of cherubim and palm trees and open flowers, 
and overlaid them with gold, and spread gold upon the cherubim, and upon the 
palm trees. So also made he for the door of the temple posts of olive tree, 
a fourth part of the wall. And the doors were of fir tree: the two leaves of 
the one door were folding, and the two leaves of the other door were folding. 
And he carved thereon cherubim and palm trees and open flowers: and covered 
them with gold fitted upon the carved work." 

It was also the custom in Egypt to build the better class of houses with 
a porch or portico in front of the entrance door, supported by columns 
elaborately ornamented with wreaths and garlands, decorating the frieze also, 
and inscribing thereon some legend of greeting or welcome. 



42 



THE INTERXATIOXAL EXHIBITIOX, 1S76. 



Another custom among the Egyptians was the hanging of all doors opening 
on the street in such a manner that they opened inward. This too was the 




Chandelier a?id Hall Lamp : Coiiiellus &^ So/is. 



custom of the Romans, where it was made requisite by law. But it is a curious 
fact that the reverse of this was the practice in Greece, where, when a person 
was about going out of a house, he took the precaution to give several loud 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



43 



raps from within in order to warn passers-by on the outside that the door was 
about to be opened. 

Of the many branches of manufacture in which the Exhibition has demon- 
strated the abiUty of American manufactures to compete successfully with those 
from abroad, in no one department of art-industry at least, is our equality with, 
and indeed, in some respects, our superiority over foreign makers shown with 
greater distinctness than among the workers in the precious metals. In silver- 
and gold-smith work our prominent manufacturers make a display that we may 
reasonably point to with pride. The house of Caldwell & Co. makes a very 
attractive show. Their repousse work occupies the prominent place its merits 




Dessert Plates : Brownfield 6^ Sons. 



deserve, among their other precious ware. We give, on page 40, two examples 
of this attractive and fashionable manner of decorating silver. The Tureen is 
a veritable chef-d'oeuvre. The graceful shape, antique in its lines, the elaborate, 
yet not too prominent ornamentation, and the fine execution of the work, are 
all worthy of the reputation of the firm exhibiting it. The Covered Dish, 
though less pretentious, is worthy of notice. A set of these dishes, or such as 
these, could worthily be used in serving up a feast fit for the gods. Repousse 
work could hardly do more than has been done with this dish. It is, literally, 
entirely covered with foliated and floriated designs, finely finished by a skillful 
workman. 

Another show of which we, as Americans, may be justly proud is that of 



41- 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



Cornelius & Sons. Our illustrations of a Hall Lamp and a Chandelier. 
shown on page 42, are taken from a collection containing many specimens equally 
meritorious. In these days, when the correct furnishing of our homes is a matter 
of careful study and reflection; when true art principles are beginning to prevail, 
and attention is paying to the fitness of means to ends ; people are making search 
for good and beautiful forms in the most ordinary appliances as well as in the 
more permanent objects, called fixtures. Cornelius & Sons have not only met 
this demand in their special line of goods, they even have stimulated it by 
exhibiting freely to the public thoroughly artistic designs. Such a Hall Lamp 
as the one we illustrate is as much an ornament to the apartment it illuminates 





Dessert Plates : Brownfield &= Sons. 



as a statue in marble or bronze. So, too, with the Chandelier: the elegance 
and lightness of its proportions, the richness of its effect when all its burners 
are lit, is most noteworthy. It is with such every-day surroundings as these that 
we make our homes really and truly beautiful. 

Perhaps one of the most astonishing examples of the adaptation of natural 
materials to ornamental uses is given in the art of the potter. The fabrication 
of rude vessels from the clay of the earth is almost as old as the hills from 
which the clay was dug. No traces of peoples or forgotten races have been 
discovered without the discoverer finding fragments of their pottery. From 
these rude beginnings grew up, little by little, an art which is one of the most 
universal in its use and employments of artizans of the industries of the world. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



45 



For uncounted centuries China — tliat treasure-room in which we are constantly 
discovering methods and appHances which were thought to be the result of 
our own modern civilization, — China has been making that form of pottery 
known as porcelain. Its manufacture in Europe is of a comparatively recent 
date, and in England still later. 

Nevertheless, English potters, with characteristic attention to detail and 




Buffalo Hunt: Meriden Britannia Company, West Meriden, Conn. 



thoroughness of manipulation, within a few years of the establishment of the 
industry among them, began to produce ware of a superior quality. Only in 
the matter of design and ornamentation were they excelled by their more 
fortunate European brethren who were artists as well as artisans. 

But coming down to the present period of Exhibitions, we see in the 
artistic progress England has made since her first World's Fair, and in the 
effort made to overcome her inferiority in the way of decorative china, one of 



46 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

the most striking examples of the benefit of these great competitive exami- 
nations — for this, in truth, is what these huge shows amount to in their best 
sense. Such illustrations of the art-work of English potters, as we give on 
the preceding pages, is worthy of any Continental modern school. The Deco- 
rated Dessert Plates, shown on pages 43 and 44, are from the Staffordshire 
potteries of Messrs. Brownfield & Sons, and give ample proof of the art- 
education of their workmen. It is really quite impossible in an engraving to 
give even a suggestion of the delicate color which blends so beautifully with 
the soft porcelain of England, but our artist has faithfully reproduced the fine 
ornamentation in landscape and genre pictures which distinguishes these speci- 
mens. We give four different styles of design, each beautiful in its way, 
though they are, to our thinking, almost too beautiful to be applied to the use 
for which they are intended. The plate with the landscape medallion and the 
delicate vine spray surrounding it we should be tempted to frame and hang 
up as a plaque rather than to eat off of it. Nevertheless, we think no one 
would object to owning a service of such plates as these with which to honor 
his guests at a banquet. 

From the Meriden Britannia Company, of West Meriden, Connecticut, 
we have a group in the fine white metal, heavily silver-plated, which is their 
specialty, representing a scene such as cannot be witnessed outside of America. 
The artist, whom we feel safe in pronouncing an American, has desired to 
illustrate something exclusively our own. With this intent he could hardly 
have chosen anything more fully answering his desire than the characteristic 
group shown in our engraving on the preceding page. It is a Buffalo Hunt, 
not as practised in our day, when the poor brutes are slaughtered by hundreds, 
for mere sport, by bands of white huntsmen armed with repeating rifles, but 
as in the days of old, before the crack of a firearm was heard, when the Indian 
of the plains hunted his game with the spear and bow. There is an equality 
in such a contest as this as makes the group one of thrilling interest. The 
supreme moment of the battle has been chosen. The infuriated bull, wounded 
by an arrow, has turned and is charging the hunter; the Indian, firmly bracing 
himself upon his unbridled steed, whom he guides by the pressure of the knees, 
is waiting, with uplifted spear, the onset. The horse, terrified, yet under too 
good control to fly, snorts and paws the ground. Action is expressed in every 



IXD US TRI A L ART. 



47 



muscle of each figure in the group; and one cannot but leel, after looking at 
it for a moment, a certain sensation of expectancy, a wish that the denouement 




Book-case : Prof. E. Gijaiii. 



could be acted out, which are sensations attesting the realistic power of the 
artist. The group stands twenty-one inches in height upon a base twenty- 



48 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

seven inches long. It has been carefully and skilfully finished, and would form 
a fine centre-piece for a buffet or mantle-shelf. 

A beautiful example of the wonderful wood-carving for which the Italians 
have been famous since mediaeval times is the Book-case exhibited in the Italian 
Court. It is designed and carved by Prof. Egisto Gijani, of Florence, after 
the style practised in that city in the fifteenth century. The material is Euro- 
pean walnut, very highly polished. The base and plinth are inlaid with panels 
composed of figures, grotesques and masques carved in very high relief, with 
supporting columns at the sides of a singularly ornate design. A group of 
cupids standing upon a vase support another vase from which the slender shaft 
of the column proper rises. Surmounting the top is a symbolic group of 
figures supporting a medallion bust of Lincoln. 

It is in looking at such work as this that we realize how greatly the 
knowledge of what is fine and beautiful in decorative carving in wood is due 
to the opportunity for study and training which a country like Italy, so rich in 
the best examples of this art and of art in general, can afford. The study of 
the wonderful carvings at Perugia or of similar works of the highest excel- 
lence inspires the artisan to attempt to imitate them. Even if he fails he has 
exercised certain art impulses in the right direction ; and this process acting 
through the individual on the masses, has occasioned that modern Renaissance 
that, awakening to the glory of mediaeval art, is now manifesting itself through- 
out Italy in two ways — the one in the astonishingly clever imitations of tricento, 
quattricento and especially cinquecento work, which is calculated to deceive even 
the shrewdest connoisseurs by the likeness to the original; and the other in 
an endeavor to do true, honest work, using the old masters simply as instructors 
who shall guide the student and encourage him to develop his own ideas, and 
not become a servile imitator. 

The immense influx into Italy of wealthy amateurs and ignoramuses, the 
one anxious to get good specimens of good mediaeval work, and therefore 
willing to pay liberally, the other determined to have something "antique," 
because it seems to be the correct thing to have, and as a consequence ready 
to pay exorbitant prices, has given a truly astonishing impulse to the trade of 
the dealer and the trade of the imitator. Rich as Italy undoubtedly was in 
art-treasures in those glorious days when art was still religion and religion 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



49 



found expression in art, if but kalf the stuff annually carried off from her cities 
since then was genuine, she would long ago have been stripped of her glories; 
instead of which she is to-day a seemingly inexhaustible mine, growing richer 
rather than poorer to the intelligent searcher after art-treasures. 

D.\xiELL & Son, of London, make one of the finest ceramic displays in 
the English section and, indeed, in the Exhibition. Their cases contain examples 
of the choicest wares produced in the famous Staffordshire potteries. We select 




Porcelain Vases: Daniell and Son. 



for illustration two pieces — a pair of vases — which are among the chefs d'ceuvre 
or their collection. Our engraving shows their beauty of form and the exquisite 
designs which enrich them. But the composition of the ware, and the method 
by which they are decorated, give them a peculiar and great value. The 
vases are porcelain of a deep chocolate color, of superior evenness and depth 
of tone. On this body, after the first firing, the design has been painted by 
a process known as pdte-sur-pdte, or paste on paste. Exactly how this was 
done was for a long time kept a secret at Sevres, where it was first invented 



50 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



in 1847, by Ebelman. During the Paris Exposition of 1867, some English 
workmen — potters from Staffordshire — sent over to report on the display to 
their fellow-craftsmen at home, saw this ware, then first exhibited as a novelt)', 
and discovered by inspection the secret process pursued in its production. At 
the beginning of the Franco-Prussian war, among other Frenchmen coming to 
London was M. Solon, of Sevres, who of course knew the secret. His services 
were at once secured by the Messrs. Minton, of England, and the successful 
production of the new ware was begun by them. As the name implies, the 
painting is produced by painting with a paste upon the body of the ware. 
This paste, when liquid, .is a white opaque substance; but when hardened by 
firing, it takes a most exquisite translucency. It is this latter property that 
makes the finished result so beautiful. The body-color of the object painted is 
seen in different tints, varying in depth according to the thickness of the super- 
imposed paste. The result is an appearance of high relief to what is actually 
basso-relievo. Naturally the artist must calculate these effects with the greatest 
nicety, and constantly look ahead, so to speak, to the transformation which the 
fire will produce on his drawing. A careful examination oi our engravings will 
show what minute and delicate work is possible by this method. Each link in 
Cupid's chain, every leaf and flower, even the finer folds of the drapery, are 
expressed with exactness. This pdte-sur-pdie work has sometimes been com- 
pared with the famous Jasper ware of the Wedgewoods. In certain ways they 
are properly comparable. But while Wedgewood's productions have a certain 
well-defined sharpness of outline — resembling the cameos and intaglios which 
he took as his models — not to be seen in pdte-s7ir-pdte, the latter is incompa- 
rably richer and softer in its effect, blending its tints and tones with a subtlety 
and delicacy quite unapproachable by any other method. 

It would be an interesting and instructive study to trace the influence of 
Orientalism upon European arts and customs from its earliest manifestations to 
the present time. We all know how much ceramic art is indebted to Persia 
and neighboring countries; and the invasion of the Saracens into Europe 
brought with it additional knowledge of the wonderful peoples who lived far 
to the southward of the Mediterranean and Caspian seas. Then came the 
invasion of the Moors, and the proud crescent threatening to dominate all Chris- 
tendom. And then the tide turned. Slowly but surely the progress of civil- 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



51 



ization — as we call it — made itself felt in these heathen countries, so rich in 
treasure and wonderfuL productions of the chisel and the loom. Each succeeding 
traveller brought back marvelous accounts of the wealth of the new country, 
its strange customs and beautiful wares. These wares, too, began to be gener- 
ally known. At first, thought fit presents for the acceptance of kings and 
emperors, the enterprise of merchants brought them within the reach of the 
richer classes, and at length, as commercial facilities increased, so great was 
the importation that even the masses could buy. 





Carpets : The Bigelow Carpet Co. 



At the present day the desire for oriental shapes and patterns in furniture, 
household ware, room decorations, and textile fabrics has become so great that 
manufacturers in this country and Europe have turned their attention largely 
to productions of this kind. Let us pause for a moment and inquire why this 
demand is so universal. If we can find the answer, we discover a law of 
great practical value to the artisan. Some will say fashion has much to do 
with it, and others that the novelty of the designs is a chief cause. Doubtless 
there is much truth in the latter assertion; but mere novelty is not everything; 
back of that is a true art-feeling. Everything, even the most insignificant article 



52 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



in daily use, bears the impress ot artistic feeling. In their rugs, while no two 
ever are alike, the designs are of the very highest order. The material may 




The Century I'lise : Gorliam Manufacturing Co. 



not be as good as in other countries, and certainly the manner of hand- 
weaving cannot compare in evenness or finish or durability with our machine- 
made fabrics ; but the blending of color, the spirit of the design, is far ahead 
of anything that can be produced by the average artisan of this or any other 
civilized country. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



53 



Therefore -when our skilled workmen, with their superior facilities for the 
manufacture of the stuffs, study the patterns of these masters of color and 
design, and imitate them intelligently, we have, perhaps, the perfection of work- 
manship. On page 51 for example, are two specimens of carpet from the Bige- 





Details of the Century I 'ase. 



LOW Carpet Manufactory of Massachusetts. They are of the quality known as 
Turkey ply, that peculiar finish into which the foot sinks as into moss, and 
which has a warmth and comfortable feeling suggestive of rest and repose. 
The patterns of the body of these carpets are unmistakably oriental, and the 
border follows the same model. One difference — made, doubtless, as an economic 
measure \n order to bring these goods within the means of every one — is, that 



54 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



having chosen one figure the manufacturers reproduce it over the entire surface of 
the carpet. This would never be the case in a genuine Turkey rug. There, 
every one of the little scrolls antl medallions would be different, though har- 
monious as a whole. But a genuine Turkey rug can only be bought by rich 
people, and had the Bigelow Company undertaken to reproduce these costly 
fabrics with exactness, their carpets would necessarily have been nearly as 
high-priced as the originals; whereas, now we have, in such patterns as those 
engraved, the essential features of the hand-made rug, offered at a very mod- 
erate price. 

From the Gorh.\m Manufacturing Company's exhibit of silver and silver- 
plated ware, we engrave for our readers on pages 52 and 53 their chef de bataille, 
the solid silver Century Vase, designed and manufactured e.xpressly for the 
Centennial Exhibition. Some misapprehension has heretofore existed as to the 
character of the ware manufactured by this Company, an impression prevailing 
that when in [865 they began manufacturing plated goods, they ceased making 
the solid silver-ware that for upwards of thirty years had been their specialty. 
This is not the case, and no better evidence is needed of the perfection to 
which they have brought this latter branch of their business than the example 
before us. It is a truly beautiful and perfect work of art, doing credit to the 
artists and workmen who produced it, and through them to the nation 
which they represent. 

If the design is carefully studied it will tell its own story — the story of 
the rise and progress of our republic upon a soil rich in natural resources, 
triumphing over barbarism and civilized enemies from without, strong in its own 
integrity and uprightness, until on its hundredth birthday, commanding the 
respect and admiration of the world, it bids all nations come and see for them- 
selves its progress, offering a hearty welcome to all alike. That the reader 
may the more thoroughly understand the motif of this fine work, we shall give 
a detailed description of its parts. 

The piece is five feet four inches long, and four feet two inches high. 
With the exception of the slab of polished granite on which the plinth rests, 
every part is sterling silver. The designs are by George Wilkinson and 
Thomas J. Fairpoint. Beginning with the base from which the whole fabric of 
the republic was reared, we have the native red man and the pioneer of civil- 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



55 




Cabinet — Ebony, Ivory and Mother-of-Pearl : G. Parvis. 



ization representing the first phase of our existence. Native fruit, flowers and 
cereals, happily combined in groups, typifying the fruitfulness of the soil, orna- 



56 THE INTERNATIONAL EXIIIRTTION, 1876. 

ment the ends. One of these groups is shown on an enlarged scale in another 
engraving on page 53. A foliated scroll-work of graceful design connects the 
several groups. Above and encircling the solid granite slab are the thirty- 
eight stars of the republic, bound together and resting upon as sure a founda- 
tion as the rock itself. On either side of the plinth are groups — one, the 
Genius of War, holding her dogs in the leash, her whole attitude expressive 
of her fierce purpose and her surroundings — the shattered tree and the broken 
cannon-wheel — indicative of the desolation of her course. On the other side 
we have the contrast — the lion led by little children, and emblems suggestive 
of peace and security scattered around. Between these two extremes our 
republic steadily rises upwards, directed and led in those stormy days of trial 
by the strong hand and inflexible will of Washington. It is fitting, then, that 
the Angel of Fame, while holding in one hand the palm branch and laurel, 
should with the other hand place a wreath of immortelles upon the brow of 
him who was indeed the Father of his Country. On the opposite side is 
another medallion, the genius of Philosophy and Diplomacy, with one hand 
resting on the printing-press, and the other holding the portrait of Franklin — 
the one man of this country who was truly a philosopher and a diplomatist of 
the highest order. And as from the plinth the perfect vase rises, so from those 
colonial times sprung at a bound the young republic. On the front panel of 
the vase we see the Genius of the Arts, ready to inscribe on his tablet the 
names of those famous in Literature, Science, Music, Painting, Sculpture, and 
Architecture. In the reverse panel the Genius stands ready to record our 
advancement in Commerce, Mining and Manufactures. Crowning the vase we 
have the last and grandest scene in our hundred years of existence. Here is 
America holding aloft the olive branch of peace and the wreath of honor, sum- 
moning Europe, Asia and Africa to join with her in the friendly rivalry with 
which she enters on the second century of her existence. 

The reader who has followed us through this description, and who will now 
turn to the vase, will see how splendidly this noble theme has been treated. 
Aside from the mere mechanical execution, which is perfect in its way, the 
story of the republic has been told by fitting emblems brought together into 
one harmonious whole, which in itself — more, perhaps, than any other feature 
of the design — typifies the cause of our great prosperity. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 57 



There is but one adjective whicli can be applied to the subject of our 
next enofravinof — the Cabinet from M. Parvis, Cairo, Egypt — and that is, maof- 
nificent. Let the reader imagine a ground of the finest ebony, polished till 
it resembles jet, in which are inlaid masses of ivory and rare pieces of mother- 
of-pearl, carved with all the patient labor and minuteness for which the East 
is famous, the whole following a design of extraordinary intricacy and elabo- 
rateness. The most remarkable feature of this work is its finish. Not a 
joint is anywhere visible; the bits of ivory or mother-of-pearl are so nicely 
fitted together that they seem like solid pieces of a marvelous bigness. The 
lonofer one looks at the design, the more intricate it seems to become. The 
heads surrounding the grotesque mask in the central panel come out with 
greater distinctness, and new forms reveal themselves in the frieze and orna- 
mentation to the panels on either side. Surely, when the artisans of Egypt can 
produce such work as this, it is too soon to say that the glory of the East has 
departed. 

From the exhibit of Starr & Marcus, of New York, jewelers and gold- 
smiths, we have selected, as a subject for engraving, the Diamond Necklace 
and Pendant which occupy the place of honor in their principal case. Our 
illustration conveys, as well as it is possible for the graver's art to do it, an 
idea of the brilliancj' of these superb articles; but whoever is privileged to see 
the originals will realize how impossible it is to give in black and white much 
more idea of the gems themselves than their size and shape. Their commercial 
value we believe is very great ; but their value to connoisseurs who recognize 
the purity of the stones, the evenness of their cutting, and the exactness of 
size, shape and brilliancy in the pairs, hardly any estimate can be placed upon 
their worth. 

We wonder how many of our readers know what a natural diamond really 
looks like. All are of course familiar with the gem as it is ofi'ered for sale in 
the dealer's window, but few would recognize in the insignificant lump, looking 
more like a morsel of clay than anything else, the origin of the sparkling bril- 
liant which is the first and most precious of all the products of the globe. 

We need not enter into the discussion of what the diamond really is. 
Whether it is vegetable or mineral, whether it is pure carbon or a vegetable 
substance slowly pressed into a crystalline form, is yet to be determined by 



58 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



science. But some notion of the manner in wliich the natural stone is after- 
wards treated may be of interest. Tlie workmen of Amsterdam, as everybody 
knows, have almost a monopoly of the trade of diamond-cutting. Standing 
before a swiftly-revolving steel disc, called a "skaif," lubricated with oil, the 
diamond-cutter presses the diamond, soldered into a brass holder, against the 
steel, and grinds down one of the faces or facets. The shape into which the 




Diamond Neckuice and Pendant : Starr (&^ Marcus. 



diamond is to be cut has been determined beforehand, but it is often necessary 
to change the original design as the work progresses, owing to flaws or imper- 
fections in the stone. After one face is ground, the stone is taken from the 
solder, cemented so as to present another surface, and so the work progresses. 
It is easy to conceive how delicate must be the manipulation to produce the 
exact angles for the highest refraction of light in a stone which is cut into, say, 
fifty eight facets. A slight slip may damage a gem to the extent of hundreds 
of dollars. It is not generally known, yet it is well for those who possess 



IND US TR I A L ART. 59 



diamonds to know, that it is a dangerous experiment to emulate the example 
of Francis the First of France, and attempt to scratch with them upon glass. 
The glazier's diamond always presents a natiwal angle as the cutting edge ; 
but as the gem has artificial angles, 'it may be that one of these may be used 
by tlie amateur, and owing to the peculiar crystalline structure of the diamond' 
he will be dismayed to find that he has split off a portion of the stone, and 
ruined its beaut}^ and symmetry for ever. 

Some pages back we referred to our indebtedness to the Orient for many 
forms and objects of beauty, but we think that it will surprise most of our 
readers to know that that thoroughly English composition which is called Punch 
originates and derives its name from India or Persia. Poztnch in Hindostanee, 
punji in Persian, and pancJio in Sanscrit, each mean five, and five ingredients 
enter into the composition of this delectable compound when it is properly 
prepared. The fifth ingredient in India is jelly, which is their substitute for 
sugar, otherwise an old-fashioned English punch and an Hindostan pounch are 
equally insinuating and pleasant to the taste. And supposing the punch 
properly mixed, what could serve it up more royally than the Punch-bowl 
and Goblets of the Meriden Britannia Company, which we illustrate in our 
engraving. The design is figurative of the use to which it is to be put. The 
vine-leaves and grapes, the Bacchic masks, the Goddess of Mirth, the generous 
size of the bowl and the number of g-oblets — all are susfeestive of the festive 
board, the jolly Christmas time when young and old make merry, toasting the 
absent, drinking to the health of those present, passing the evening in harmless 
revelry and song. 

One of the most interesting and instructive features of the Exhibition is 
the evidence it affords of how our young republic, in its one hundred years 
of existence, has thrown off the simplicity of living necessary in its early days 
when existence was a long struggle with poverty, and with increasing wealth 
and prosperity is gathering to itself the most costly and elegant appliances for 
making life not only comfortable but luxurious, which money can buy. In every 
quarter of the world the invention of the artist and sculptor and artisan is 
taxed to supply the demand which wealth and culture make upon every branch 
of manufacture to give us of the best that can be produced. And our own 
workmen, though lacking the facilities for study and self-education to be had 



6o 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



on the Continent, are so constantly receiving into their ranks foreign artisans 




Punch-bowl ana Goblets ; Meriien Britannia Company. 



of the best class, that their joint work, which may fairly be called productions 
of American industry, compare favorably with European examples. 

In nothing is this desire for sumptuous articles of use more apparent than 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



6i 




Lhimiiey-picce : M. Marchand, Paris. 

in the decorations and fittings for houses, especially for furniture and fixtures. 



62 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i8j6. 

Take for an example the elaborate Chimney-piece exhibited by M. Marchand, of 
Paris. Only a wealth and a desire for its expression in some permanent form, 
such as gave encouragement to artists in the most prosperous days of Europe, 
could inspire such a design as this. Probably fifty years ago there was not a 
mansion in the country where such a magnificent combination of carving and 
highly ornate decoration, finding expression in statuary and gilding and poly- 
chrome enamels, could have been appropriately placed. To-day there is not a 
principal city in the land that has not its houses where this or equally splendid 
work could not be properly placed; and if we imagine a room, proportioned 
to suit this piece, decorated in a like style of richness, and filled with furniture 
to correspond with It, we have an apartment that is nothing less than palatial. 
M. PiAT, the designer of this mantelpiece, received the decoration of the Legion 
of Honor as a reward for his design. Its prevailing style is pure Greek. 
The material is the best black marble, relieved by gilding and polychrome 
enameling. On each side of the fireplace stand Poetry and Music. The head 
of Medusa is seen at the back, in the panel surrounded by a border in a fine 
Greek pattern. Above, on the pedestal, is a noble figure of Minerva, finely 
gilt and enameled. The panel back of the figure is relieved by a graceful 
design of vine-sprays after an Etruscan pattern. 

It is quite fitting and natural that at the present time, when we are cele- 
brating our Centennial, that our manufacturers, in producing simply ornamental 
figures, should desire to typify, by every means in their power, the eventful 
hundred years of the nation's history. The theme is a grand one, capable of 
being treated in a thousand different ways and viewed from a thousand different 
standpoints; and therefore the number of groups which are to be seen in the 
Exposition illustrative of this subject is, perhaps, larger than of any other 
subject. Among these manufacturers are Reed & Barton, of Taunton, Mass., 
who send a large group, symbolic of Progress, which was designed by W. C. 
Beattie. Its length is five feet, and its height four and a half feet. The 
progress of America from savage to civilized life is represented by a contrast 
between its condition in the fifteenth and the nineteenth centuries. On the left 
hand we have a group representing the primitive state of the country: the 
party of savage Aztecs thinking of nothing but war — even the mother teaching 
her tender offspring the use of the bow; the barren rocks and scattered 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



63 



bones indicating the lack of all notion of profiting by the fruitfulness of the 




JSD2S ©HKnnmi^Y^^ 



3LANC DEL U 



Progress: Reed &^ Barton, Taunton, Mass. 



soil, while the angry serpent may be looked upon as typifying the fight with 
untamed nature. 



64 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

» 

Four centuries pass, and behold the contrast! The Genius of Columbia, 
bearing the olive-branch of peace in one hand, and the fasces of just govern- 
ment in the other, passes before us. Mercury, the swift-footed god of com- 
merce and oratory, leads her steed by a flowery bridle, and thus symbolizes the 
guiding influences of his arts which have led us to prosperity. Beside Columbia 
walks Plenty, with her overflowing cornucopia ; while beneath their feet spring 
the plants and fruits which indicate the prosperous results of agriculture. A 
student-group in advance, surrounded by the implements of science and studying 
problems which will still further advance our interests, indicates that the future 
holds in store for us other knowledge, and that to the progress already made 
more is to be added. A bas-relief upon the pedestal represents the landing 
of Columbus, and above rises the vase with the dove and olive-leaf, typical of 
the peaceful period during which the arts have flourished. Surmounting the 
whole is the figure of Liberty, standing upon a broken chain, bearing in one 
hand the palm of victory, while with the other she holds the scroll on which 
is inscribed the record of our progress. She is the inspiring genius to whose 
benign influence we owe our prosperity. 

Of woman's work, the Exhibition contains many examples — some of it, 
such as the carving in wood, of a kind heretofore monopolized by men, and 
others, such as the needle-work, of a character truly feminine. In this latter 
class, decidedly the most interesting display in the Main Building is the contri- 
bution sent from London by the Royal School of Art Needle-work. 

This School, recently founded by the Princess of Schleswig-Holstein and 
other noble ladies, under the patronage of the Queen, has for its object the 
revival of that famous embroidery and other work of the needle for which the 
women of England were so famous three centuries ago. It will be remem- 
bered that at that time England had the reputation of making the finest 
ecclesiastical vestments in the world. But with the decay of the Church came 
a corresponding decadence in the demand for embroidery, and consequently the 
art fell into disuse. Chiefly owing to the encouragement now given to it by 
the Royal School is this beautiful branch of woman's work being revived. The 
School employ the very first artists and designers of England to furnish them 
with designs, and in the display sent to this country are patterns by such well- 
known men as Morris and Crane and Pollen. We select for illustration a 



IND US TR lAL AR T. 



65 



superb set of door-hangingrs, decorated after designs furnished by the last- 




Designs for Door-hangings : Royal School of Art Xecdle-work, 



named designer. They are a valance and side-curtains or portieres. The 
material is a heavy red Utrecht velvet, on which the design of pines and 



66 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

flowers is worked in embossed gold; tlie scroll-work and foliated patterns being 
done in applique with different-colored veK'ets. The effect of the whole is 
gorgeous in the extreme, making this set, perhaps, the most striking in the 
collection. 

People who think of glass merely as a brittle, transparent substance should 
visit the Austrian exhibit, and especially the display of Lobmeyr, of Bohemia, 
to be made aware of its malleability, its varied uses, and a material capable 
of being turned into the most beautiful forms. It is said that even at Vienna 
the display of crystal w^as not so fine as that made here. In Lobmeyr's col- 
lection are superb pieces of engraved crystal, various kinds of Bohemian ware 
and bone-glass. In the latter the color is something truly astonishing. There 
are vases of royal blue with fine gilt decoration, shaped after the most exquisite 
Etruscan models. Here are toilet-bottles of the old pilgrim shape, and opaline 
ware in the style of the ancient Venetian glass. Some specimens are orna- 
mented with flowers in the Persian manner; others are of the Renaissance 
period, and others again have the enameled green scales of Venice. Some of 
the most noticeable specimens are crystal vessels covered with a layer of trans- 
parent red glass, which has been cut back through to the crystal in wonderful 
and intricate patterns. We engrave a group of several of the most beautiful 
of these charming objects, each one of which is a marvel of the glass- 
worker's art 

The Italian Court of the Exhibition contains many choice and beautiful 
thines from that wonderful land whose soil has for centuries been a mine from 
which the nations of the world have drawn the richest treasures of antiquity 
that adorn their museums; and yet, great as has been the drain upon her, it 
is probable that to-day Italy contains, deep buried amid the ruins and the 
debris of her former greatness, more riches a thousand-fold than all that have 
been taken from her to the present time. But it is not alone with the remains 
of her past splendor that Italy is supplying the demand for those things of 
beauty which carry refinement and culture into every corner of Christendom. 
While one portion of her people are busily engaged searching for objects of 
ancient art, another portion are equally busy in reproducing with infinite skill 
and patience the famous works of the old masters in every branch of art, and 
still a third class are hard at work trying to supply the demand for antiquities 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



67 



by manufacturing whatever the dealers may desire. Yet it is a noteworthy 
feature in the modern work of the ItaHan workmen that they invariably select 




Group of Glass-ware : Herr Lobmeyr, Vienna. 



the very best models to copy. They do not even restrict themselves to their 
own masters, fruitful as they were in good work, but they avail themselves of 
the art-work of other lands and nations. In a walk through those portions of 



68 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



the Court devoted to terra-cottas and marbles and bronzes, French, German 
and Egyptian works are to be seen together with examples of ancient and 
modern Italian art. 

We select for illustration a bronze replica of the famous Mercury of Jean 
Boulogne, of Drum. This work, the crowning effort of the great sculptor's 
life, is familiar to every one by its numerous reproductions in stone and metal 
as well as by photographs and engravings. It is a favorite ornament for lawns, 
for pinnacles of buildings, for the tops of columns, and in smaller form as a 
statuette it adorns cabinets, mantels and niches in the walls of rooms. Again, 
it is seen in the ornamentation of clocks, vases and objects of that sort, on 
epergnes and other table ornaments, and finally we have it reproduced by the 
goldsmiths on articles of personal adornment. Indeed, we remember no statue 
that has been so universally copied for various uses as this Mercury of Jean 
Boulogne. 

The Swedish exhibit of pottery and porcelain is certainly one of the finest 
in the Exhibition, both for quality of the material and for its artistic use. The 
RoRSTRAND LiMiTED Co. are the principal exhibitors, and from their famous 
factory, excepting only the Royal Works of Berlin, comes the best assortment 
of porcelain, majolica and parian shown in the Main Building. In porcelain the 
RoRSTRAND Co. exhibit one piece that alone would have attracted the attention 
of visitors to the Swedish Court. It is certainly one of the chefs-d'oeuvi-e of 
the Fair, and as an example of what can be done with porcelain it Is almost 
unique. It is a Chimney-piece, standing about twelve feet high, constructed 
entirely of hard and soft porcelain. Its general color is lavender and celadon, 
picked out with gold, but there are other colors blending with these and 
making an harmonious whole of great delicacy and richness. The fire-place is 
surrounded with a beautiful border of flowers and leaves in white porcelain 
picked out with gold. The columns on either side are divided into plain panels 
of lavender and gold, separated by richly-ornamented medallions. Above the 
columns is a frieze with scroll-work of singularly beautiful design in celadon, 
lavender and fine tracery in gold, while above that again is the white porcelain 
shelf, resembling in its purity and polish the richest marble. Above this, in 
the centre of a long horizontal panel ornamented with an elegant scroll pattern 
in relief, is a charmingly modeled figure of Cupid, in the round, which is one 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



69 



of the most beautifully executed porcelains we have 
Cupid, in a niche 
prepared for it, is 
an Etruscan vase, 
standing some 
three feet high. 
The design and 
coloring of this 
vase may be said 
to be the motif 
for the rest of 
the chimney-piece, 
which is, so to 
speak, built up 
around this central 
fioTjre. On either 
side of the vase are 
columns, banded 
into diamonds be- 
low, and ornament- 
ed above with me- 
dallions containinof 
the insignia of the 
arts and sciences. 
The whole space 
between the niche 
and columns is 
filled with scroll- 
work, highly elabo- 
rated, yet of the 
most chaste de- 
sign. The upper 

predate, but for its purity and harmony of design, 
admire. 




Mercnrv, iiroiiz 



Ilalian Court. 



ever seen. Just over the 
part of this superb 
work is in harmony 
with the richness 
of its lower por- 
tion. While the 
ornamentation is 
equally elaborate, 
it is lighter in color 
and treatment, and 
gives an effect of 
finish which is alto- 
gether satisfactory. 
Whether in this 
piece we consider 
the adaptability of 
the material to the 
use proposed, or 
the character of the 
ornamentation al- 
lowable in an ob- 
ject of this kind, 
or simply the effect 
of the whole as we 
see it, there can be 
but one opinion of 
its merit, and we 
cordially recom- 
mend it to all, not 
only for its me- 
chanical execution, 
which few will ap- 

which all can study and 



70 THE I NTERNATIO XAL EXHIB ITIOX, 1876. 

The famous Rorstrand Works were established in 1726 — just a century 
and a half ago — at Rorstrand. The greater part ot the porcelain manutactured 
ahvays has sold in Sweden, but of late years an export trade has grown up 
with France and England, as well as with the adjacent continental nations, and 
promises to be of importance in the future. As but the materials for porcelain 
abound in Sweden, the manufacture, as compared with that of other countries, 
becomes simply a matter of competition in skillful manipulation and artistic 
treatment. In the former of these the Swedish workmen already excel, and 
they certainly are not far behind either France or Germany in color or design. 
The display of majolica at this Exhibition made by Sweden is in many ways 
the best of all. Beside porcelain and majolica, the Rorstrand Works make 
parian and bisquit ware and various grades of commercial China. At the 
present time their business gives employment to between five and six hundred 
persons; the production of the works having a value of about ^900,000 annually. 

From Sweden — which, everything considered, makes the best display of 
ceramics in the Exhibition — comes the spirited group which iorms the subject 
of our engraving shown on page 72. It is a replica in terra-cotta by S. H. 
GoDENius, of Stockholm, of the spirited group. The Grapplers, by J. P. Molin. 
The engraving gives a capital idea of this fine work. The moment chosen 
by the sculptor is a critical one in the contest, and moreover — this is a 
point which w^e have referred to before, but we wish to emphasize it — a 
moment strictly correct in an artistic sense. The combatants at this instant 
are motionless, and this, we contend, is the only proper theme for sculpture. 
Action past and future may be indicated, but present, actual motion belongs 
only to the domain of the painter. As we have said, at this moment the 
grapplers are at rest. An instant more, and the one who has seized the 
upraised wrist of the other, preventing the intended blow, will have turned 
the odds against his adversary, and have clinched for a fall. We are glad to 
see the reproduction of works of this class in terra-cotta. The material is a 
noble one, capable of an infinite variety of uses in the arts and manufactures 
and, with care, can be made a valuable accessory to sculpture. Next to Italy, 
Sweden's terra-cotta is the most satisfactory in the Exhibition. 

There is a growing tendency in this country to make certain homely articles 
of furniture appear, when not in actual service, to be something other than they 



IND US TRIA L A R T. 



n 




Chirrmey-picce : Rorstrand Co, Limited. Sweden. 



72 



THE I X TERN ATI ON AL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



really are. Theoretically, this tendency is a bad one, because it partakes more 
or less of sham, which, if we may be permitted to use the figure of speech, 
is a partially-explored country of vast extent, though without determinate limits, 
whose inhabitants and all their belongings are regarded with suspicion and 
contempt by the honest jDeople who have seen how unsatisfactory and unreal 
everything belonging to them proves to be. But in the modern manner of 
living, there are certain conditions of existence which justify a certain amount 
of deception, and indeed render it altogether praiseworthy. Here, for example, 



is a young couple 
of moderate 
means, who can- 
not afford to keep 
house or to rent 
a suit of rooms 
in the neighbor- 
hood where it is 
desirable for them 
to live. If, how- 
ever, they could 



manage to live m 



a smgle apart- 
ment, they could 
readily afford to 
remain near their 
friends. The cabi- 
net-maker of to- 




The Grappkrs, terra-cotta : S. H. Godenins, Stockholm. 



day steps in and 
tells them that 
nothing is easier. 
He will supply 
them with furni- 
ture that shall 
make of the one 
apartment a bed- 
room which can 
be turned into a 
parlor at a mo- 
ment's notice. He 
provides them 
with a bedstead 
which by some in- 
genious mechan- 
ism transforms 
itself into a sofa, 



a wash-stand that becomes a writing-desk, a wardrobe that has the appearance 
of a secretary', and the thing is done. Now, all this is a very proper and 
justifiable proceeding. Our young couple do not want to receive friends in a 
room which suggests its use as a bed-room, and they cannot sleep on parlor 
furniture ; but in this way their difficulty has been removed. 

If we follow the fortunes of this imaginary pair, and look in upon them 
again when their economy at the start has enabled them to have a house of 
their own, luxuriously furnished with all the appliances of wealth and culture. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



71 



we find a corresponding desire to make things answer for several useful pur- 
poses, and by this economy of room gain more space for what is purely 
ornamental. In the sleeping-room, for instance, where there is now no neces- 




Wardrobe : G. Vollmer. 



sity for concealing the bed, we find such a Wardrobe as this of Vollmers. In 
itself it is a superb piece of furniture; but in place of a paneled door we have 
a broad mirror, which thus gives just that much wall-space for pictures or what 



74 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 

ornaments we please. Then, on either side of the mirror-door are spaces nicely 
contrived to hold the numberless little articles — statuettes, vases and pretty 
toilet articles — that women love to have about them. Beneath the broad slab 
at the base of the glass is a roomy drawer, and on each side of it cupboards, 
where the "mysteries" of the toilet or the jewel-box may be kept under lock 
and key. So that in short we have an article of furniture combining several 
uses, all grouped together into a form of artistic beauty. The elaboration and 
finish of the work is excellent. The light, delicate color of the satin-wood 
ground is relieved by the rich mahogany decorations. The elegantly-curved 
lines of the design, the finely-wrought scroll-work, the harmonious combination 
of effect at the top, all help to make this wardrobe a real work of art, an 
addition to its primary use as a piece of necessary furniture. 

Our next illustration is an admirably-designed Stained Glass Window, 
manufactured by Cox & Sons, of London, the well-known ecclesiastical deco- 
rators. The window is divided into three parts, each section being complete 
in itself, yet forming together an harmonious whole. The subject is that beautiful 
incident in the life of Christ when he gathered the multitude about him on the 
mountain and spake to them those words of mercy and tenderness and love — 
so different from the lessons of the elders — which have come down to us 
through the asfes, bearinsf their sweet messag-e of consolation and hope to 
many a weary heart; their divine wisdom becoming but the more apparent as 
we recognize what those few simple precepts, uttered eighteen hundred years 
ago, have done toward revolutionizing the nations of the earth, and bringing 
civilization out of barbarism. It is very right and proper that Christian people 
should be constantly reminded of this sublime occasion ; and no means are so 
effective and real than to aid the imagination by means of pictorial represen- 
tations. Long before the art of painting and staining glass with figures was 
invented, frescoing and panel-painting were in common use. Yet it was a 
glorious thought which first conceived the idea of making the church-windows, 
through which the light of day diffused itself throughout the sanctuary, a 
medium by which the splendor and glory of that other and first Light should 
be typified in the mind of the worshippers with colors such as no canvas can 
produce. Of all the adornments which man, in his desire to make the house 
of God beautiful, has brought into the church, the stained glass window is, to 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



75 



it)' 



m 



rff 



l^ 






/u: 



l^- 



.11 



:/^ 



>^ 



/./ 



lAl 



m 



Ul/: 



i 



^t. 



I 



;^1 II 



PVWMi^i' 



a 



K 



jT 



,N 



.(\'/^^AU. 



3^1 



a 



r^Av 



^ 



f^ 



.y 



a 



Rst 



U 



u>- 



t^i^ 



Stained Glass Window: Cox ^ Sons, London. 



our thinking, the most appropriate and beautiful. It may be simply contrasted 
masses of harmonious color, or it may be as elaborate a painting as the 



76 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

subject of illustration; and in this respect it is one of the noblest forms in 
which art may express religion. 

We engrave on page 77 some of the Print Patterns used by the American 
Print Works, Fall River, Mass., in their manufacture; and as these figures 
may fairly be taken to represent the fashion of the day, it is curious and 
interesting to note how much we have improved in this respect within the past 
few years. Perhaps it would be more correct, in speaking of fashion in dress, 
to give all the credit of this change to the sex whose reign and fiat in this 
respect is supreme ; and, indeed, we are quite willing to give woman every- 
thing she may claim in this respect. While it is highly probable that men 
designed the patterns before us, it is equally certain that they never would 
have become popular if they had not pleased the women's fancy. It is not so 
very long ago, say when our grandmothers were girls, that the young creatures 
thought themselves very fine indeed if they were attired in robes on which 
impossible peacocks and birds of paradise — whose plumage certainly resembled 
nothing terrestrial — were displayed. We find examples of these dresses in the 
colored prints of the time, and occasionally one is discovered in a long- forgotten 
trunk, and preserved as a precious accessory for tableaux. At a later period, 
indeed, within the recollection of many of us, dresses were covered with great 
sprawlings in glaring, ill-contrasted colors, such as none but a savage of to-day 
would delight in. And now we have such patterns as these — neat, carefully 
designed, with proper regard for the color-effect, and altogether pleasing and 
attractive to the eye. 

From the truly regal display of porcelain made by the Royal Porcelain 
Works at Berlin, we select for illustration two figures, each a masterpiece in 
its way. The one is a large oval vessel intended to be used as a Wine- 
cooler, or if desired it can be used, as it is at the present time, for a 
Jardiniere. In either use it makes a very striking and beautiful object; but 
the design and style of ornamentation make the former purpose preferable. 
The material, though porcelain, is treated so as to resemble Itahan majolica, 
and none but an expert could pronounce upon its genuineness. The design 
is masterly and the execution faultless. Nothing could be more spirited than 
the lines of the Triton's head, the modeling of the mermaids who clasp hands 
above his waving locks, and the graceful curves of t'.ieir attitude. The handles 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



77 






^V'J'^^'J 





I- 






''•my 3*#j 









/V;«;' Patterns : American Print Works, Fall River, Mass. 



on either side are ornamented with masks and scroll-works suo-o-estino- shells 
and a simple border above and below serves to give finish to the rim and base. 



78 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

There is an entire absence of anything like "finnikiness" about the ornamen- 
tation of the piece that makes it appear pecuharly massive and noble. Every 
part of the design is drawn with a strong, bold hand, suggestive of the best 
period of this style of work. The vase is of an entirely different style and 
treatment. Its material is the hard porcelain made in Europe, and on its glossy 
white surface are painted flowers copied with careful exactness after nature. 
Long practice in the art of flower-painting has enabled the Berlin artists to 
bring their work to the highest state of perfection ; and the roses here repre- 
sented blend their hues as perfectly as if painted with nature's pencil. 

The superb Mirror which we engrave on page 81 is from the display of 
the Messrs. Elkington & Co., of London, manufacturing silversmiths and art- 
workers in the precious and other metals. Silver, gold and steel enter into 
the composition of this piece, which in beauty of design, fulness of elaboration, 
and mastery of technical execution, is one of the finest examples of modern 
metal-work in the Exhibition. 

In style this mirror has all the richness of finish and elaboration without 
weakening by overloading, with ornament of the best period of the Italian 
Renaissance. In his design the artist has been singularly happy in his choice 
of subjects for illustration. Nothing could be more beautiful and suggestive 
than the groups with which the piece is adorned. 

The mirror proper is a sheet of heavy plate-glass, of an oval shape, with 
beveled edges. This is encircled by a smooth,, slightly rounded frame of steel 
damaskeened in gold in the most delicate of arabesque scroll patterns. At 
intervals between these scrolls are gracefully-drawn birds, some resting balanced 
on a spray, and others winging their flight through the air. The plumage of 
these beautiful feathered creatures is indicated by chasing so minute that the 
aid of a glass is necessary to appreciate its fineness. 

Encircling the steel frame is another of silver, in which the mirror swings. 
This frame is ornamented with sprays of leaves and flowers beaten" out and 
chased in the manner known as repousse work. The sockets for the support 
of the mirror are also finished by the same method. On either side of this 
frame and welded to it are uprights or pillars of silver backed by steel. On 
these pillars, resting on a ledge a third of the height up, are Greek vases con- 
taining sprays of flowers, also done in repousse work. Above the flowers are 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



79 



garlands, gracetuUy festooned below the capitals ot the pil 
with masks and 
scrolls. All the work 
here, both in design 
and execution, is ot 
the highest merit, 
and represents the 
perfection of this 
branch of the silver- 
smith's art. Restino- 
at the base of the pil- 
lars upon the broad 
stand are two groups 
in silver oi the same 
general design, but 
differing slightly in 
pose. Both represent 
a draped female fig- 
ure toviny with a 

little child. In the Vajc- Roval PorceUin Works. UerUn. 




lars, which are finished 
one group the little 
tellow is holding up 
a glass to catch the 
reflection of his com- 
panion's face; and in 
the other he is play- 
ing with a fan while 
in the act of listen- 
ing. These groups 
are very well worthy 
of study. The pose 
of each one ot the 
figures is admirably 
rendered; the expres- 
sion on each face is 
wrought with skill, 
and the drapery is 
perfect. Surmount- 
ing the pillars are 




Wine-cooler : Royal Porcelain Works, Berlin. 



pairs of doves, in attitude and expression as lifelike as possible; every feature 
of their wings is executed with wonderful minuteness and softness. 



So THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i8y6. 

Crowning the arch above the mirror is as charming a group as ever 
assisted at a lady's toilet. Two little cupids are nestled there, one standing 
up and holding a lighted torch in his hand; while the other, crouched at his 
feet, is looking down as if in admiration at the fair consultor of the glass. 
The idea conveyed by the attitude and expression of these little loves is 
exceedingly charming. No one, no matter how homely, can look into the 
mirror without being conscious that here at least are two who are struck with 
admiration of her charms. 

All of these groups just described are, like those first mentioned, done in 
silver and finished by the graver's tool. In the same kind of work are the 
pair of winged cupids who seem to have been playing hide-and-seek, and to 
have come suddenly upon each other while flying round the medallion which 
ornaments the base of the silver frame. Their little faces betray mischief, glee 
and a pleased surprise at their sudden rencounter. One can easily imagine 
that they have but just flown out from behind the back of the glass, and that 
a whole troup of their gay companions is still romping there. 

This completes the ornamentation in detail. Now we see how artistically 
all combine to make an harmonious whole. Nor can we fail to be attracted 
by the purity of the way in which the theme has been treated. As to the 
technical execution, we have already spoken of it with the highest praise. 
There is but one point further that we would call attention to, and that is the 
damaskeened work. There are three ways of doing this : either by making a 
fine incision with the graver's tool, and fastening in a thread of gold wire, 
which is the oldest and best method ; by hacking the surface with a knife and 
fastening the gold on superficially; or by etching the pattern in with acid and 
then placing the gold in the cavity. This last method approaches the former 
in effect and finish, and cannot readily be detected from it, and it is either by 
this method or by the first-mentioned process that the wonderful damaskeened 
work of the Messrs. Elkington is done. 

Our next engraving represents the Chili Cup, exhibited by Reed & Barton, 
of Taunton, Mass. This fine example of the art of the silversmith was sent 
by the manufacturers to the Chilian Exposition, where it gained a prize, and 
has since been known by the name given above. Looking at it in detail, we 
observe that the cup rests upon a square, polished stand, without any decora- 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



tion save a narrow raised border of leaves and flowers. Encircling the base 
of the cup is a beautiful floriated design in low relief, and on this base, resting 
against the central shaft, are two large shell-shaped vessels of polished silver, 




Mirror : Elk'wgtofi ^ Co,, London. 



without any decoration except some simple chasing on the inner side of the 
rim. Resting on the base are tree-ferns — wonderfully perfect copies of these 
graceful plants — so disposed as to give a pretty finish to this portion of the 



82 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

design. On the sides of the shaft, raised somewhat above the shell-shaped 
vessels by curved branches, are finely-cut glass dishes with silver pendants. 
At this level die shaft separates into two slender branches, covered with delicate 
ferns twiningr about them; and the branches themselves, first bending outward 
and then inward, form a harp-shaped figure, within which is a charming group 
of Venus and Cupid. Cupid has evidently been about some mischief, for his 
mother has taken his bow away from him and is holding it behind her back 
with one hand, while the other is raised to give emphasis to her admonition. 
The little fellow stands in defiant attitude, as if conscious of no wrong done, 
but it will not be long before he will be begging for his bow again, for without 
that he can have no further sport. Balanced on the upper part of the branches 
is a vase of crystal and silver, its base surrounded by pendants, and the same 
design of branches and fern-leaves carried out on a still smaller scale. The 
effect of the whole figure is peculiarly light and airy, and if we imagine the 
vase and dishes filled with flowers and fruit, there could hardly be a more 
chaste or elegant centre-piece for a table. 

We wish that it was possible to give to those of our readers who may not 
be fortunate enough to see it a good idea of the wonderful play of light and 
the surprisingly rich effect of color in this glass Vase of Lobmeyr's. But 
neither engraving nor words can do more than suggest its brilliant appearance. 
In the sunlight no jewel reflects rarer prisms of color than flash from its 
angles. By looking at the engraving it will be seen that the shape of this 
vase is of an admired Greek pattern. Its handles, twisted like those of the 
Urbino vases, represent serpents, their heads pressed flat down upon the rim 
in an attitude of watchfulness, and their bodies attached by finials to the bovi^l. 
The vase itself is composed of crystal, enameled with red glass. Around 
the body extends a broad zone containing scroll-work and figures cut through 
the enamel to the crystal. The engraving here is of the most minute descrip- 
tion, every leaf and tendril being worked up with infinite pains. In the 
centre of the zone is a winged female figure, supported on either hand by 
lions conventionally treated. There is no ornamentation upon the stem and 
base of the vase, but it rests upon a pedestal, with lions' heads as handles, and 
the shaft engraved with lovely festoons held up by ribbons. The work here is 
as minute and intricate as that above, though the design is not so elaborate. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



83 










Chili Cu-h ■ Reeil &^ Bur/oii, Taunton, Mass 



84 



THE IXTERNATIOXAL EXHIBITIOX, 1S76. 



For a drawing-room ornament, or for a collector's cabinet, or for purposes of 
illustration in a museum, we have seen no single piece of crystal that is a 
better example than this of the perfection of modern glass-working. 




Vase: Herr Lobjneyr, Henna. 



We wonder that, in these daj^s of collection-making, more people have 
not taken to getting together specimens of artistic glass. Certainly a well- 
selected assortment of choice crystal makes one of the most beautiful and 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



83 







86 THE IXTERXATIONAL EXHIBITION, i8j6-. 

interesting collections that it is possible to make. At present the china-mania 
seems to have gained almost complete possession of the public. 

The elegant Silver Service which we engrave on page 85 is selected from 
the large and beautiful exhibit made by the Messrs. Bailey & Company, of this 
city. It consists of eight pieces — the urn, coffee-, tea- and chocolate-pots, sugar- 
bowl, cream-pitcher, "waste-basin and waiter — all of solid sterling silver, elabo- 
rately ornamented with repousse work. We are glad to see that it is again 
becoming fashionable to place the urn upon the table, for certainly it is one 
of the most beautiful vessels in itself, and its use is so suggestive of comfort 
and good company, that it is a pity it was ever banished. At breakfast and 
at tea its place on the table as an ornamental feature is as prominent as that 
of the epergne at dinner. All the other vessels and dishes are subservient to 
it. Notice how in this group it dominates all the other pieces and gives a 
finish and completeness to the whole, which without it as a central figure could 
not be expressed. It will be observed also that its form and manner of deco- 
ration give the motif for the design in the rest of the set. Resting upon a 
beaudfullj'-shaped stand on four feet, and so arranged as to contain the spirit- 
lamp, the urn rises graceful and symmetrical as a Greek vase. On either side 
of the ovoid-shaped body are the curved handles, and surmounting it is the 
crown-shaped lid, terminating in an ornamental knob. Every portion of the 
urn and stand is decorated with repousse work of the most elaborate descrip- 
tion. Flowers, leaves and trasses twine and intermingfle over its surface with 
all the luxuriance of nature. Yet while thus simulating a natural growth, each 
spray and tendril has been placed in position by the cunning hand of the ardst, 
whose training enables him to decide where it will be most effective. If the 
other pieces are examined carefully it will be seen that the same general 
grouping of natural objects has been followed in their decoration ; so, too, it 
will be observed that the design of these other vessels follows the same curves 
as in the urn wherever it is possible. Of course in the pitcher an allowance 
has been made for the bend of the lip, and In the pots a spout must be made 
which shall harmonize with the handle. To accomplish this last-named effect 
is, by the way, one of the most difficult things in designing a tea or breakfast 
service. It is rarely that one finds a really satisfactory tea-pot or coffee-pot. 
When the curves of a spout balance, so to speak, those of the handle, we 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



87 



may have some- 
thins: altocrether 
lovely in appear- 
ance ; but when 
we put the beau- 
tiful object to 
the test of ac- 
tual use, we find 
that the liquid, 
instead of flow- 
ing from the 
proper orifice in 
an abundant 
stream, first 
trickles from the 
nozzle, and then, 
as we continue to 
tip the vessel, 
bursts from un- 
der the lid with a 
sudden outpour- 
ing that is as 
astonishinof as it 
is overwhelming!'. 
Perhaps the most 
satisfactory shape 
for pouring pur- 
poses is the old- 
fashioned tin or 
earthenware 
ketde with its 
straight spout 




Sliver Candelabra.: M. Christeseu, Demnark. 



and high, round 
handle. But this 
honest, homely 
little body rarely 
rose above a 
place beside the 
logs in the fire- 
place. There it 
sung and was 
comfortable; and 
it would make 
but a sorry figure 
if introduced to 
the company of 
such fine, twisted 
objects as now 
glitter and shine 
upon the tables 
of nearly every 
one who has tiie 
means to pur- 
chase them. 

On tills page 
we give an illus- 
tration of the sil- 
versmith's art as 
practised in Den- 
mark, It is a 
Candelabra ex- 
hibited by M. V. 
Christesen, of 

Co PE N H AG E N. 



The material is solid silver, with gold gilt ornamentation. The piece stands 
about thirty inches high, and is covered, with the exception of the fir^ures, 



88 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

with fine chasing and relief-\vorl< from base to top. The candelabra rests 
upon a triangular-shaped standard ornamented with dolphins' heads, masks and 
medallions in gold gilt. Around the edge is a very pretty border of chasing. 
Resting upon a cup-shaped base are four gilt figures of children, standing 
back to back and clasping hands around the shaft. These figures are cut in 
very high relief and thoroughly well designed and executed. Just over their 
heads is a zone of masks, and above that the shaft tapers up to a capital of 
Corinthian shape. Above that, again, the six curved branches of the candelabra 
unite, and from their junction rises a pedestal on which a charming little cupid, 
with a wreath and bow, poses as lightly and airily as if he had just alighted 
there. The branches terminate in skillfully-executed women's-heads, on which 
rest the candle sockets. These heads are gilded, and a fine gilt line winds 
around the stems beneath them in a manner similar to the work on the main 
portion of the shaft. This beautiful article is exhibited by M. Christisen with 
a group of table furniture, and its position and size indicate that it also is 
intended for table use. In Europe, even in those portions where gas has been 
largely introduced, most people prefer the soft and subdued light of candles to 
the dazzling glare of the other means of illumination ; and as it is customary 
to place the candles on the table, many elaborate and beautiful devices are 
made to hold them. Certainly no one who has seen a handsome feast set off 
in this way will deny that the effect is much more pleasing than can be pro- 
duced by any arrangement of gas. 

The Fountain which we engrave on page 89 is a very remarkable illus- 
tration of the admirable adaptation of the ware made by the Messrs. Doulton, 
of Lambeth, England, to purposes of decoration, or rather ornamentation, on 
a comparatively large scale. This fountain, which stands about eight feet high, 
is composed entirely of the peculiar composition known as Doulton-ware, and 
is modeled after designs furnished by the promising young artist and sculptor, 
Mr. George Tinworth, of London. The prevailing colors in this spirited and 
artistic production are rich browns, greens and yellows, which blend together 
in a subdued and harmonious way that is very effective. The basin of the 
fountain, which is about seven feet in diameter, is surrounded by a border of 
large leaf-shaped figures, with others backing up against their interstices. From 
the centre of the basin rises an imitation rock-work construction with caves 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



89 




Fountain: Doulton ^ Co., Lambeth, England. 



and hollows, from which grasses and aquatic plants depend. At intervals around this rock-work 
are gracefully-modeled swans, and by a clever contrivance the water is raised to a level with 



90 



THE IXTERXATIO XAL' EXHIBITIOX, i8j6. 



their bellies, so that the birds seem actually to be swimming and disporting 
themselves in their favorite element. 

Above this rock-work and resting on it as a base is a platform with three 
curvilinear sides and rounded ends, from the centre of which rises a sheaf of 
rushes, which forms the shaft ot the fountain. About this sheaf is grouped a 
trio of cupids riding astride of dolphins which the little fellows have captured 





Greek Vases : A. B. Daniell ^ Son, London. 



and harnessed. The modeling of these figures is particularly clever. Each one 
is different, yet it would be hard to select any one as the best. Swans 
coquetting and pluming their feathers complete this group. Above is a second 
but smaller basin shaped like a shell with scolloped edges. From its centre 
and forming a continuation of the shaft is a group of storks, standing back 
to back, as erect and stately as if conscious of their reputation for wisdom. 
Above them is a third and smaller basin, resembling the second in shape, and 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



91 



above it the shaft terminates in the tall seed-stalks of the rushes, crowned by 
a bunch of pods. 

In the treatment of his design Mr. Tinworth has made a happy blending 
of conventionalism and realism, and has confined himself to a strict simplicity 
of detail with a success attainable only by artists of exceptionable ability. The 
mechanical execution of the piece is also worthy of mention. The colors are 




Ci-oup of Artistic Pottery : Gustafsbcrg Co., Syjcdctt, 



remarkably even and pure, and the salt-glaze of the Doulton process gives 
them a brilliancy and lustre unattainable by any other means. 

From the collection of rare porcelain and faience made by A. B. Daniell 
& Sox, of London — certainly one of the choicest ceramic exhibits at the 
Centennial — we illustrate two of their beautiful Greek Vases, modeled after 
well-known specimens in the British Museum, and decorated by the pate-siir- 
pate process by the celebrated artist M. Solon, formerly of Sevres, but now 
in the employ of the Messrs. Minton, of England. These vases are of a 



92 THE INTERNATIOXAL EXHIBITIOX, iSj6. 

chocolate-brown color, so deep in shade as to seem to be black in certain 
lights. The base and the lower portion of the body are decorated with gold 
lines in the sunken portions of the modeling. On the zone which surrounds 
the body throughout its greatest length are figures of the Graces and Cupids 
drawn with unsurpassed delicacy and skill. We have already described the 
pate-sur-pate process at length, but it may be as well here merely to remind 
our readers that this painting is done Avith a sort of liquid china, which in its 
wet state is opaque; but after firing, this paste becomes either semi-transparent 
or opaque, according to the thickness with which it is laid on. The practice 
and skill necessary to produce artistic results by this method, as well as the 
care requisite in the firing, are sufficient reasons for the extreme costliness of 
the articles thus produced. This pair of vases have been bought by Henry 
Gibson, Esq., of Philadelphia. 

The upper part of these vases — the neck, handles and lip — are ornamented 
with fine enameling in red and yellow, after approved Greek patterns. These 
enamels are very rich and brilliant, and though sparingly applied, are an exceed- 
ingly effective feature of the general design. 

The group of articles which we engrave on page 91, in variety of form 
and material give an excellent idea of the character of the exhibit made by 
the GusTAFSBERG CoMPANY, of SwEDEN. Here is terra-cotta, parian, imitation 
majolica, and different qualities of porcelain. The large vases on either side 
of the engraving are, as will be seen on inspection, different views of 
the same piece, which occupies the place of honor in the Messrs. Gustafsberg 
exhibit, and is, undoubtedly, the chef d'ceuvre of the collection. This vase 
stands about four feet high, and from the foot upwards is one solid piece of 
porcelain. The general color of the piece is a clear sky-blue of remarkable 
evenness. The border around the foot, the channels around the lower part of 
the body, the scroll-work above and the relief-work generally are gilded with 
gold. The zone around the middle of the vase contains a finely-painted subject 
representing the procession of the Arts. The coloring of the figures is very 
rich and varied, and they are seen with clearness against the back-ground of 
pure white enamel. 

A vase of Persian shape, decorated with figure-subjects of Peace and War, 
crowns the group. Other vases of different styles and shapes can be seen 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



93 



dispersed through- 
out the collection. 
Fine porcelain din- 
ner-ser\dces,plainly 
but richly decorated 
with bands of color, 
will be observed 
also. An excellent 
beer-mu^of cream- 
colored stone, with 
blue enamel in re- 
lief ornamentation 
after the German 
style, is here, and 
also a ewer of an 
Urbino pattern in 
majolica. The fine 
group called "The 
Grapplers," which 
we illustrated in a 
recent number, and 
numerous busts 
and statuettes in 
parian, will be 
observed, as also, 
standing just back 
of the majolica 
fruit-dish, a pair of 
covered vases in 
parian of the open- 
work or basket- 
pattern which is so 
much admired. 

The beautiful 




Pt'rslan Vase and Pedestal: Herr Lobmeyr, Vienna. 



Persian Vase and 
Pedestal exhibited 

by M. LOBMEYR, of 

Vienna, and en- 
graved by us on 
this page is a very 
beautiful specimen 
of the highly art- 
istic effects obtain- 
able in crystal. In 
color it is a rich 
ruby red of aston- 
ishing brilliancy, 
which is heightened 
by the superb dec- 
oration, which con- 
sists entirely of 
gold gilding. 

We would call 
special attention to 
this decoration, for 
it is an admirable 
illustration of the 
advantage of art 
education. It is in 
the spirit and style 
of that wonderful 
nation — the Per- 
sian — whose deco- 
rative desiofns are 
seen and admired 
in every part oi 
Christendom, and 
whose influence in 



94 THE IXTERXATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 

this branch of art has been perhaps greater than any other people. Any one 
familiar with Persian work will see how thoroughly this decorator has mastered 
their principles of design; and this mastery could only be attained by facilities 
for study such as only Europe affords. 

The most ignorant observer will, although unable to give the reason of it, 
notice the beauty and harmony of the whole effect ; yet, if he reflects for a 
moment, and if, while remarkinsj the astonishing' amount ot work there is on this 
vase, he has judgment enough to perceive that it is subservient to the design 
itself and entirely unobtrusive, one of its main claims to excellence will have 
been discovered. 

The term arabesque, which is used to designate the intricate scroll- and 
leaf-patterns such as are seen about the zone of this vase, implies that this 
style was invented by the Arabs. But one of the very best authorities of 
modern times — Major R. Murdock Smith, R. E. — asserts that the Arabs never 
were an artistic people, although their rulers were distinguished patrons of the 
arts. Nevertheless, these rude people knew enough to adopt and carry with 
them the arts of the people they conquered. Thus when, after conquering 
Persia, they overran Europe, establishing themselves in Spain, they gave to the 
latter country as their own what they had acquired in Persia. The same high 
authority mentioned above is of ihe opinion that it is far from improbable that 
even the Alhambra itself was chiefly the work of Persians, who stood to the 
Arabs in much the same relation that the Greeks did to the Romans. 

The many uses to which art needlework can be put is well illustrated by 
the exhibition made by the Royal School of Art Needlework, of London. 
We give three examples on page 95. Tlie first of these is an Ottoman Cover, 
embroidered in a very delicate flower- and leaf-pattern after a manner which 
is a favorite one among the pupils of the School. This consists of copying 
the leaves and flowers in color and veining with careful exactness, and at the 
same time conventionalizing their general arrangement to allow of the repetition 
of the design as part of one pattern. 

The second piece is a Cabinet with a figure-subject, also embroidered — 
the design evidently the work of an artist, probably Crane himself. Work of 
this character requires long practice and skill with the needle, as well as 
instruction by competent individuals. But the general result is so satisfactory, 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



95 



and the work itself is so thoroughly feminine, that we sincerely trust some- 
tiling of the same kind will be attempted in this country. We have a fancy 







'-mis 







■^ 






13 



that our lack of art schools and other institutions where women can learn to 
employ themselves usefully and profitably at work which is in itself interesting 



o6 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION^ 1S76. 



and beautiful, is one 
of the causes which 
drives them to so 
unsex themselves as 
to seek to enoraCTe in 
men's affairs. Give 
our American 
■women the same art 
facilities as their Eu- 
ropean sisters, and 
they will flock to the 
studios and let the 
ballot-box alone. 

On this page we 
engrave the bronze 
bust of a woman 
who lived, if she 
lived at all, in a time 
when men would 
have scorned the 
thought that any of 
her sex could minis- 
ter to their intel- 
lectual pleasure. 
Her whole dut)' in 
life was to make 
herself beautiful — to 
present herself be- 
fore her lord decked 
out in all the bravery 
of barbaric orna- 
ment. How elabo- 
rate this was can be 
estimated from the 



elaborateness of the 
head-dress which we 
see here. Yet no 
one can look upon 
the perfect contour 
of this face, the firm 
lips, the noble brow, 
and calm, steadfast 
gaze of die eye, 
without believing 
that here at least 
was a woman in- 
tellectually man's 
equal. 

This beautiful 
bronze, which is 
equal in artistic 
merit to anything 
shown in the French 
or German Courts, is 
from the American 
exhibit of Messrs. 
Mitchell, Vance & 
Co., of New York. 
The reader will not 
fail to observe the 
bronze pedestal on 
which the bust rests, 
which is in itself a 
remarkably fine and 
perfect piece ot de- 
signing. The pedes- 
tal is triangular in 

ze Column and Bust: Mitchell, Vance &= Co., N.Y. sliape, ItS Columuar 




INDUSTRIAL ART. 



97 



ornamentation — the up- 
per and lower members 
— having all the sim- 
plicit}' and severity of 
Egyptian outlines. The 
decoration of the base 
has a certain orientalism 
in the arrangement of 
the pyramidal designs, 
and the lotus — the sacred 
flower of the Nile — is 
worked in as an acces- 
sor)- to the detail. 

There is something 




peculiarly suggestive and 
appropriate in choosing 
for the ornamentation of 
a clock — a mechanical 
apparatus that records 
the fliofht of time — em- 
blems and figures taken 
from that country whose 
very existence to-day is 
a constant reminder of 
the centuries gone by, 
whose monuments stand 
as silent but sublime rec- 
cords of the glory of past 



Creek Vase: Afitchell. Vance &= Co.. jVezo York. 




Egyptian Clock: Mitchell, Vance <S^ Co., New York. 



98 THE INTERXATIO XAL EXHIBITIOX, iSj6. 

ages. The very name of Egj-pt brings up to the imagination the splended reigns 
of the Ptolomies and the Pharaohs, the superb pageants that are recorded in 
pictorial inscriptions on the tombs of the kings and in the comparatively modern 
papyrus and manuscript. And the fact that but a few of the stupendous works 
of that astonishing epoch of civiUzation are preserved to us intact, while our 
means of comparison are entirely inadequate to apply to the even more stupen- 
dous ruins that uprear themselves above the present level of the land, makes us 
contemplate the achievements of that age with something akin to awe. Who 
dare say what was the limit of the knowledge of the ancient Egyptians ? 
Who can affirm that that vast monument of manual labor, that grandest 
achievement of engineering skill known to the world — the Great Pyramid — 
does not stand the silent monument to some gigantic discovery in science of 
which we know absolutely nothing? 

Once it was thousfht that this monument was but the shrine of a kino- — 
that the carefully-concealed chamber with its stone sarcophagus was the place 
where the royal dust reposed. Later it was discovered that this theory was 
untenable on many accounts, and at length a famous astronomer advanced a 
theory that the whole structure symbolized a knowledge of the planetary system, 
of the shape, size and motion of the earth, comparable with our latest dis- 
coveries. Certainly the coincidence of his deductions with the position, size 
and shape of the several passages and chambers was more remarkable if his 
premises were wrong than if they were true. Perhaps in future ages the true 
meaning of the Great Pyramid may be discovered, and our age be reckoned 
as a night between two days. 

One cannot look at this beautiful work of Mitchell, Vance & Co. without 
its ornamentation taking us back to those marvelous times and so reminding 
us of the flight of time and the mutations which all things mundane undergo. 
The vase, the shape of the base, and the smallest feature of the decoration 
have been studied with consummate skill, and produce a grand effect. The 
draped female heads on the pedestals at the side have a beauty uniquely their 
own. The kneeling attendants holding aloft their fans and balancing jars upon 
their heads suggest, by their costume and accessories, long-forgotten customs. 
The zone around the clock-face contains the symbols of the months, and the 
winged globe above may typify the flight of our sphere through space. The 



INDUSTRIA L ART. 



99 



thought, the conception of such a design as this was an inspiration, and the 
way it has been executed shows the talent and skill of the genuine artist. 

We engrave on this page a decorated Dish or Plateau, exhibited by 
E. G. ZiMMERMAA", in the German Court. This fine and elaborate piece of 
work is of a class too highly finished and too costly for the ordinary uses to 
which plates are put, but it is designed to serve a purely artistic end by being 




Silver Plateau : E. G. Zimmerman of Hatiau. 



suspended from the wall or given a place on a mantel or in a cabinet. 

This custom of using artistic plaques and plateaux for decorative purposes 
is extremely popular just at the present time; and as the fashion is a good 
one and founded upon thoroughly artistic principles, it is likely to continue. 



lOO 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



No one who has 
not tried the experi- 
ment himself or seen 
it tried by others can 
realize the excellent 
effect of hanging some 
brightly-colored dish or 
plate such as this upon 
the wall in the same 
manner as a picture. 
It lights up a room 
wonderfully, and when 
several of them are so 
disposed with pictures 
and eno-raving-s at ir- 
regular intervals the 
toiU-ensemblc is capi- 
tal. 

The delicate and 
sliapely Bronze Lamp, 
which is the subject of 
our next illustration, is 
one of the beautiful art 
productions of the es- 
tablishment of Messrs. 

SUSSE FRERES, of PaRIS. 

France has always been 
the chief centre for the 
manufacture of artistic 
bronzes, and it is to the 
perseverance and en- 
ergy of such establish- 
ments as the one from 
which this example j.s 



¥h 




Liimpidtare ; Susse Bros, Paris. 



taken that she owes her 
precedence. 

In Paris, which, as 
far as art products go, 
is France — in Paris the 
workman possessed of 
artistic taste or inspira- 
tion has unsurpassed 
and perhaps unequaled 
facilities afforded him 
for the study of design 
from the very best 
models. On Sunday, 
which is the workingf- 
man's holiday, the visitor 
to the great metropolis 
will find all the superb 
galleries and museums 
thronged with crowds 
of cleanly, orderly arti- 
zans of both se.xes. 
These people have paid 
no entrance-fee to gain 
access to the treasures 
about them. The doors 
are open to one and 
all irrespective of class, 
and the only exaction 
is an orderly and deco- 
rous behavior. 

Visiting any one of 
these museums on a 
Sunday, it is curious to 
observe what keen and 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



lOl 



intelligent critics these artisans are. Especially in subjects with which their 
occupation makes them acquainted, is their judgment just. 
Is it any 



wonder, then, 
that these men, 
going back to 
their work at 
the beorinninor 
of the week, 
take with them 
into the shops 
and manufac- 
tories an art- 
feeling, foster- 
ed and encour- 
aged by the 
splendid ex- 
amples they 
have been 
studying.which 
finds expres- 
sion in the 
work tliey af- 
terward pro- 
duce? No: 
when we 
think of this 
fact, the reason 
why French 
workmen ex- 
ceed all others 
as art-workers 




Marble Font : Strufhers <S^ Sons, Philadelphia. 



becomes evi- 
dent. 

Look at this 
Lamp as a 
specimen of 
French work. 
See how per- 
fectly plain 
and simple it 
is, and yet 
what elegance 
and grace of 
proportion it 
bears! A thin, 
fluted stand- 
ard supported 
on curved legs 
terminates in 
a broad capi- 
tal, on which 
rests a winged 
griffin. Above 
this figure is a 
rest or socket, 
in which stands 
the body of 
the lamp, a 
lovely ampho- 
ra draped with 
garlands of 



flowers. Light chains fastened to the socket-ring depend nearly to the base 
of the standard, and remove the appearance of thinness to that portion of the 



I02 THE IXTERXATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

article at the same time that they give an effect of lightness. Chain orna- 
mentation such as this was practised by the ancients at a very early day. The 
Greeks especially, who studied ornamentation oi all kinds with zeal and enthu- 
siasm, early discovered the fine curves and lines which were obtainable by this 
means; and the reader will not fail to observe how in this instance this simple 
addition of pendant chains finishes and completes the whole design. Supposing 
them absent from this lamp, the least critical observer would see the top-heavy 
appearance that would be presented. Then would come the question how to 
remedy this defect; and we venture to say that no one who had not previously 
seen and studied the effect of such ornamentation would think of sugfo-estingf 
chains as a remedy. 

From the display of Messrs. Struthers & Sons, of Philadelphia, we 
select for illustration a Marble Baptismal Font, which in design and execution 
is entirely the work of their employees. It is, therefore, a thoroughly American 
work, and as such our city may well be proud of it; for in simplicity and 
grace, in purity of sentiment and harmonious blending of ornament suggestive 
of use, it is comparable with anything shown in the foreign courts. 

The artist has chosen for his theme the Lily, the flower emblematic of 
purity and innocence, and as such typifying the condition of those little ones 
who are dedicated to be Christ's servants unto death. 

In the treatment of his theme the artist has shown almost as rare judgment 
as in his choice. From a plain octagonal base rises a slender, round shaft, on 
which rests a circular basin with receding mouldines lessenino; toward the rim. 
Around the foot of the shaft are strewn numbers of yellow lilies, their round, 
flat leaves disposed on the horizontal plane, while here and there among the 
group are sprays of the delicate garden-lily, the blossoms half hidden in their 
sheltering sheath-like leaf. Rising above these, almost to the rim of the basin, 
is a sheaf of lordly white water-lilies, their long, smooth stems bound to the 
shaft of the column by a ribbon-band, their broad leaves and graceful flowers 
encircling and completely hiding the lower portion of the basin. 

The disposition of these flowers is simply beautiful, and one can readily 
see that nature was closely studied before the arrangement was made. Nothing 
more highly realistic than this group could be imagined, and the sculptor has 
reproduced it in the marble with a marvelous fidelity. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



103 



We are heartily glad that this font is exhibited at the Centennial Expo- 
sition, for such a work as this does more to disprove the hackneyed comment of 
Europeans upon our civilization — that we are too materialistic to regard beauty 
of ornament — than all the protests of our most honored writers. 

In the matter of jewelry, goldsmiths' work and silver-plate manufacture, 
our foreign visitors are unceasing in their expressions of praise of the quality 
of the work done, and of astonishment at the richness and variety of the 



display. 




Necklace and BreaUpin : Morgan &• Hcadley, Philadelphia. 



It is indeed a most gratifying fact that in the manufacture of artistic 
jewelry our leading American houses compare favorably with foreign firms. It 
may be argued that for this species of work we import large numbers of 
European workmen, and that our designs are theirs or copied from French and 
English novelties. And doubdess it is true that hardly a large manufacturing 
jewelry establishment exists in this country without its quota of foreign assistants 
but for all that the work produced is in a large sense American, and, at least, 
an American public which pronounces upon its claims to fashion. 



I04 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

Moreover, there are certain set and well-defined styles which we have 
inherited, or by long use have a claim to, that from their intrinsic worth and 
beauty always claim the popular tavor. A jeweler or goldsmith by following 
these can never go wrong, and even if he has no originality or invention 
himself, the number of celebrated antique examples at his command is quite 
inexhaustible. 

In the beautiful specimen of American goldsmiths' work which we illus- 
trate on page 103 — a Necklace and Breastpin manufactured by Morgan & 
Headlev, of Philadelphia — the makers have combined a laree amount of origin- 
ality with a careiul study of a strictly classical design. The result is a set of 
ornaments having all the merits of novelty combined with the best taste and 
most refined treatment. The necklace is light, graceful and highly ornamental 
without being garish, while the pin is remarkable for its simple elegance. 

Stoneware, gres or steifigut, as a certain kind of hard pottery made in 
England, France and Germany is called, according to the nation making it, was 
formerly manufactured in the latter country of a quality and cheapness that 
caused it to be largely exported to the former kingdoms. Antique German 
steingut of certain localities, such as Nuremberg, Cologne and Creussen, in 
Bavaria, is much sought after and prized by the ceramic student. The famous 
Creussener steingut mugs bring fabulous prices. Some of these pieces, which 
are of a dark brown color, have relief figures of the Apostles and Evangelists 
ranged round them in arcades, and hence are commonly called Apostle 
tankards. 

The Cologne steingut or gres, as it is more commonly called, was at one 
time more generally known throughout Europe than any other kind of stone- 
ware. The majority of the pieces were designed for the homeliest household 
uses, but their durability and the character of their ornamentation were such 
as to make the demand for them universal. The ware was mostly made in 
moulds, and was produced in immense quantities. 

Of late years the reproduction of this gres has been undertaken at nearly 
all the large factories of Germany, and so successfully is it made that in many 
instances none but an expert can detect the difference, especially when, as is 
too commonly the case, the original marks are copied and the stamp of the 
true maker is suppressed. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



105 



We illustrate on this page a group of three Antique German Vessels, 
manufactured by Messrs. Merkelbach & Wick, of Grenzhausen, who make a 
specialt)' of the production of this style of ware. The piece without a handle 
is a ver}- fine copy of gres de Cologne. The body is of a soft gray color, on 
which is the raised ornamentation and the blue enamel colorino-. The lower 
part of the piece has grooves or depressions radiating upward at regular 
interv^als to the central zone, which contains a coat-of-arms supported by 
wing-ed g-riffins and scroll-work. Above this is a collar with a twisted incised 






German Stein^ut : Merkelbach &> Wick, Grenzhausen. 



pattern, separating the zone from the arabesques and garlands which cover the 
upper part of the bowl. Around the neck is a band of rosettes in low relief 
picked out with color. 

The ewer, the largest piece of the three, is copied after a very favorite 
style. The bowl is flattened, with medallions containing relief ornamentation 
and a display of arms and heraldic devices upon the sides. A mask is intro- 
duced as an ornament to the spout, but the handle is made very plain and as 
unobtrusive as possible. 

The third piece partakes in its decoration of a more oriental style. Its 
shape, too, is Eastern and might have been copied from a Moorish vase. The 



io6 



THE INTERN ATIONAL EXHIBITIOX, jSj6. 





Iron Fountain : The J. L. Mott Co., New York. 



decoration consists of brilliant arabesques dispersed over the surface in a pleasing 
and effective manner. 

On this page we present our readers with an illustration of the handsome 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



107 



FouxTAix manufactured by the J. L. INIott Co., of New York, that graces the 
northern portion of the nave of the Main Exhibition Building. This fine 
example of artistic casting is erected just as it is seen in the engraving at 
one of the divisions of the nave, and is kept playing water all day long. 

Indeed, the only way to judge of the beauty ot a tountain is to see it in 
operation, for the fall and curves of the water form a component part of the 




Bronze Inkstand : Henri Per rot, Paris. 



general effect. * And this fact should always be taken into consideration by the 
designer, although evidently it is too often neglected. How often we see 
fountains that in themselves are beautiful, but when seen in operation the 
apertures from which the water is ejected and the curves made in its fall 
render the whole thing ridiculous or monstrous. 

Nothing is more beautiful than falling water, whether it is in sheets or in 
broken streamlets or dispersed in spray; and in the present instance we may 
be said to have these three phases combined. 



io8 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



The fountain rises from its basin in a series of four basins, each smaller 
than the other, and is surmounted by a small vase-shaped pinnacle, from the 
orifice of which a slender column of water shoots upward to fall again in 
spray. From over the smooth lips of the upper basins other water falls in 
sheets into the third compartment, which has scolloped edges; trom the 
depressions here it falls in streams into the fourth receptacle, from which it 
flows in one broad transparent sheet. The effect of all these changes is 
exceedingly pretty, and yet no one of them is of a nature to hide the beauty 
of the design. 

The Bronze Inkstand, with its accompanying set of writing appliances, 




Table Giassware : Lobinevr ^ Co., I'ieiiiia. 



manufactured by M. Henri Perrot, of Paris, which forms the subject of our 
illustration on page 107, is an excellent example of the fondness for rich orna- 
mentation which is characteristic of the French. The pieces are really sumptuous 
in design and workmanship, and simply as ornaments to a secretary they would 
command attention anywhere. If the philosopher's theory, that our thoughts 
take color from our surroundings, is true, the fortunate possessor of such 
writing appliances as these should have flights of fancy such as the Arabian 
romancers might envy. 

The Glassware of Lobmevr, of Vienna, which we illustrate on this page, 
is both useful and ornamental. One of the pieces is a crater vase with handles, 
and is probably intended merely for ornament. But all the other pieces are 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



109 



suitable for table furniture, either as card-receivers or as receptacles for dainty 
and choice confections at dessert. And in this connection we may say that we 
trust the time is rapidly approaching when people generally will open their 
eyes to the fact that it is within the power of every one to make the dinner- 
table something more than a board from which to feed, — to beautify it so that 
it may be aesthetically attractive. 

The sooner the absurd custom of putting down upon the table only 
certain dishes of a conventional shape containing certain meats, and removing 




Enameled Casket : Emile Philippe, Paris. 



them as soon as they have done their purpose — the sooner this absurd custom 
is done away with the better. 

There is not a household so poor that has not some ornamental dish or 
vase in china or glass that would answer a far higher and better purpose if 
used to grace the board at meals than if left upon a mantel-shelf or behind a 
glass simply to be looked at. 

Our good grandmothers and, in some instances, our mothers washed the 
cups and saucers themselves after the evening meal, and the guests sat by and 
chatted while the sweet housewifely action was going on. But now, because 
servants are careless, we are told that we must be content to look at the odd 
and pretty bits of china that we may possess as curiosities too precious to be 



no THE IXTERX ATIONAL EXH IB ITIOX, 1S76. 

used, and take our meals off sets any piece of \vhich can be replaced if by 
chance it gets broken. 

All this should be changed. With a little care and trouble the dinner- 
table could be made artistically beautiful. For example, with one of these 
beautiful dishes of Lobmeyr's made to answer some trifling- purpose at dessert, 
a refining and artistic tone would be given to all that portion of the meal. 

Not satisfied with their country being the centre for the production of 
artistic jewelry and personal ornaments of all kinds, the French artisans exert 
themselves to produce elaborate repositories for the precious productions of 
their skill. Such a Jewel Case as the one which we illustrate on page 109, 
manufactured by M. Emile Philippe, of Paris, is a treasure in itself It is 
one crlitterino- brilliant mass of enamels on metal. The skill with which the 
intricate pattern has been wrought and the strength with which the bits of 
bright color have been contrasted are very remarkable. The mere technical 
skill and patient labor required in the production of such a work as this is 
very great, and to produce the finished work without a flaw can only be 
accomplished by long familiarity and practice in the processes required. By 
looking carefully at our engraving, some idea of the minuteness and delicacy 
of this work can be obtained. Each shade represents a different enamel color, 
and it will be seen that the central panels contain intricate foliated patterns. 
Around each of these panels is a narrow edging or frame of small squares of 
vitreous paste of different colors ; then comes a border of scroll-work and 
medallions within another edging similar to the first. The whole affair is not 
more than seven inches long by five inches wide and height, and may be called 
a bijotc to contain bijoux. 

England may well be proud of the exhibition made by her colonies at 
our Centennial Fair. India, Australia, New Zealand, Ceylon, Bridsh Guiana, 
and the far-away settlements on the Gold Coast, the Bahamas, the Bermudas 
and Trinidad, Queensland and the Canadas, each and all have come to us, 
their elder sister, proud to show us and each other the evidence of their young, 
vigorous life. Yet some of these colonies have already reached a maturity 
when they begin to look forward to being their own masters; and it is likely, 
before many more years have passed, that the mother-country will assist them 
to set up governments for themselves. England is now a wiser mother than 



IXn us TR lA L ART. 



Ill 




Wrought Iron Gate : H- R. Ives 6^ Co , Montreal. 



when she angered us to break the leading-strings. She realizes that her other 
children, now growing up around her, Avill some day want to be powers unto 



112 



THE INTERN ATI OX AL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



themselves; and instead of discouraging, she encourages them in the idea. 
Such a pohcy gives the colonies a healthier, manlier growth. When they 
achieve independence they will have nothing but affection for the mother who 
nurtured them, and they will stand strong and ever ready to resent an)' insult 
that may be offered to her. 



It is posidvely 
to con- 
template the prog- 
ress which these 
colonies have made 
in the last few 
years. In the Ca- 
nadian Court we 
see the largest evi- 
dence of this, be- 
cause from her 
neighborhood she 
could make the 
most general dis- 
play. There is in 
this section an evi- 
dence of refine- 
ment and art-cul- 
ture as well as of 
solid progress that 
shows a wonderful 
maturit)" of civiliza- 
tion. Look where 
splendid pieces. 

Notice with what rare skill solidity has been combined with lightness. 
Each gate is thoroughly braced by the standards and the cross-pieces containing 
the panels. This first and chief point accomplished, the artist can exercise his 
fancy upon the decoration. He has chosen a vine as his theme, and has 
woven it between the uprights in a graceful and symmetrically conventionalized 




Candelabra : Sti^sc frcrcs, Paris. 



we will, among the 
ceramics, the tex- 
tiles, the metal- 
work, we see this. 
In metal-work 
there is especial 
excellence. Take, 
for example, the 
subject of illustra- 
tion on page 1 1 1 . 
It is a Wrought 
Iron Gate, manu- 
factured by Messrs. 
H. R. Ives & Co., 
of Montreal. We 
know of no more 
thoroughly artistic 
example of this 
kind in the whole 
Exhibition, and this 
is saying a great 
deal, for England 
contains some 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



113 



way. With the same motive he has ornamented the arches formed by the 
curved braces with a whorl of leaves, tendrils and blossoms, and again the 
foliation appears in the finials to the uprights and standards. We bespeak for 
this piece of work a degree of attention on the part of our readers, not only 
because of the neighborhood from which it comes, but because of its own 



intrinsic excel- 
ence. 

The Clock, 
made by SussE 
FREKEs, of Paris, 
which we en- 
grave on this 
page, stands 
some thirty 
inches in height 
and is profuse- 
ly ornamented. 
The front and 
all the casine 
are of brass, the 
body is of ebony, 
and the figures 
of the dial are 
painted on round 
porcelain medal- 
lions. 

The style in 
which the de- 



sign for this 
clock has been 
conceived seems 
to be that of 
Louis Q u a r- 
torse, when 
French art fairly 
reveled in elab- 
orateness of or- 
n a men tat io n. 
We see this lux- 
urious feelinof in 
the rich, sweep- 
ing curves of 
the base, in the 
heraldic-like 
decoration be- 
low the dial, and 
in the shape and 
garlandino- of 
the urn sur- 
mounting the 
upper portion 

of the piece. We see it, too, in the winged heads displayed on the front in 
relief as medallions, or in the round scrolls as ornaments to the corners; and 
it is also visible in the flaming vases on the top. All of this work is executed 
with the finish and skill of which French workmen are such masters, and the 
result is an elaborate and in a double sense a striking clock. 

Another work exhibited by the same firm is the Brass Candelabra which 




Clock : Susse freres, Paris. 



114 THE INTERXATIOXAL EXHIBJTIOX, 1S76. 

forms the subject of our next Illustration. This is conceived in a difierent 
spirit and has more of a classical feeling". From a square base, but little 
ornamented, rise four banded pillars, on which rests an entablature supporting 
an urn with six branches, to each one of which is affixed a candle-socket. In 
the centre, upheld by curved tendrils, is a seventh socket-cup, shaped like the 
others. All of this upper part of the candelabra is very ornate indeed, and 
in striking contrast with the lower portion. Here the central figure is an 
Amazonian warrior, clad in full armor, with one hand resting upon the shield 
by her side, and the other raised in an attitude of warning. The pose and 
general modelling of this figure are very fine and spirited, and the artist has 
done well in so subduinof the accessories as to orive it all the prominence 
possible. 

The late Franco-Prussian war has had a curious effect upon industrial art 
in Germany. The empire had not ended its rejoicings over the triumph ot 
German arms when the French milliards were scattered broadcast over the 
country and a period of unexampled prosperity ensued. The masses of the 
people earned wages that allowed them to purchase freely articles that had 
previously been beyond their means. A luxurious manner of living became 
common, and in a measure unfitted every one for the period of commercial 
depression that afterwards swept like a wave over all Europe. It is plain that 
all classes of individuals easily and quickly adopt the more expensive habits 
of living made possible by an increase in income, and that they are slow to 
retrench when the necessity comes. Yet a very remarkable fact not generally 
realized, although it is the result of the same sentiment in a community, is the 
converse of this proposition. For example, in our own country during the 
war, the price ot flour rose so rapidly that persons who had small incomes did 
not attempt to buy the higher qualities, but contented themselves with good 
medium grades; yet when the price of flour began steadily to decline, the 
same buyers continued paying their maximum price, until to-day nine-tenths of 
the housekeepers in the land are using grades of flour which they could not 
have bought during the war, and that quality which they used then will no 
longer content them. The same feeling is illustrated in rents. When rents 
were high, people contented themselves with cheap lodgings ; but as soon as 
rents began to tall, they moved to as fashionable quarters as the same amount 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



"5 



of rental would procure. Then we hear the cry that the cost of living is still 
as great as it ever was, when the truth is that the cost of living has decreased, 
but the manner of living has proportionally increased, and the fault lies with 
the housekeepers themselves. 

Xow, this is just what has happened in Germany. Certain articles before 




Silver Casket, Erhard &= Sotis^ Germaav. 



unknown to cer- 
tain classeswere 
bought with ea- 
gerness when 
money was 
plenty, and when 
thalers became 
scarce the de- 
mand, though in 
a lesser degree, 
continued. The 
result is readily 




Top of Erkard &= Sons' Casket. 



anticipated — 
manufacturers 
everywhere set 
themselves to 
work to manu- 
facture cheaper 
lines of the same 
goods. The first 
consideration 
was that things 
should be cheap, 
and the second 



was that it should be showy, in order to cater to a vulgar and uneducated 
taste. Work executed under such influences cannot fail being meretricious and 
bad, and hence it is that the German display in our Centennial is so univer- 
sally condemned, especially by Germans, as evidencing a standing still or even 
a retrograde movement. As to the display of Bismarcks, Von Moltkes, Crown 
Princes, etc., we are not disposed to judge of them as severely as the German 



ii6 THE 1 XTER.X ATI XAL E X H 1 B IT 1 X , iSj6. 

commissioner does. That they are in bad taste at an international exhibition of 
this character is undoubted, but they are nothing more nor less than the natural 
forms of expression which all countries have adopted after achieving like con- 
quests. These men are the heroes of the hour among the Germans, and the 
people at least do not tire of the manitold ways in which their heroes' likenesses 
are presented to them. 

Ot course the remarks that we have made above apply to the German 
exhibit as a whole. There are many and notable exceptions to the rule in all 
the various sections. In the stalls devoted to the display of goldsmiths' work, 
jewelry and plated ware are some ot the most beautiful things to be found in 
the whole Exhibition. One of these we illustrate on page 115. It is a Silver 
Casket, manufactured by Erhard & Sons, of Germany. This casket is about 
nine inches long, six inches wide and six inches high. It is ornamented with 
scroll designs in repousse-\yov\^ upon the front and back, and the two side panels 
contain portrait-medallions between branches of laurel done in the same manner. 
The angles at the junction of the sides are concealed by curved projections 
terminating in scrolls at the feet. 

The lid or cover to the article is somewhat more elaborately ornamented 
by the same repotisse process. On the four sloping sides are baskets of a 
classical shape containing fruit and flowers. On either side of these are sprays 
of leaves woven together in a simple, graceful pattern. In the upper panel is 
a square, ra.ised frame, within which is an oval containing a group of a cupid 
and a nymph, the latter playing upon a flute. Beside the cupid is a harp, and 
in the distance are sheep and a pastoral landscape. The artist has taken rare 
pains with this part of his work, and has produced a very effective and pleasing 
bas-relief. As no eliding or enamelins' is used in decorating this casket, the claim 
for attention which it has is solely its artistic workmanship in this particular 
branch of the silversmiths' trade. As repousse-worV is now so fashionable that 
nearly all the large manufacturers of plate in Europe and this country are 
producing it, our readers will be interested in contrasting the work of the 
various nations which we illustrate. In this way those who are directly 
interested in the process will gain valuable ideas, and those who simply take 
an interest in industrial art products generally, will be able to form an intel- 
ligent idea of whatever characteristics are distinctly national. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



117 



The Pair of Vases illustrated on this' page are the chefs d'ceuvre of the 
rich display of artistic pottery and porcelain made by the Messrs. Daniell & 
Sons, of London. Their stall, which faces on the central transept close to the 
nave of the Main Building, contains one of the most interesting and varied 
collections of the choicest productions ot noted English potters anywhere to be 
seen; yet even here among the numerous triumphs of ceramic art, these vases 




Vases: Daniell &> Sons, London. From the collection of Sir Richard Wallace. 



are quite incomparably the most beautiful and precious. We shall endeavor 
to give the reader an idea of the appearance of these remarkable works of 
art, as far as words can do it; but we urge all who would have a realizing 
sense of their beauty to take an opportunity of viewing for themselves. 

The vases are of porcelain, standing about two feet high, and are deco- 
rated around the zone with figures painted or modelled in pdte-sur-pdte. 
We shall have something to say of this process after having finished the 



ii8 THE IXTERNATIOXAL EXHIBITIOX, iSj6. 

description of the pieces. The number of colors and shades used in the 
decoration is numerous, but the principal body-color on which the figures are 
painted is a dark olive-green. Gold has been introduced in places to heighten 
the ofeneral effect. 

Below the curved lip of each vase, which is gilded, is a space extending 
to the gold band at the junction of the handles with the neck, enameled with 
a deep blue de roi with gilt stripes. At the narrowest part of the neck is a 
raised gold band, above which are gold arabesques. From here down to the 
curved collar, which is composed of gilt and red, the neck is of a delicate 
celadon color with radiating stripes of white. 

Below the zone on which the figures are painted is a white band, beneath 
which delicate gilt scrolls are disposed upon a light green ground which 
extends to the base, which is gilt. The central zone is a deep olive-green of 
peculiar richness, and on this the figures of Cupids and the Graces as seen 
in the illustration are painted in pdte-sur-pate. 

In order that the reader ma)' understand what this process is, we cannot 
do better than make an extract from M. Arnoux's account of the process as 
practised at Sevres, as quoted by Mr. Blake in his Report: 

"The name pdte-siir-pdte explains sufficiently the process, which consists in 
staining the body of the hard porcelain in celadon, or other color, by the 
addition of a colored mixture, of which oxide of chrome is generally the chief 
ingredient; and then, when the piece is still in the clay state, to paint or 
rather model upon it with a brush, using white porcelain body as the pigment, 
and taking advantage of the transparency it will acquire when fired to produce 
an effect similar to that obtained in the Limoges enamels, by working the 
semi-transparent enamel on a black ground. Consequently the artist will 
increase the thickness of the white clay for the high lights, and decrease it 
where the color of the ground is to be seen through. Much experience is 
required to calculate the effect, the white clay before firing being equally opaque 
in the thin as in the thick parts. Of course any mistake is irremediable, as it 
can only be seen after the piece is fired. It was from studying the Chinese 
celadon that Mr. Ebelman"^ started this kind of porcelain. The colors used 
on account of the high degree of temperature are extremely limited." 

*A director of the Sevres works and the discoverer in Europe of the pate-sur-pate process. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 119 



The reader is now enabled to see from diis description how difficuk tlie 
process must be and what wonderful skill the artist possesses who can model 
such graceful, life-like figures as are here portrayed. A peculiar and beautiful 
feature in the finished work is the effect of high relief (when in reality it is 
very slight) produced by the semi-transparent porcelain body. 

In the Paris Exposition of 1867, examples of this work were publicly exhibited 
by Sevres for the first time, but the process of manufacture was kept a secret. 
English workmen, however, who visited the Exposition examined the pieces 
critically, and on their return home published what appeared to them and what 
proved to be the true method of producing them. Yet it was not until the 
Franco-Prussian war, when many French artisans took refuge in England, that 
the latter country began to manufacture pdte-sur-pdtc. At that time, among the 
refugees from France was M. Solon, of Sevres, the most distingruished worker 
in the new process in all Europe. Immediately on his arrival his services were 
eng-aored by the famous firm of Mintons, and it was not long- before their 
factory produced work equal to any ever cione at Sevres. These vases which 
we have been discussing are the work of M. Solon, and were executed at the 
Mintons factory. The Messrs. Damells are the London agents for this firm, 
and these pieces were executed to their order. The reader may be curious to 
know what such superb examples of ceramic art are worth, and he may get 
some idea from the fact that this pair have been purchased by Sir Richard 
Wallace for six hundred guineas. 

The superb Piano which we illustrate on page 120 was manufactured by 
Messrs. H.\llet, Davis & Co., of Boston, and is undoubtedly the most elabo- 
rately constructed instrument of its kind at the Exhibition. The case is made 
of ebony with an occasional inlaying of narrow strips of precious wood to 
give effect to the ornamentation. The reader will see from our engraving how 
remarkable this ornamentation is. All of it is hand-work, the production of 
skillful carvers. Much of it is in very high relief; other portions, such as the 
birds and urn on the upper portion and the wreaths at the base, are worked out 
in full; while the panels, with their wreaths, scrolls, medallions, and symbolic 
figui^s, are elaborated with great fidelity of detail. 

It is one of the anomalies of art that the piano, which contains the soul 
of harmony, is generally the least harmonious and ungraceful-appearing object 



120 



THE INTERNATIOXAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 




Piano, Ebony Case : Hallet, Davis ^ Co., Boston. 



of the modern drawing-room. It is usually bow-legged and veneered, badly 
shaped and worse decorated. The old-fashioned spinet was decidedly superior 




A. Blatfg. Dei. 



Inlerior Decoration Carrington, dc Zoiiche 6^ Co. 



F. I- a as, Rfigr. 



122 ■ THE INTERNATIONAL EN II I B ITION, iSj6. 

as far as looks go, to the modern "grand." England in her new Renaissance 
makes Greek and Elizabethan drawing-rooms wida furniture to match, but she 
has not evolved an Eastlake piano, yet. We are glad, therefore, to claim for 
an American the honor of having made a Piaxo that is harmonious both within 
and without. 

This piano placed in a music-room would form, as its use requires it 
should, the central and prominent ornament of the apartment. Then the 
general design and ornamentation are of such a character that they can be 
repeated, with proper modifications, in all the other articles of furniture in 
such a way that each may accord with the others and the ioui ensemble be 
perfect. 

An interesting feature of the Exhibition is the method which the uphol- 
sterers, decorators and furniture-dealers have chosen by which to display their 
goods to the best advantage. This method consists in dividing the sections 
allotted to them into rooms, which are afterwards fitted up as parlor, library, 
boudoir, dining-room, or any special apartment. Some of these "interiors" are 
perfectly lovely, others are regal in-^their magnificence, and others again are 
furnished with the severe simplicity which affects a return to those times when 
the luxurious appliances of modern times were unknown. 

Perhaps in no other department of the Centennial is it possible to obtain 
a better idea of that indefinable influence which we call taste than by observing 
the sections devoted by the group of nations, England, France and the United 
States, to the subject of furnishing. Elere we get glimpses of the surround- 
ings of the classes who set the fashions, such as could be had in no other 
way. We look into the most private apartments, the boudoirs and bed-chambers, 
which are so artfully arranged as to suggest occupancy. Bric-a-brac and knick- 
knacks are disposed about in studied carelessness so as to make the effect as 
natural as possible. 

No more common error is made in these times than the habit of blaming 
the paper-hanger, the upholsterer and furniture-maker, each and all, for the 
ill effect of a room which we have "furnished" ourselves. One often sees 
paper, hangings and furniture, which in themselves are beautiful, so badly 
grouped by the ill taste of the owner as to make each appear ugly. There 
is no opportunity for fair judgment of the merit of a dealer's taste and skill 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



123 



unless even'thing is grouped according to his judgment; and no one can study 
the elegant and rich effects produced in the sections we are discussing without 




Necklace and Ear-ripigs : Egyptian Gover7iment. 





Egyptian Brooches : Emile Philippe. 



being convinced that the covert sneer in the phrase "the room is upholstered 
and not furnished" is but an attempt to put the blame where it does not belong. 



124 THE IXTERXATIOXA L h X H I B I T 1 X. 1S76. 

In our engraving we illustrate a Boudoir fitted up by Messrs. Carrington, 
De Zouche & Co., of Philadelphia, which is the very abode of luxury. Any 
man looking into such a nest will feel himself a privileged person and will 
probably look anxiously around lor the legitimate occupant. The ceiling and 
sides of this apartment are panelled with tufted cretonne ot rich, warm colors, 
relieved by a stile of drab-colored damask with mouldings of ebony and gilt. 
The pattern of the cretonne is a running vine with flowers trained over a 
trellis, and is exceedingly graceful and pretty. The upholstering of the chairs, 
pillow lounge and ottoman is in a cretonne matching the panels, and the same 
material is used around the large mirror at the end of the apartment and on 
the shelf at its foot. Puffing and box-plaits are used to make curved and 
broken lines and to cjive additional effectiveness to the arransfement. The 
room in its suggestions of repose, comfort and refinement is the beau-ideal of 
a boudoir. 

The Jewelry exhibited by the Government in the Egyptian Court is inter- 
esting both for its technical excellence and for its quaint and artistic adaptation 
of forms used by the early workers in the precious metals. Of Egyptian per- 
sonal ornaments of the old time but very few specimens have been preserved 
to us, yet there is abundant evidence of the high antiquity of gold and silver 
ornamental work. In the twenty- fourth chapter of Genesis we read of golden 
ear-ringrs and bracelets, and constant reference is made throughout the Bible to 
articles of a like description. In the Exhibition of 1862, a splendid set of gold 
ornaments, found at Thebes in the tomb of a queen who reigned fifteen 
hundred years before the Christian era, was shown, but this set is a unique 
example of that time. In the Necklace and E.ar-rings which we illustrate on 
page 123, small gold coins form a principal feature of the design. They are 
suspended, singly and in groups, from figures of fine gold filagree work of 
elaborate oriental pattern. 

The Brooches which illustrate the same page are made by Emile Philirpe, 
of Paris, and though they are equally Egyptian in style, we have in them a class 
of work of a very much more modern character. Here the precious metal, gold, 
takes a secondary place, being used simply as a setting for more precious 
stones, and a fictitious value is given to the metal by the use of enamels. 
The first brooch consists of a crystal scarab, or sacred beetle, the spots on the 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



125 



body being marked with colored stones, inlaid. On either side are kneeling 
figures of a type purely Egyptian, human in all but the face, which is that of 
a bird. These figures are of silver, enamelled in red and green, and deco- 




Pomfeian Toilette — Flaque : Messrs. Elkinglon &• Co., Birmingham. 



rated with gold. These are supported on the outstretched wings of a bird, the 
plumage of which is also brilliantly enamelled. 

The second brooch is even richer in color than the former, and is a 



126 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

remarkable piece of design. It contains numerous symbolical figures, such as 
the crouching sphynx, the winged beetle, the female head with the duck 
emerging from the forehead, the sphere, and the sacred tlower, the lotus. 
Emeralds and other precious stones are introduced into the design. 

The only examples of silverware manufacture in England, shown in the 
British section, are to be seen in the Court of the Messrs. Elkixgton & Co., 
and if we could regard their display as representative of the craft to which 
they belong, other nations would be put far in the back-ground. But the 
Messrs. Elkington in the vastness of their business, in the number and talent 
of the artisans whom they employ, occupy a position so far above the other 
firms engaged in the same manufacture, that their display is not representative 
of English silversmith work ; it simply illustrates the excellence of their own 
productions, and in this respect it is representative of the highest achievements 
of the art in this century. 

In one respect their exhibit differs from the others of the same class made 
by manufacturers of other nations. It is uniquely an art display. They have 
not attempted to send examples of their manufacture in sterling silver and 
electro, for in this respect their work is of a character to defy competition, 
and their reputation is already world-wide. Hence they have excluded from 
their Court all articles which do not possess, in the strictest sense of the term, 
high artistic merit, both as regards design and execution; and for this reason 
their Court forms one of the greatest attractions in the Main Buildino'. No 
one should fail to visit it. 

As it is our purpose to illustrate, from time to time, a number of the 
most noteworthy of the articles in this superb collection, a brief account of the 
exhibit as a whole, and a word respecting the firm itself, will be interesting 
and appropriate in this place. 

Although the Messrs. Elkington & Co. have branch establishments at 
London, Liverpool and Manchester, their manufactory is at Birmingham, where 
they employ some two thousand workmen. In those figures we have the data for 
an estimate of the vastness of their business. This business owes its begin- 
ning to the patient perseverance of one man, who devoted all his energies to 
the accomplishment of one end — the application of electro -metallurgy to 
industry. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



127 



Fortv years ago Mr. G. R. Elkington, the founder of the firm, after infinite 
labor and trouble, and in the face of the sneers of the manufacturers of the 
old school, developed the process of electro-plating metal into a useful art. 
Before him scientists and curious experimenters had learned the secret of the 
Voltaic current, yet its prodigious effect upon the arts as an element of use 
did not occur to them. With the successful application of the new agent the 
manufacture of silverware was revolutionized. The firm of Elkington & Co. 
having the lead, kept it, and not content with that, exerted themselves to 



distance all competi- 
tors. In this also they 
succeeded. Nor was 
this all : the manufac- 
ture of sterling silver 
and all the useful 
and ornamental pur- 
poses to which it could 
be applied was made 
to keep pace with the 
o-rowth of the other 
industr}'. The very 
best artists that ample 
means could secure 
were employed to ex- 
ercise their skill on 
the precious metals. 
Each of the many 




Embroidered Chair : Royal School of Needlework. 



branches which are 
within the sphere of 
metal-workers was 
cultivated and 
brought to the high- 
est state of perfec- 
tion, so that to-day 
this firm occupy the 
position of the largest 
metal-working manu- 
facturers in the world, 
producing gold and 
silver work of every 
description from ar- 
ticles of mere utility 
to purely ornamental 
objects of the highest 
artistic excellence. 



The Elkington exhibit at the Centennial may be conveniently divided into 
four classes — artistic silver-work proper; I'epousse-wovk. in silver, iron or steei, 
with enrichments of gold and silver in damascening, inlaying and niello; com- 
binations of these methods with silver; and enamels — cloisonne and champleve. 
To these are added electrotype reproductions of several of the famous examples 
from the South Kensington Museum, in silver and copper bronze. 

Our engraving on page 125 belongs to the second class. It is the latest 
work of the celebrated artist M. Moril Ladeuil, and in the opinion of compe- 



128 



THE I NTERNATIO XAL EXHIBITION, iSy6. 



tent judges, as a specimen of artistic metal-work of the highest class, it has 
never been surpassed either in conception of design or in delicacy of 
manipulation. 

The diameter of the Pompeian Toilette — as the Plaque is called — is some 




By-onze Vases : Japanese Court. 



twenty inches. The centre is oxidized silver; the rim is of steel of two colors, 
enriched with gold damascening and repoti-sse-work ; yet it is almost impossible 
to believe that the scene which gives the name to the plaque also has been 
hammered out by the repousse process. Looking at the engraved picture, one 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 129 



would say it was after some fine painting — say by Alma Tadema — and was the 
labor ot the brush and pencil rather than the mallet and chisel. An inspection 
ot the piece itself rather increases than diminishes the wonder. The texture 
of the flesh, the drapery, the plants, the effect of distance, each and all are 
expressed with truly marvelous fidelity to nature; in brief, the tecnique is 
perfect. Looked at as an artistic conception, the work is not less remarkable. 
Here is a Pompeian lady, fresh from the bath, attended by her female slaves. 
The toilet is nearly completed; the necklace and armlets have been adjusted; 
one maiden is fastenino- the sandals to the anklets ; another stands holding the 
robe shortly to be donned, and a third finishes the adornment of the hair 
while her mistress contemplates the effect In a mirror. The pose and expres- 
sion ot each one of these figures are a study, but the central figure Is a 
marvel of grace and loveliness. Accessory to this group are the room, the 
furniture, the ornaments, the flowers, and the recess beyond. All these details 
It will be observed have been carefully studied and combined to give a most 
harmonious whole. Except in the other works exhibited by the Messrs. 
Elkixgtox, there is no metal-work of a like description in the Exhibition 
comparable with this fine plaque. 

On page 127 we give an illustration of another of the uses to which the 
production of the Royal School of Art Needlework can be applied. It is 
an Eboxy Chair, covered on the back and seat with olive-green satlnette, on 
which a spirited and well-designed vine pattern has been embroidered. The 
plant is a convolvulus, the flowers worked In blue, and the leaves in the 
different shades of brown and green. Work of this kind is so truly feminine 
and can be made so thoroughly artistic, that we trust the example of our 
English sisters will be followed by the women in this country. 

Japan, with its civilization so different from ours that it might be that of 
another planet. Is represented at the Centennial by a display so novel and 
attractive as to be an unfailing source of interest to all visitors of whatever 
other nationality. We engrave on page 128 a group of Bronze Vases from 
this section which illustrate in an excellent manner the beauties and oddities 
of the peculiar artistic methods of the Japanese. As metal-workers, these 
wonderful people surpass In certain respects their European brethren, and some 
of their processes are to this day inimitable. 



l^^O 



THE IXTERXATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



The central piece of this group stands some four feet high. It is com- 
posed entirel)- of bronze, save the panels between the dragon handles, which 




Majolica Clock Case : Danielh &^ So^is, Lo7idon. 



are damascened with silver and gold. The panel on this side represents a 
knight doing penance by standing under a cataract, and on the obverse he is 
seen, his sins washed away, having a quiet cup of tea with a couple of friends. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 131 



So far the European can trace a meaning in the design; but when it comes 
to explaining the haU' human monsters, the dragons, sea-serpents, and other 
animals, it is only possible to suppose that they may be the representations of 
traditional creatures such as figure in the Arabian Nights, and the like of 
which learned scientists assure us once walked or crawled upon the face of the 
earth and swam across the seas. The decoration of the smaller vases, saving 
the winged beasts that serve as handles, is more easily understood. The panels 
in these have birds and butterflies copied with wonderful fidelity and spirit 
after nature, and are really beautiful ; and in these pieces, as in all the articles 
of Japanese manufacture, we see a minuteness of workmanship and finish such 
as no Christian people can afford the time to emulate. 

A novelty in the exhibit of the Messrs. Daniells & Sons, of London, is 
the Majolica Clock Case which we illustrate on page 1 30. The design is 
remarkable, spirited and attractive, the figures of the cupids and dolphins being 
particularly excellent. A great feature of this piece is the richness, variety 
and brilliancy of the enamels, for it must be remembered that the firing which arti- 
cles of this character are submitted to admits the use of but a limited rang-e of 
colors. On a ground-work of bright turquoise blue we find drabs, chocolates, 
greens, and yellows, as well as the flesh tints of the figures, which are in high 
relief. This is an unusual combination, and can only be produced by artists 
who have a superior knowledge and skill in the resources of the art of 
majolica painting. 

Although the chief exhibit in the Danish Court is pottery, there is a small 
yet choice collection of artistic silverware made by Christisen, of Copenhagen, 
from W'hich we select the Tea Service that is illustrated on page 132. The 
beaut)' of this set, beyond its exceedingly graceful design and masterly execu- 
tion, is the combination of gold gilding with and on the silver. All the more 
prominent portions of the ornamentation as well as the arabesque patterns are 
gold gilt, and the effect is heightened by the gold being burnished to a high 
state of polish, while the surface of the silver is made as dull as possible. 

M. Christisen's exhibit is a small collection, but very choice. We 
remember the display of silverware, repousse-worV and jewelry which he made 
at Vienna, and were not surprised that he was awarded the highest honors of 
that year. 



132 



THE IKTERXATIONAL EXIl I B ITIOX, iSj6. 




J 



134 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

The art of making tapestry dates back to remote antiquity. Mention is 
made of it in the Scriptures, and it was used by the Greeks and Romans. On 
the Continent, tapestry was largely used for curtains and hangings, and in 
England the fabric, employed in this way, was usually called Arras, on account 
of the superior excellence of the work done in that town. In France, the 
famous manufactory established by the Brothers Gobelin, became, under the 
protection of Louis XIV", the most celebrated of those and modern times. In 
England, tapestry making has been but little practiced since the time of 
Charles I. Probably the most celebrated examples of this costly manufacture 
are the series of Scripture subjects now in the Vatican, at Rome. The cartoons 
for these tapestries were designed by Raphael, and seven of them are now in 
the South Kensington Museum. Our illustration, on the preceding page, pre- 
sents a group of three tapestries, representing the Christ and John, Paul, 
Peter and Thaddeus, manufactured by Thomas Tapling & Co., of England. 
They attract much attention, both on account of the excellence of the work- 
manship and the brilliancy and harmony of the colors employed. 

We spoke at some length, a few pages back, of the celebrated establish- 
ment of the Messrs. Elkington & Co., at Birmingham, England, and of the 
superb display of artistic metal-work made by them in the British Section of 
the Main Building. We now present to our readers an illustration — seen on 
the next page — of the cJief d'ceuvre of the collection, the magnificent Helicon 
Vase, which has been pronounced to be the masterpiece of the celebrated metal 
sculptor, M. Morel Ladeuil, the same artist, it will be remembered, who designed 
"The Pompeian Toilette," already described. M. Ladeuil was engaged for 
upwards of six years upon this piece, exhibiting it for the first time at the 
Vienna Exposition, where the jury pronounced it to be the most important and 
the most beautiful work of modern times. 

The materials of which the Helicon Vase is composed are oxydized silver 
and steel, — the latter damascened. The piece is designed to symbolize the 
Apotheosis of Music and Poetry. It is in the Italian Renaissance style, a style 
which combines classical purity with great richness and elaboration of detail. 
In form, the piece may be described as an elongated plateau, the surface sloping 
upwards to the centre, on which rests the vase. The plateau is enriched with 
sculptured panels and medallions, and around the border is a series of twelve 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



13s 



bas-reliefs, of various sliapes, illustrative of the difTerent kinds of Music and 
Poetry. The interstices of the design are filled in with scrolls, masks, and 
trophies of various kinds, formed of beaten silver, which is thrown into relief by 




77ie Helicon Vase : Elkin^^on &> Co. 

the background of dark, richly damascened steel. The two oval medallions are 
occupied by bas-reliefs, the one containing a representation of Pegasus, bearing a 
genie typifying Inspiration, and the other, a griffin or hippograph, carrying the 



136 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENIIIDITION, r S 7 6. 



genie of Imagina- 
tion. The execution 
of these figures is 
p a rticularly fine. 
They are modelled 
with great power 
and spirit, and the 
finish given to the 
workmanship is 
something marvel- 
ous. Only with the 
aid of a magnifying 
glass can its ex- 
treme delicacy be 
appreciated. As ex- 
ples of the beauty 
of the panels, we 
may cite two, illus- 
trative of satirical 
and elegaic poetry. 
In the first is a vail- 
ed, recumbent figure, 
attended by mourn- 
ing genii, in a land- 
scape saddened by 
cypresses and wil- 
lows. In the other, 
satirical poetry is 
emblematized by a 
grinning satyr, who 
has just removed 
with one hand the 
comely mask which 
lately hid his fea- 




Carveif Panel : Luigl Fru/lwi, of Florence, Italy. 



tures, while with the 
other, he is scourging 
a group of unsus- 
pecting rustics, who 
had assembled to 
listen to him. Rest- 
ing on the plateau, 
at the foot of the vase, 
are two half-dressed 
female figures, sj-m- 
bolizincf Music and 
Poetr)', attended by 
youthful genii. The 
modeling of these 
figures is simply su- 
perb, and the ren- 
dering of the skin 
texture of the nude 
portions of the body 
is, perhaps, the most 
remarkable illustra- 
tion in the whole 
work of the techni- 
cal skill of the art- 
ist. The vase itself 
is of ovoid form, with 
upraised handles 
gracefully continu- 
ing the curve of the 
sides, rises tall and 
stately above the fig- 
ures on the plateau. 
It is surmounted by 
a charmingly-posed 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



^7 



group ot two boyish genii, the upper one bearing aloft Apollo's lyre, which 
forms the apex of he work, while the youth at his feet tests the purity of the 
strain with a tuning-fork. The modeling of these figures is quite worthy of the 
other portions of the work. They will bear — as, indeed, will the other figures — 
the critical examination of artists. The dimpling flesh, the soft, rounded limbs, 
and all the flexions of the body are instinct with life. Here, too, the wonderful 
technical skill with which the metal has been treated is evident. By the aid of 




I'jsc of Sevres Ware. 

the glass, the flesh texture is seen to have been produced by a minute stippling 
process, the mere contemplation of which fills the observer with wonder. Floral 
garlands on either side connect this group with the handles of the vase, and 
give strength and breadth to the composition. 

On the body of the vase, on either side, is a large medallion relief, in repousse, 
representing the nine Muses, four on one and five on the other; the former — 
the medallion seen in our illustration — is, perhaps, the most beautiful group in 



138 



THE IXTERNATIOXAL E X H I B 1 T J X , iSj6. 



this chaste and harmonious work. At the bases of the handles are escutcheons 
bearing the names of iUustrious poets and composers; Homer, Shakespeare, 
IMohere and Byron, on the one side, and Handel, Ha)dn, Beethoven and Mozart, 
on the other. 

The foregoing is but a bare description of this great work ; no words can 




The Amaz, 



l^ase: Doulton ^ Co. 



convey an adequate idea of its fine workmanship and artistic designing. To 
state that the art labor alone bestowed upon it cost thirty thousand dollars in gold, 
is but to give the figures representing the commercial value of an expression 
of Qfenius which cannot be boueht, but comes to man as a Qrlft. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



139 



The section of a Carved Panel, by L. Frullini, of Florence, that we engrave 
on page 136, is a piece of work worthy of the ancient wood-carvers of Italy. 




Carved Pulpit : J. A. &= H, Gofcrs, Louvain, Belgium. 

The material is a soft, white wood, resembling- deal — thoiieh of a much finer 
grain — and admirably adapted to work of this kind. The panel Is about a foot 



HO THE IXTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

wide and eight feet high, the upper portion — not shown in the ilkistration — 
being simply a combination of the same general design seen here. This, the 
reader will observe, is a group of ferns and twining plants in flower, rising 
from an antique vase in graceful convolutions and intermingling of tendrils. 
Birds, animals and reptiles are disposed here and there, with a charming irregu- 
larity that makes the discovery of them a study. The carving is in very high 
relief, with a great deal of skilful undercutting; the figures, in some instances, 
being quite detached from the background. The average relief of the work is 
about six inches, though, in many places, this measurement is exceeded. It 
is difficult to decide between the animals and plants as to which Mr. Frullini 
shows the most skill in carving. Each is admirable in its way, and the whole 
piece, in the spirit and vigor of its execution, bears the stamp of a master-artist's 
hand. 

We illustrate on page 137, a Sevres Vase, an example of the work of the 
most famous porcelain manufactory in the world. The influence of this great 
establishment in forming the taste ot modern Europe for ceramic ware is 
simply incalculable. Its productions cannot rightly be judged by any of the 
rules applicable to minor factories ; ior, from the time the works came under 
royal patronage, Sevres became, in the words of another, "a richly endowed 
school of design." The best artists of Europe furnished designs for, and painted 
upon, its bisquit ; the most experienced chemists were employed to bring this 
bisquit to perfection. Pate tendre, or soft porcelain, the most difficult of all 
pottery, was early discovered here, and the pieces manufactured of this compo- 
sition include the most superb triumphs of the ceramic art. The best period — 
when the finest and most sumptuous pieces were made — was toward the close of 
the last centLiry. When pate dure, or hard porcelain, was discovered, the process 
of manufacturing in this composition was found to be so much easier than to 
make pate tendre, that the latter was only occasionally practiced. Of late years, 
the production of the Sevres factory has been \a.rg&\y pate dtu'e, and in this, the 
superior quality of the kaolin (porcelain clay) used, and the exceeding hardness 
of the glaze with which the bisquit is covered, renders the finished work incom- 
parably the best in the world as far as mere technique goes. Yet, a curious 
result of these, qualities is, that their excess of excellence, so to speak, leaves 
little opportunity for the decorator to exercise his skill upon the ware. The 



IX D us TRIAL ART. 



141 



glaze is so hard that the colors do not incorporate with it, but lie hard and 
cold upon the surface. There is no ground for fine chromatic effects, and it is 




Clock and Bronze Group : The Collective Exhibit of France. 



an acknowledged fact that now French artists prefer to paint their designs 



142 THE I NTERNATIO NAL EXHIBITIOX, iSj6. 

upon stoneware or other pottery rather than upon piitc dure. On the other 
hand, pate teiidrc is ot such nature that colors incorporate" with the bod)- and 
combine with the glaze. A pate te)idre vase of the best perioci has a ricliness 
and warmth of color that no words can fittingly describe. The vase that we 
illustrate is of the pate dure variety. 

On page 138 is an illustration of the Amazonian Vase, that forms one of the 
principal ornaments to Horticultural Hall. This fine work of art is made of 
terra-cotta, an humbler material than porcelain, although scarcely inferior to it in 
usefulness. It is another example of the large and varied display of artistic 
pottery made by the Messrs. Doulton & Son, of Lambeth, England. The vase 
was designed by Tinworth, one of the most promising young sculptors of the 
day, and it may be considered one of his best efforts. The relief modeling of 
the figures is finely e.xecuted, the drawing is exceedingly spirited, and the minor 
accuracies of the composition are introduced with much skill. The vase stands 
some five feet high, the figures in the zone varying from eight to twelve 
inches in stature. 

GoYERs' Ogive Pulpit, one of the features of the Belgian Court, is certainly 
one of the best and most artistic pieces of wood-carving in die Exhibition. 
This pulpit is some fifteen feet high by five feet in extreme width. It is made 
entirely of carved oak, with some gilding and color decoration, introduced in the 
ceiling of the canopy. The most elaborate carving is in the panels, the other 
portions of the work being kept severely plain, in order to heighten the effect. 
The lower row of panels — around the base — contains intricate interweavings of 
Bowers and ferns. The next row has representations of scenes from the life of 
the Saviour, carved in basso-relievo. Between these panels are devotional 
figures and figures of saints, and above the canopy are angels, all carved in the 
round. 

The French Bronze Exhibit at the Centennial, though one of the least 
satisfactory displays made in the French Section, contains some very fine pieces. 
A favorite form of these bronzes is the group of mantel ornaments, — the clock 
and vases, or simply the clock — without which no French apartment would be 
considered furnished. We have selected for illustration one of the most beau- 
tiful of these latter forms, the Corneile Clock — shown on page 141. In truth, 
the mechanical part of such an art- work as this is a matter of small importance; 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



143 



Since the mechanism of the clock is introduced into the pedestal, and the face is 
made a part of the ornamentation ; but the value of the work is in the noble and 







classical group — the mother and her children — that surmounts the pedestal. 
The clock is merely an unobtrusive and happy adaptation by which a purely 
ornamental object becomes a useful, while remaining a beautiful article. 



144 



THE INTERXATIOXAL EXIIIB ITIOX, iSj6. 




Frame : Emile PhiHlpe, Paris. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



145 




Crystal Chandelier: Mitchell, Vance ^ Co., New York. 



146 THE IXTERNATIOXAL EXHIBITIOX, iSj6. 

Perhaps no better idea of the effectiveness with which glass can be used as 
a decorative agent for chandeliers was afforded in any portion of the Exhibition, 
than in the stalls, in the American section ot the Main Building, occupied b\- 
Messrs. Mitchell, Vance & Co., of New York. The array of light, graceful forms 
for pendants and side-lights, the handsome clusters and the superb centre-pieces 
of elaborate design, all in crystal, thus displayed, made the exhibit of this firm 
one of the most interesting and attractive features of that portion of the building. 
Of course, owing to the regulations governing the Exhibition, it was not allowable 
to introduce gas into the tubes, which lighted, would have shown the effect 
most advantageously ; but there were certain periods during the day when 
the sun-light, shining in through the upper transoms of the building, fell 
upon these objects and was reflected from the angles of the crystal in a 
shower of prismatic colors. Under these circumstances some idea could be 
obtained of the beauty of the designs when answering the purposes for which 
they are intended. 

The use of crystal for decorative purposes in connection with artificial light 
was a most happy inspiration and cannot be too highly recommended. The 
material recommends itself at once as beine the most suitable known for sucli 
purposes. By its brilliancy and refractive power, it rather increases than 
diminishes the power of illumination ; its apparent lightness and transparency 
singularly adapt it for use in large masses, and the infinite variety of forms 
and colors with which it may be treated, without losing the two requisites of 
brilliancy and lightness, completes its value. In our opinion nothing is more 
effective or appropriately beautiful than a crystal chandelier. 

On page 145 we illustrate one that attracted much attention In Messrs. 
Mitchell, Vance & Co.'s display. Its shape is that of a double pyramid. 
From the central zone the burners — thirty in number — rise in groups of four, 
circle abcTve circle, until the higrhest tier is reached, above which some ornamental 
work is added at intervals about the central tube. The lower portion of this 
chandelier is formed of concentric rings, each smaller one suspended below the 
other ; and from every portion of the whole depend transparent crystal prisms 
of wonderful brilliancy and lustre. Globes of ground glass soften and tone 
the gas-light from a garish glare, painful to the eyes, to a softened radience 
approaching the light of day. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



147 



At one of the entrances to their stalls Messrs. Mitchell, Vance & Co. 
showed a noble example of their skill as metal-workers by erecting a Brass 
Gate ot admirable design and fine workmanship. xA. glance at the engraving 
on this page will give the reader an excellent idea of its appearance. The 
construction is ot the simplest possible description consistent with strength. The 
frame of parallel bars, mortised together, is perfectly plain. In the corners arc 




Bronze Raili7ig : Mitchell, Vance 6^ Co. , Neju York. 

small rosettes giving a finish to the whole ; but even these do not claim atten- 
tion beside the graceful work which ornaments the central portion. The design 
here is a pair of double helices, the smaller ones above, with branching curves 
as in the tendrils of a plant. The extremities of each part end in rose-shaped 
figures, and in one place, the design opens out into a leaf form. These double 
helices are on either side of the central upright to which they are joined by 



148 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



ornamented brasses. The same motive is used for the smaller ornamentation 
at the sides of the gate-posts and as a finish to the cross bar, in all of which 
minute and delicate workmanship is apjDarent. Every portion of the construc- 
tion, except the raised and chisel-work, left dead for contrast, is highly burnished, 
which, of course, adds much to its beauty. 

Although the section of the Main Building allotted to Russia was empty 
for many weeks after die Exhibition opened, yet, when her contribution to our 
centennial celebration did arrive, it was found in every respect worthy ot the 
great nation w^hose kindly feeling and good-will toward the United States has 




Punch-Bow/, Persian design M. S'.issikoff, Russia. 

more than once been manifested. Probably to no one national display in the 
whole Exhibition can the term "gorgeous" be more appropriately given than to 
that made by Russia. The rich stuffs, the magnificent metal-work, the jewelry, 
precious stones and cabinets and tables of malachite were regal and sumptuous 
to a degree beyond anything to be seen elsewhere. After Japan and China it 
is safe to say that the Russian collection attracted more sight-seers than any 
other. There was something of barbaric splendor in all their art-work, and an 
oriental richness of color in their decoration, strongly suggestive of that eastern 
influence which is now again asserdng itself in other portions of Europe. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 149 



This characteristic was noticeable in the displays of enameling on gold and 
silver, to which a large portion of their court was assigned. As an example of 
this work we have selected for illustration an elaborate piece, a Punch-Bowl, 
with its accessories, consisting of a waiter, goblets and ladle, all in gilt metal 
and enamel, exhibited by the manufacturers, M. Sassikoff, of St. Petersburg 
and jNIoscow. 

It is hardly possible in an engraving to give an idea of the richness of a 
production of this kind, for it must be remembered that the intricate designs 
here shown in black and white are in reality colored enamels of great brilliancy, 
vividly contrasted and applied to a gold surface. Add to this the work notice- 
able in the ladle and goblets, of the chiseller and 7'epotisse-\vork.<tr, and it is clear 
that the object itself must be examined in order to thoroughly appreciate its 
value. 

In emulation of the ancient baronial halls and palaces of Europe it is 
becoming fashionable in this country to decorate the apartments of our 
private residences with suits or pieces of armor, and the taste is not altogether 
a foolish one. Under certain conditions, and within due limits, armor can be 
used most effectively ; but good pieces of truly artistic workmanship are difficult 
to procure, and such collections as are to be found in many ot the museums 
abroad could not now be duplicated. For purposes of illustration, as bringing 
to mind the days of knighthood and chivalry and the times when pomp and 
pageantr}' were a part of war's array, when the fate of nations was decided by 
single combats, nothing brings the time more vividly before the present than 
these steel habiliments. And in another sense, as furnishing examples of the art 
of the metal-workers in those centuries, armor is of the highest value, for the 
most skilled labor of the age was expended upon its manufacture. It has 
always, therefore, been a matter of interest to collect and preserve these 
symbols of war, and now that they have become so scarce, extraordinary prices 
are demanded for genuine pieces. A natural sequence to this condition of affairs 
is that of late years the production of counterfeit articles and imitations of original 
examples has become a lucrative business, and only the extreme difficulty of 
the work has prevented its wider practice. Indeed the finer specimens of 
damascening and link-work cannot be reproduced by modern workmen, who, 
perforce, must confine themselves to making the coarser kinds. But another art, 



ISO 



THE IXTERNATIOXAL EXHIB ITION, 1876. 



that of electro, has recently been brought to bear in this regard, which reproduces 
in fac-simile, as far as appearance goes, the most elaborate examples of ancient 
armor, while at the same time no one possessing the sense of touch need be 
deceived as to its genuineness. In this way it is quite within the power of 
museums possessing moderate means or of individuals having houses suitable for 
such ornamentation to supply themselves with examples of the best periods of 



arm or- work- 
ing ; and any 
hall, worth)' of 
the name, can 
hardly have a 
more effective 
adornment 
than a group, 
say of a hel- 
met, shield and 
a pair of cross- 
ed swords and 
oauntlets sus- 

o 

pended from 
the wall. 

In connec- 
tion with oui 
illustrations on 
pages I 50 and 
151, the Hel- 




Hclmct of Henry IV. : Italian Court. 



IV. and the 

Shield of 
Francis I. ex- 
hibited in the 
Italian Court, 
it may not be 
uninteresting 
to give a brief 
sketch of this 
now unpractis- 
ed art. 

That the 
use of armor 
is of ver)' an- 
cient date is 
abu nd an t ly 
proved by the 
painted tombs 
of Thebes and 
the sculptured 
walls of Nine- 



MET of Henry 

veh. Every one familiar with classical history will recall the golden armor of 
Glaucus, the shield of Agamemnon, and the world-famous arms of Achilles ; 
but existing examples of the accoutrements of the Greeks and of the Romans 
in the imperial days are of the greatest rarity. 

The early Saxons, Danes, and Normans usually wore armor composed of 
small plates or rings stitched upon leather, which accounts for the absence of 
any specimens of that time, although spear-heads, shields and daggers belonging 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



151 



to them are often found. The famous Bayeux Tapestry illustrates the armor 
of the eleventh century, with the Conqueror in a suit of mail, surrounded by 
warriors in scale-armor, and by archers with only a portion of their body 
so protected. 

After the twelfth century it is easy to trace the advance made in the 
manufacture of armor by reference to the many sculptured brasses and 
monuments and m,^ suits of armor of 

1 Shield of Francis /..- Italian Court 1 , 

some complete each other m pro- 

ducing intricate designs, chased and engraved upon the metal or damascened 
with gold and silver. Subjects also were carved in bas-relief, or embossed in 
arabesques by the favorite method of hammering up the reliefs, known as 
repousse-work. Our two illustrations are notable examples of the best periods 
in the histor\' of armor making. In the helmet the repousse figures which 
cover the sides, the vizor and the lower portion protecting the throat are 



IS2 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

admirably executed, and nothing could be more spirited than the Avinged 
dragon surmounting the crown. The shield of Francis I. is a more elaborate 
work than the other, and its broader surface has been taken advantag-e of for 
the display of more pictorial skill. 

With the introduction of firearms and the new system of warfare following 
its introduction, body-armor fell into disuse and decorative art was exercised 
chiefly upon arms. Here again, as the character of the weapons changed and 
war assumed a grimmer aspect, art was repelled from the field and sought more 
peaceful subjects for expression. Now, excepting in the east, modern weapons 
are decorated only when they are intended for ornament and not for use. 

A notable example of wood-carving is exhibited by Snyers, Rang & Co., of 
Brussels — a city famous during the renaissance for its carvings in wood — is 
illustrated on page 153. This piece is an Oak Cabinet inlaid with ebony. The 
general character of the design shows the traces of Italian influences in its 
conception, with a suggestion of French redundancy and minuteness in its 
treatment. As far as the execution goes, however, it is quite faultless and 
the figure-work is especially vigorous and dignified. 

The under portion ot this cabinet is composed of a single broad oak panel, 
the ebony inlaying forming the pattern (in low relief) shown by black lines in 
our engraving. The central group of flowers and the floriated designs in the 
corners are carved in somewhat higher relief from the oak. The pillars and 
the entablature are treated in the same way, but in the upper pattern of the 
work its inlaying is kept even with the surface. An excellent feature of the 
-work is the frieze above the cabinet doors and the arabesque pattern in the 
dome-shaped top. The sides and back of the cabinet are also ornamented in 
the same way as the front, though with less elaborateness. 

The first objects to attract the visitor to the Chinese Court in the Main 
Building were the endless variety of articles, principally vases, in sea-green and 
pale blue enamel, ranged around the eastern and northern sides of the enclosure. 
Monstrous and grotesque forms, birds, beasts, and reptiles, some of them 
copied with surprising fidelity after nature, but most of them having that peculiar 
treatment characteristic of Chinese work, ornamented these articles, and a 
closer inspection revealed delicate and marvellously minute traceries in patterns 
of bewildering intricacy. These articles are, without exception, examples of the 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



153 



opaque cloisonne enameling on metal for which the Chinese have a world-wide 



reputation and 
some of the 
pieces here 
exhibited are 
valued at sev- 
eral thousand 
dollars. One 
of the most 
el egan t of 
these speci- 
mens, pur- 
chased by Mr. 
Henry C. Gib- 
son of this city, 
forms the sub- 
ject of our il- 
lustration on 

page 155- 

This vase 
measures 
some five feet 
in height by 
three feet in 
breadth. Its 
prevailing 
color is sea- 
green, but 
other colors, 
such as blue, 
yellow,and red 
appear upon 

vitreous substance on any surface by fusion ; usually that surface is a metal. 
Enamels are either transparent or opaque, and are colored by metallic oxides. 




Oak Cabinet : Snyers, Rang &■ Co., Brussels. 



its surface, and 
the birds, 
which are mar- 
vels of work- 
manship, have 
the color of 
their plumage 
copied after 
nature. Our 
encjraving' ex- 
cellently illus- 
trates the ex- 
ceeding deli- 
cacy of the or- 
n a mentation 
in this fine 
piece, but it is 
necessary to 
u n d erstand 
something of 
the laborious 
processes by 
which this ef- 
fect was pro- 
duced in order 
to appreciate 
its great value. 
Enameling, 
in its broadest 
sense, is the 
act of fixing a 



IS4 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

The processes by which it is embedded upon or in die metal give the names 
cloisonne and champlcvc. There are other processes of enameling, but it is 
needless to speak of them in this connection. In cloisonne enameling the pattern 
is formed by slender strips of metal being bent into required shape and fixed to 
the plate. Into the cells (whence the name) thus formed, the workman pours 
his enamel paste, and the piece is placed in the furnace for fusion. When the 
process is completed, the article is taken out, cooled, and the, surface rubbed 
down and polished. In the clianipleve process, the spaces for the enamel are 
dug out with a tool, the raised line of the design thus being a part of the 
plate itself The vitreous matter is then introduced into these cavities, the 
other process being similar to those pursued in preparing the cloiso7ine 
enamels. 

A beautiful specimen of damascening, or inlaying of one metal in another, 
is the Damascened Frame, manufactured by M. Zuloaga, of Madrid, exhibited 
in the Spanish court. Beside the inlaying of gold, the frame is ornamented 
with strips of black and white enamel, and some of the arabesques are in 
niello, — a name given to a kind of black enamel rubbed into the engraved lines 
on silver. In the general design and in the character of its ornamentation this 
fine work shows how entirely Spanish art retains the traditions of its oriental 
masters. 

On page 157 we engrave a section of a Lace Curtain, exhibited by the 
manufacturers, Messrs. Simon, May & Co., of Nottingham. The space left 
blank in our illustration is the net upon which the pattern is worked, and this 
black background will enable the reader to distinguish the delicacy and beauty 
of the design. There is something fascinating in the very name of this inost 
delicate and cosdy of all textile fabrics, and the study of the processes and 
history of its manufacture is one of the most interesting that can be suggested. 
Few persons who have not studied the subject, can have any Idea of the 
labor and skill necessary to produce such an elaborate composition as this shown 
In our engraving, yet no one who reads these pages can be so unappreciatlve 
as not to be struck by the beauty of die completed work. 

On page 159 we engrave another beautiful object in the display of 
Ceramic Ware made by the Messrs. Daniell & Sons, of London. This a 
M.\jolica Vase, modeled In one piece, upward of two feet high and nearly 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



155 



three feet broad. Like every other article in the Messrs. Daniells' exhibit, this 
vase is a masterpiece of its kind and may be taken as a noble example of the 




Vase, Cloisonne enamel : Chinese Court. 



art-workmanship of the English potters. We have spoken of it as majolica, 
simply because that is the popular and usual name for ware of this quality; but 
it is not the true majolica, with the lustred stanniferous enamel, but an 



iS6 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 






^MtMt^^mm^m^MMMmf^^^m^ 





Mirror Frame, Damascened Iron : Zziloaga &> Son, Madrid. 

enameled faience with a lustre, if any, obtained by the use of lead. During the 



IND US TRIAL AR T. 



157 



Exhibition this vase was given the place of honor on the stand in the nave of 
the Main Building and attracted attention by the richness of coloring and the 




Lace WindoTV Curtain ; Simon, May &^ Co., Nottingham. 



spirit displayed in the modelling of its figures. The color of the body of the 
vase and the prevailing hue of the vi'hole piece is a clear, dark blue. The 
figured zones are of different colors — white, green, yellow, and chocolate brown, 



158 THE INTERNATIOXAL EXHIBITIOX, 1S76. 

with relief ornamentation of diapered pattern in complimentary colors. At either 
end ot the body of the vase, which is of an oval shape, are elephants' heads, 
the trunks wound round and under so as to form handles. Crouched on these 
heads are child figures — genii, partially clad — bending under the weight of 
hammock-ropes crossed over their shoulders. The hammocks themselves, four 
in number, quarter the vase at the sides, and are upheld at their other 
extremity by female figures twice the size of the genii. In the hammocks 
repose nude male and female figures, posed in the relaxed and nerveless 
positions peculiar to rest in one of these swinging-couches. The female figures 
first mentioned stand, the back toward the vase, the legs crossed, the elbows 
resting upon the upper surface, in attitudes of easy rest. The short skirt, 
gathered in at the thighs, is hung with bells and belted around the waist 
with an embroidered circlet. The hair is braided in heavy bands and wound 
about with a turban. Every feature and detail in these groups suggests 
the Orient, and the leaves of a tropical plant, as well as the character of the 
patterns in the decoration, contribute to this idea. 

As the Messrs. Daniell worthily represented the Ceramic Art of England, 
so the Messrs. Elkington, of Birmingham, made a display of art-work in the 
precious metals that was sufficient in itself to give their workmen a place in 
the foremost rank of artizans, the world over. Moreover, this firm did not 
attempt to make a general exposition of their wares, but confined themselves 
entirely to a collection of purely artistic and ornamental objects made especially 
in honor of our Centennial, or, as in the case of the Milton Shield, replicas in 
electro of their most famous productions. 

To the former class belongs the Chess Table, shown in the engravings on 
pages i&o and 161. In this superb work can be seen an illustration of all the 
more notable branches of the Messrs. Elkington's art manufacture. The shaft 
is richly damascened in gold and silver. The medallions at the centre contain 
groups of arms, trophies, etc., in repousse-wor)^. The brackets are enameled in 
purple and green on a cream-colored enamel ground. The female busts ter- 
minating the standards at the sides are heavily gilt, as also are the feet and 
masks at the base. 

The top of the table, shown in section in our second illustration, is a 
marvel of workmanship. Each square of the board is a fine piece of enameling. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



159 



around which is a border of niello-work. Outside of this again are panels 
with elaborate patterns worked out in a gold tracery, and the interstices filled 
in with brilliant enamel colors of vivid hues. In the corners of the table-top 
are medallions containing heads- of kings and queens and knights, executed 
with the finish of miniature painting. 




Majolica Vase: Daniell &• Sjn^, London. 



The chess-men, of silver and gold-gilt, are, in the quality of the workman- 
ship, equal to the table, and they are after a pattern harmonizing with it in 
general design. The beauty of this is well shown by our engraving. It is 
graceful, light and perfecdy proportioned. Each part harmonizes with the 
others, producing an effect at once pleasing and satisfying to the eye. 

One of the loveliest objects in the display of Susse Fri^res, in the French 
Court, is the small silver-gilt bronze statue of Phryne, engraved on page 163. 



i6o 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



The figure is not more than eigliteen niches high, but it is modeled witli such 
perfect skill and finished in so workmanlike a manner as to claim attention. 
Looking at the figure — posed perhaps as when accused of atheism, Hyperides 
secured her liberty by revealing her charms to the gaze of the judges — we 




Chess Table: Elkwgton &' Co., London, 



recall her marvelous beauty and the great men who esteemed themselves 
honored in her love. Praxiteles deemed her worthy to be immortalized in his 
statue of the Cnidian Venus, and Apelles was ■ inspired by her beauty when 
painting his Venus Anadyomene. Artists in all ages have sought to embody 
her charms in their ideal, and her fame will go down to future ages, as it has 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



i6i 



come to us, as one of the most beautiful of women. Living she desired to 
perpetuate her memory as the rebuilder of the walls of Thebes. "Alexander 

the precious metals 
in the manufacture 
of articles for use or 
ornament. 

The influences 
which give rise to that 
which we call "style" 
in the construction of 
anything are among 
the most curious 
phases of civilization. 
In modern times 
France has enjoyed 
the privilege of ruling 
our taste in such 
matters, and it is easy 
to find a reason. Ever 
since the days of 
Francis the First, the 
great patron of art, a 
long line of luxurious 
monarchs have lent 
their encouragement 
and patronage to the 
decorative arts. Royal 
manufactories were 
established where the 
most skilled work- 
men, aided by the most 



destroyed them, but 
Phr)"ne, the courte- 
zan, rebuilt them," 
would have been the 
inscription had not 
Alexander refused 
her offer. Thebes 
itself is now in ruins, 
but the woman's wash 
to have undying fame 
has been accom- 
plished. 

Our next illustra- 
tion on page 165 is a 
Silver Tankard, ex- 
hibited by the manu- 
facturer, M. Emile 
Philippe, of Paris. 
The piece is pro- 
fusely decorated with 
conventionalized 
flowers and leaves 
raised from the sur- 
face by the repousse 
process, which, our 
readers will have ob 
served, is again be- 




coming a favorite Portlonof Top of chess Tabic : EtHngton&'Co., London. 

manner of workino- 
scientific men of the day, executed the designs of the first artists in Europe. 
.Schools of art were established and munificently endowed, where every effort 
was made to attain the highest degree of perfection. His reward was in being 



i62 THE I NTERNATIOXAL EXHIBIT/OX, 1S76. 

acknowledged the instructor of Europe in the decorative arts and the arbiter 
of taste. Of late years, ho\ve\er, while France has been prostrated by revo- 
lution and wars, other nations liave enjoyed profound peace, and, profiting by 
their position and the example set them, have devoted themselves to the 
cultivation of the arts and the formation of taste. The great International 
Exhibitions of the world are now doing more than all other influences to 
educate the people and to give them correct ideas. From these we may hope 
for better style, for it is but the expression of qualities influencing the com- 
munity. A degraded taste and a vicious way of living will as surely show 
itself in bad style as nobility and purity will find expression in noble and pure 
works. Every one knows how the Renaissance, beginning in France, swept 
like a wave over Europe ; and many who watch the times believe that we 
have already entered upon another and a more lasting revival. Certainly at 
the present moment there is an uncertainty not as to what is good as to what 
is best in decorative art that suggests a change of some sort. The influence 
of Japanese art is making itself felt in Europe and in England, as any one 
walking through the Main Building of the Exposition must have noticed. 
Even far-away Norway, just beginning the manufacture of potter)', showed 
dishes decorated in imitation of Japanese ware. 

In domestic articles and articles of personal use the influence of style on 
the individual and his reciprocal influence on art are very marked. Here utility 
is combined with ornament, and the just proportion between the two makes a 
pure style. In works wrought in the precious metals, the labors of the artist 
and the artisan are brought very near together. As long, however, as one 
man designs the work and another has to make it, the highest perfection will 
not be attained. That summit will not be reached until the artist and the 
artisan are one, and then, and then only, can a truly noble style be universal. 

An example of the silversmiths' work in the exhibit made by Signor E. 
Forte is the Silver Card-Case illustrated on page 166. It is made of small 
thread silver wires joined together so as to form those marvelously delicate 
and intricate patterns that are a peculiar beauty in filigree-work. The specimen 
before us is an excellent example of this method. In the centre is a ring 
containing a scroll branching out into fine curved tendrils as delicate as lace. 
Indeed filigree is to metal-work what lace is to textiles. From this centre, 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



1 63 



and forming a circle 
the size of the width 
of the card-case 
inside the border, 
are other sheaves 
of wire branching 
out separately as in 
the central piece, the 
whole forming a ro- 
sette held together 
by a net-like band. 
Beyond this, at 
either end of the 
case, is a more elab- 
orate pattern, having 
for its motive the 
same cunung lines. 
About the edge a 
wire, as fine as a 
spider's thread, is 
wound about in 
such a manner as 
to make a border a 
fourth of an inch in 
width. Our engrav- 
ing is just the size 
of the original and 
an exact copy of the 
pattern, so that the 
reader can see for 
himself how exqui- 
sitely fine the work- 

Fhrytie, Bronze Susse frcres. Pans. 

manship is. 

to their exertions is due whatever of credit can be 




Italy labored 
under many dis- 
advantages in at- 
tempting to make a 
worthy exhibition of 
her arts and indus- 
tries at our Centen- 
nial. Chief amonor 

o 

these were the failure 
of the Italian govern- 
ment to make any 
appropriation for 
such a purpose, and 
an apathy on the 
part of some, 
coupled with open 
hostility, manifesting 
itself in absolute mis- 
representations on 
the part of others, 
who should have 
furthered the under- 
taking by every 
means in theirpower. 
Nevertheless there 
were half a dozen 
men — and among 
them notably one 
Italian — who were 
determined that 
Italy should be pre- 
sent among- the 
other nations, and 
claimed for the Italian 



i64 THE INTERN ATIONAL ENIIIB ITION, 1S76. 



exhibit. That it was not representative nor worthy of the land so rich in art 
treasures will be admitted by every one who has visited its cities. In nearly 
all the departments of art-production — for which the Italians are famous — 
the examples were few, and, as a rule, inferior. The display of jewelry was, 
however, an exception, in that although by no means very large, it contained some 
of the choicest and most truly beautiful specimens of the goldsmith's art in 
the whole exhibition. 

It is with pleasure we noted among the articles exhibited an indication of 
a revival of this art for which Italy was once so famous. In another portion 
of the Exhibition was to be seen a collection of antiquities, among them personal 
ornaments in gold and silver, manufactured by the Etruscans, Greeks, and 
Romans, of a quality of workmanship and an artistic feeling incomparably 
superior to most modern work in any land. And in looking at the displays 
of the Italian jewelers of to-day, that of M. Belezza, of Rome, for example, 
from whose collection we have selected the three Ear-rings, engraved on page 
167, it was evident that a desire to profit by the lessons to be learned from 
these superb relics of a past perfection in the art is influencing the modern 
artizan. We see here that the exuberance and oriental magnificence which was 
blended with the purer and more refined Italo-Grecian school by the metal- 
workers of the fifteenth century is being separated and treated intelligently by 
the light of our more thorough knowledge. Indeed, it is doubtful whether such 
great masters in metal-work as Benvenuto Cellini had any knowledge of the 
traditions of the ancient schools. It would seem rather as if their treatment 
of the precious metals was entirely according to their fancy, unconscious of rule. 
But the period during which Cellini and his fellow-artists worked was an 
exceptional cycle, and following it came a season of gradual decay from bad 
to worse, extending down almost to the present time. Novi^, only by a patient 
and painstaking study of the rare and precious examples of ancient metal-work 
pursued in our museums and private collections, can we hope to attain to a 
like perfection in the art. 

The English display of furniture certainly was one of the most interesting 
in this court. Almost every modern style, original or revived, was exhibited, 
and cabinet-makers vied with each other in making their stalls as attractive as 
possible. Thus, to show off their furniture to the best anvantage and in 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



165 



an appropriate manner, many exhibitors had their stalls boarded up at the 
sides and ceiled over, so as to form rooms. These again were papered or 




Metal Tankard : Emile Philippe, Paris. 



draped, painted and carpeted, in a manner appropriate to the articles of furni- 
ture to be shown. There were bed-rooms, dining-rooms, drawing-rooms, and 



1 66 



THE INTERNATIOXAL EXHIBITIOX, 1S76. 



libraries, with not only the furniture proper, but pictures, statuary, vases, articles 
of ve?'t7i, and bric-a-brac; in short, everything to give a homelike look and 
sense of occupancy to the apartment. 

Under these circumstances the articles for which all these pains had been 
taken could be seen just as they would appear in actual use ; and doubtless 
many orders from purchasers were secured by the judicious and carefully 
studied arrangements that produced these charming effects. 
Amoncf these 



"interiors, ' some 
of the most notice- 
able were those be- 
lonoring to Messrs. 
CoLLiNSON & Lock, 
OF London. Not 
only the artistic ar- 
rangement of the 
apartments, but the 
beauty and excel- 
lence of the furni- 
ture made by this 
celebrated firm at- 
tracted many visit- 
ors to their exhibit. 
The Cabinet which 
we engrave on page 
168 is one of many 




K 






m 



r^li ^m 



"^^ m 



-^MM 



^m 




.m 



^''^"^i'^v^x^^m" 




Caj'd-Cdse, FUli^rc Silver: C. Sjlvo &= Sons, Genoa. 



equally elegant ar- 
ticles manufactured 
by them, and may 
be regarded as rep- 
resentative of their 
refined taste and 
the superior quality 
of their work. It 
will be observed 
that in the vases, 
jars and other 
oieces of china ar- 

J. 

ranged upon its 
shelves is an illus- 
tration of the man- 
ner we have alluded 
to by which the 
furniture is set 
off. 



This cabinet is constructed of a closely-grained wood, ebonized and highly 
polished. The design and carving are of the simplest description, being a 
return to that old and honest pattern which was driven out by the rococo, 
bombe and other showy but meretricious styles introduced from France. 

With the exception of a light open-work border at the top, and the bands 
and fillets to the rails and posts, the wood-work of this cabinet is perfectly 
plain. After the cabinet-maker's part was finished it was given over to the 
decorator, or, more probably, the cabinet-maker was given the decorator's 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



167 



finished work to put in place. Be that as it may, however, the reader will see, 
by looking at our engraving, that each one of the panels to the doors contains 
a figure of some kind, either of human beings or of beasts or birds. Further- 
more, tlie panels at the back and top are decorated with arabesque patterns 




Ear-rin^s : N. A. Beiezza, Rome. 



of a light and graceful kind, which can be seen better in the enlarged sectional 
view of an end of the cabinet on page 169. All this work is done in color, 
painted on by hand, and its high artistic excellence adds much to the beauty 
of the piece. 

But the chief decorative feature In the whole are the figure-panels in the 
doors, already mentioned. These are painted by the artist, Murray, wlio 
stands at the head of his profession in England for this kind of work. The 



i6S 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 




Cabinet: Collinson &' Lock, London. 



four figures in the doors of the upper cupboard represent the four evangelists; 
those below, others eminent in sacred history. They are executed in a free, 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



169 



bold manner, with 
strong color-contrasts 
introduced, and each 
one is worthy of a sep- 
arate and careful exam- 
ination. The birds in 
the lower panels are by 
the same artist, and are 
drawn with equal spirit 
and vigor, but without 
the same care and in a 
hastier manner; but the 
color here is perhaps 
even richer and more 
effective than in the 
human fiorures. Alto- 
gether the work is an 
exceedingly satisfactory 
one, and an admirable 
example of a correct 
taste in design and or- 
namentation. 

French tapestry has 
been famous ever since 
the days of Louis XIV, 
when Colbert, his cele- 
brated minister, appre- 
ciating the beauty of the 
work produced by the 
brothers Gobelin, took 
their manufactory under 
his protection. The art 
soon after gained royal 
designs are made and wrought 



^^ 



J-i( ,1 



-44 



patronage, and the mag- 
nificent and costly pro- 
ductions of the Gobelin 
looms were the wonder 
and admiration of the 
world. In after years 
other factories were 
started in various parts 
of France, and the one 
at Beauvais, where the 
examples illustrated on 
pages 1 70 and 171 were 
manufactured, is second 
only to the Gobelins. 

Tapestry has always 
been an expensive lux- 
ury, and therefore, al- 
though its manufacture 
can be traced back to a 
remote antiquity, its use 
has always been limited. 
Tapestries for curtains 
and wall-hangings were 
used by the Greeks and 
Romans, and we read in 
the Bible of a bed-cover- 
ing made of painted ta- 
pestry. As a material 
for furniture upholstery, 
nothing could be more 
elegant than this rich 
textile. When it is used 
for this purpose, the 
in a manner, as seen in our illustrations, calcu- 



Portlon of Cabinet : Colllnson &= Lock, London. 



170 



THE IXTERXAT lOXAL EX H! B FT I OX, iSj6. 



lated to adorn and to be as much an integral part of the furniture as the 
carving on the frame. 

The engravings 
on pages 172 and 
173 will be recog- 
nized by every one 
who visited the Ja- 
panese Court as 
among the most no- 
table objects in that 
wonderful collec- 
tion of oriental art. 
These vases stand 
about four feet in 
height. They are 
made of bronze, a 
favorite material 
with the Japanese 
metal-workers, who 
are certainly un- 
surpassed by any 
people in the world 
for originality of 
desien and skill in 
execution. The ex- 
amples before us 
are excellent speci- 
mens of their pecu- 
liar method. In the 
grotesques at the 
base and in the 
relief ornamenta- 
tion on the sides we see that peculiar exaggeration and distortion of natural 
objects which many people prefer to the conventionalism obtaining with European 




INDUSTRI AL ART. 



171 



artists. Here, too, in the elaboration ot minute designs on tlie collars and the 
rim and in the superbly executed handles, we see the evidence of a patient, 
painstaking- labor such as only oriental workmen practice. 

The Swinging Pitcher, which forms the subject of our illustration on page 
174, will commend itself to every one as a capital and novel idea. In this 
country, where the use of ice is almost universal, and where it is consumed in 
quantities that astonish foreigners, ice-pitchers are a necessity. Many of these 



are made of sil- 
ver or plated 
ware, and are of 
considerable size. 
So large are they, 
in fact, that when 
in use their weigfht 
is a serious objec- 
tion to them, an 
objection which 
this excellent in- 
vention does 
away with entire- 
ly. Here the 
pitcher is hung in 
a frame, which is 
provided with a 
handle by which 
to carry it, so 




C/ia'tr : R. Mazaroz, Paris. 



that any child can 
swing or tip it at 
pleasure. The 
convenience of 
the arrangement 
is obvious. It 
will be observed 
that this hand- 
some example of 
American inge- 
nuity and skill in 
metal-plating and 
working, lorms, 
with the accompa- 
nying stand, gob- 
let and bowl, a set 
that will be orna- 
mental to any side- 
board or buffet. 



Metal-work of another and entirely different character is seen in the beau- 
tiful VVrought-Iron Gates illustrated on page 175. This fine piece of work 
was one of the exliibits in the English Court, where it attracted marked attention. 
The design, without being too complex, is sufificiently elaborate to signify that 
the gates are intended for no mean use. They are evidently designed to be 
placed at the carriage-entrance to some park or gentleman's estate, for they 
are suggestive of luxury and elegance within. In all the exhibit of English 
wroug-ht-iron work — and it was one of the best features of the English Court — 



1/2 



THE IXTERXATIOXAL EXHIBITIOX, iSj6. 



there were few examples which were comparable with these gates, either for 
artistical design or skillful workmanship. 

From the Netherland department we have selected for illustration, on page 
176, one of the superb carpets which were there exhibited. In elaborateness 
of design this fine piece of work suggests the even patterns for which the 



posed at intervals 
o\'er the fabric. 
Some of these 
are joined to the 
stripe which sep- 
arates the border 
from the rest of 
the carpet, which 
stripe is orna- 
mented with a 
diaper pattern 
that is one of the 
prettiest features 
in the design. 

The most elab. 
orate piece of 
work in the ex- 
hibit of die Royal 
School of Art 
Needlework was 
the complete set 
of room-hanmnes 
designed by the 

well-known artist, Mr. Walter Crane, and executed by the ladies of that insti- 
tution. This forms the subject of our illustration on page 177. The material 
of the frieze and vallance for the portiere is white sateen, on which the designs 
are embroidered in subdued shades of brown and green. The frieze contains 
four arched niches separated by columns. In the niches are four female figures 
emblematic of the arts — Poetry, Sculpture, Painting, and Music. Below these 



Netherlands are 
so famous. The 
border is com- 
posed of flowers 
and garlands, dis- 
posed in a sym- 
metrical manner. 
The same general 
design obtains in 
the porUon of the 
carpet within the 
border, but here 
the arrangement 
is more varied. 
The colors are 
numerous and 
bright,but of light 
tints. Large me- 
dallions, with 
flower patterns 
on a much dark- 
er and richer 
ground, are dis- 




^Wwk 



Vtise, m Bronze : yjpancse Court 



Am 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



173 



is a vallance, with ofarlands of flowers surrounclino- baskets of fruits and cereals, 
typical of Plenty. Beneath this again, and above the portiere, is a panel on 
which the three Fates — Clothe, Lachesis and Atropos — are busy at their work 
of drawing, spinning and cutting the thread of life. The two curtains to the 
portiere contain full-length female figures, personifying the salutations, "Vale" 



and "Salve." The 
wall-hanCTinsfs on 
either side are of 
gold twill, em- 
broidered with 
elaborate designs 
signifying the ele- 
ments. These 
hangings are by 
far the most ef- 
fective parts of 
the whole, both 
for contrast of 
color and spirit 
of design, and 
they \yill be found 
worthy of careful 
examination. The 
pilasters which 
complete this re- 
markable set of 
wall-hangings are 
of white sateen 




Vase, in Bronze : jfapanese Court. 



embroidered in 
brown silk, with 
a light, graceful, 
foliated pattern. 
The borders, 
bands and stripes 
separating the 
several divisions 
of the portiere 
are conceived and 
executed with 
spirit and in ex- 
cellent harmony 
with the general 
design. 

A noticeable 
feature in the dis- 
play of German 
art pottery, from 
the Royal Porce- 
lain Works at 
Berlin, was the 
number and va- 



riety of vases shown. There were specimens of the form and styles of deco- 
ration obtaining in Japan, China and Persia some centuries ago, with copies in 
majolica of the famous Urbino ware, the handles formed of curiously twisted 
and contorted snakes and grotesques. There were also tall, slender amphoree, 
shaped after the manner of the vessels used by the ancient Greeks and Romans 
for carrying wine and oil or for preserving the ashes of the dead; while promi- 



174 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 




Water- Pitcher : Reed 6^ Barton, Taunton. 



nent in the collection were the Victoria vases with their dragon-handles and 
gracefully curved outline, in a shape which seems to be a favorite one at this 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



175 



time. Of these latter, the most noticeable was the huge Victoria vase par 




Portion of Wrought-Iron Gate : Barnard, Bishop &• Barnard. 



excellence, which occupied the place of honor, as the central and chief object 
of the display. This vase forms the subject of our illustration on page 178. 



176 



THE INTERN ATIOXAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



It stood about five feet high, and was undoubted]}- one of the most magnificent 

specimens of porcelain 




in the wliole Exhibition. 
It was not, however, as 
many were led to sup- 
pose, a single piece of 
porcelain. The bowl, the 
stand and the band be- 
tween were separate and 
distinct pieces, their line 
of contact being con- 
cealed by gilt mouldings. 
The body-color of this 
vase is deep blue of sur- 
passing richness and bril- 
liancy. The handles and 
many of the decorative 
designs were in gilt. The 
central medallion con- 
tains a remarkably cred- 
itable painting after 
Guido Rene's "Aurora." 
The perfection to which 
the chemically prepared 
colors for paintingon pot- 
tery have been brought 
in Germany is well ex- 
exemplified in this vase. 
. That most beautiful of 
all textiles — lace^had a 
very full and complete 
representation at the 
Centennial Exhibition. All the great centres of lace manufacture were repre- 
sented in the most satisfactory manner, and in many instances pardally wrought 



Carpet : Nethei'larids Court. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



177 




Curtain- Door : Royal School of Art Needlework. 



specimens were exhibited, showing the way in which the work was executed. 
Our illustration on page 179 represents one of the exquisite web-like shawls 



178 



THE INTERN ATT OWIL ENIIIB ITION, 1S76. 



that formed a 
principal fea- 
ture of the 
Belgium ex- 
hibit. It is al- 
most impos- 
sible to realize 
that tiiis fairy- 
like creation, 
witli its convo- 
luted patterns, 
its garlands 
and flowers 
and ferns, has 
been wroug-ht, 
stitch by stitch 
and inch by 
inchjbypatient 
women, fol- 
lowing a pat- 
tern thread by 
thread. It is 
no wonder 
these marvel- 
ous produc- 
tions of the 
lace-makers 
are esteemed 
by women as 
among the 
greatest treas- 
ures of the 
wardrobe, 
are a croblet and 




From far- 
awa)' Austra- 
lia came a con- 
tribution to 
our Centen- 
nial, admirable 
in size and se- 
lection, which 
illustrated to 
the best ad- 
vantafje the 
resources and 
industries of 
the country. 
In their ad- 
vancement in 
the art-indus- 
tries these en- 
terprising col- 
onists showed 
a remarkable 
progress. Our 
illustrations on 
page 1 80 show 
two pieces of 
metal-work as 
graceful in de- 
sign and exe- 
cution as any- 
thing of a like 
nature sent by 
the mother- 
country. They 
covered bowl made of ostrich eg-'as mounted in silver. In 



Aurora Vase: Royal Porcelain Manufactory, Berlin. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



179 



die accessory ornaments to either piece, the subjects are Australian. In one 
we have the ostrich, and in the other the kangaroo ; while in both the graceful 
tree-fern is most happily introduced. 

The illustration on page 181 represents a section of a lace curtain, one of 
the examples of lace manufacture in Switzerland, shown in the attractive display 
made by that industrious little republic in the Swiss Court in the Main Building. 




— c>^ 

Lace Shawl — Collective Exhibit of Brussels. 



This kind of lace is machine-made, and it enjoys a wide reputation for its 
cheapness and excellent quality. The industry of lace-making, which is of 
comparatively recent introduction among the Swiss people, is as yet confined 
to certain cantons, but it is only a question of time until it is practised in the 
others. 

In the specimen before us, the rich-flowing lines seem in Brussels lace, 
though, of course, the two are not otherwise comparable. 

As, in the consideration of the Industrial Art at the Exhibition, we shall 



i8o 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



have occasion to illustrate numerous varieties of lace, it may be of interest to 
give a few facts in explanation of this very interesting industry. 

Lace, or lacis, as it was anciently called, is made of silk, cotton or linen 
thread, and sometimes even of gold or silver wire. It is commonly divided 
into two classes — pillow and point. Pillow-lace is woven with bobbins on a 
cushion or pillow, but point-lace is worked with the needle on a paper or 
parchment pattern. All lace, whether point or pillow, may be said to consist 







"^■^''-ftt^ 



W^TvM 






Silverware : Queensland Court. 



of two parts — the ground and the pattern ; though, strictly speaking, this is not 
the case, as in some kinds of lace there is really no ground at all, the figures 
making the pattern being joined together without any intermediate network. 

The manner of making lace differs in different localities, so that the fabric 
is generally known by the name of the town or district where it is manufac- 
tured. But some of the names now in use are simply traditional of kinds of 
lace no longer manufactured. In some instances, indeed, though specimens of 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



iSi 




Lace Curtiiin : Court of SwU:erland. 



the work have been preserved, the manner of making it has been lost, and all 
attempts to re-discover it have been unsuccessful. The most costly of all lace 



IS2 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSy6. 



is that known as Point d'Alengon, so named after tlie town where Colbert, the 
famous minister of Louis XIV, established the lace-workers whom he brought 
over from \'enice. It is the most exquisite and elaborate of all fabrics, being 
made entirely with the needle. A writer in one of the South Kensington Art 
Hand-books, to whom we are indebted for much of our information on this 
subject, describes the way in w-hich this lace is made as follows : — 

The pattern is printed off on pieces of green parchment, about ten inches 
long, each segment numbered in its order; the pattern is then pricked through 




Majolica Flower-Bearers : Daniell (S-^ ^on, London, 



upon the parchment, which is next stitched to a piece of coarse linen folded 
double. The outline of the pattern is traced out by two threads fixed by small 
stitches, passed with another thread and needle through the parchment and its 
linen lining. When the outline is finished, the piece is given over to another 
worker to make the ground, which is worked backwards and forwards at right 
angles to the border. The flowers are next worked in ; then follow the "modes" 
or "fillings" — the open work or fancy stitches — and other different operations. 
When completed, the threads which unite lace, parchment and linen together 
are cut by passing a razor between the folds of the linen, and there remains 
only the great work of uniting the different segments together. This process 
devolves upon the head of the fabric, and is effected by the stitch called 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



183 







to 

tS 



1 84 



THE INTERN ATI OX AL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



"assemblage" — by us termed "fine joining." Point d'Alengon is tiie only lace 
in which horse-hair is introduced along the edge, to give firmness and consist- 
ency to the "cordonnet." 

Point d'Alengon and d'Argenton are the only needle-made laces now pro- 
duced in France, but the manufacture of pillow-made laces is carried on in the 




Plaque of Iron : Zuloa^a &^ Son, Afadrid. 



provinces of Normandy, Auvergne and Lorraine. The pillow-lace made at 
Valenciennes is well known, but it is not generally understood that only the 
city-made lace is entitled to the name of vraie Valenciennes. The blonde and 
black silk even of Chantilly used to be well known, but the fabric is no longer 
made. 

Brussels lace was famous for its beautiful patterns and the exquisite 
delicacy of its workmanship. The thread for the finest pieces of this marvelous 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



185 



textile is made of the flax 
of Brabant, spun by hand. 
So fine is it that it requires 
to be spun under ground 
where the air is absolutely 
motionless. 

Speaking of Brabant 
reminds us of Barbara 
Uttman, the "benefactress 
of the Hartz mountains," 
whose name is inseparably 
connected with the history 
of lace-making in Germany. 
This grood woman had 
learned the art of makinsf 
lace upon a pillow from a 
Brabant workman, and 
taught it to her compan- 
ions, the children of the 
miners in the Hartz moun- 
tains. It was from this 
small beginning that the in- 
dustry began and extended 
throughout Germany. 

Of English lace, the 
most celebrated is that 
made, in Devonshire where 
the famous vale of Honiton 
is situated. Real 
Honiton lace is some- 
thing like Brussels 
lace in appearance, 
although the quality 
is coarser ; but the 




Vi'rou^ht-iron Flower-Stand : Barnard &' Co. 



modern "Guipure" is great- 
ly inferior to the beautiful 
applied pillow-made sprigs 
which gave the Honiton 
fabrics so great a reputa- 
tion. The lace known as 
Point d'Aneleterre was 
never made in England, 
but always in Brussels. Its 
name is owino; to the fact 
that it used to be smupfSfled 
into England in immense 
quantities, and boldly sold 
by English merchants in 
open market as a lace of 
native manufacture. 

It must have been grati- 
fying to every one visiting 
the Centennial, who was 
interested in the welfare 
arkd progress of this coun- 
try, to observe how many 
choice and beautiful ob- 
jects of art of foreign man- 
ufacture were purchased by 
Americans. These things 
remain Avith us permanent- 
ly, and their benefit to the 
community in culti- 
vating a correct taste 
and a higher stand- 
ard of excellence in 
art is simply incalcu- 
lable. 



iS6 



THE IXTERXATIOXAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



It was curious to note the astonishment and dismay of certain forei'Tn 
exhibitors, who, claiming- to have consulted the American taste in preparing 
their display, had sent over gaudy and otherwise inferior wares. These gentle- 





Decorated Fans: French Court 



men no doubt thought that we were sufficiently behind the art-culture of the 
times to be satisfied with this riff-raff of their shops ; but they quickly learned 
their error and how much, unfortunately for their own advantage, they had 
misjudged the average American art-knowledge. It Is but just to these gentle- 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



187 



men to say that 
they willingly 
acknowledged 
their mistake, 
and asked but 
another like op- 
portunitj- to rec- 
tify their error: 
On the other 
hand, those ex- 
hibitors who sent 
good work found 
ready and eager 
purchasers. Even 
cforcfeous articles 
of luxury such as 
only princes in 
Europe could 
purchase, were 
sold to wealthy 
persons here ; 
and it is safe to 
say that never 
did foreign deal- 
ers make such 
enormous profits 
as at the Cen- 
tennial. 

Even in a na- 
tion like Eng- 
land, with which 
we have had such 
intimate com- 
mercial relations 
for so long a time, 
there were ex- 







I' ■ (' 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



hibitors who hesitated and questioned whether it would pay them to send their 
best wares to this countrw They were fearful that such work would not be 
appreciated as it deserved. One exhibitor we know of said that he never 
would have dreamed of sending the really splendid collection he did send if 
it was to have been seen only by the Americans. But his goods had always 
been first in the competition with European manufacturers, and he desired to 
show fheni that he still maintained the lead. 

Doubtless, too, many persons sent what they did send through a feeling 
of national pride ; but whatever the impelling motive may have been, one and 




Earth I'esse/s : Turkish Court. 



all united in saying afterward that they found here a market for their very best 
wares, that they found an educated, appreciative people, ready to pay liberally 
for works of art. 

The mistake which these dealers had made was a very natural one. They 
argued, and with some show of reason, that because we did not produce art- 
work of the highest character we had no market for it. They forgot that while 
our artisans as a class had not the art educational facilides of their European 
brethren, that our wealthy classes were constantly abroad and familiar with the 
best examples of European work. The time is coming, however, when our 
art-workmen will be peers of any anywhere. All they need is the opportunity 
to see and study the right models. From the London Exhibition of 1851 grew 



IND US TR I A L A R T. 



189 



up the South Kensington Museum and the industrial-art revival in England, 
and we are more advanced to-day than England was then. Therefore, taking 




Lace Parasol Cover — Collective Exhibit of Bclgiuvi. 



our Centennial as an equivalent starting-point, we may reasonably hope for 
even greater results in the next twenty-five years than England achieved in the 
same space of time. 

That English art-workmanship has made a truly wonderful advance in the 



190 



THE INTERNATJ OyAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



last quarter ot a century was abundantly proven by the rich and varied displays 
in the English Court. In no other branch of industry -was this more noticeable 
than in the ceramics. The very choice exhibit of the Messrs. Daxiell alone 
was evidence of this. Here were to be seen the very finest productions of the 
potter's skill — original designs showing education in the best schools, clever 
reproductions of famous fabriques, copies of rare antiques, and examples of the 
latest discoveries in the art. We have already presented to our readers in 




Necklace : Belleza, of Rome. 



these pages illustrations of several of the most noteworthy objects in this col- 
lection, and we now add another, on page 182, of a fine Majolica Flower 
Vase, that during the Exhibition was given a place of honor in the aisle of the 
Main Building. The vase is composed of two scollop-shells, beautifully tinted 
within, and colored on the outside with brown, graduated up to white, as they 
appear in nature. At either end are two gracefully modeled mermaids, with 
their arms crossed over the breasts. The lower portions of the bodies are 
intertwined and rest upon the base of the vase, on which are sea-weed and 
shells. The human part of the figures is beautifully tinted of a flesh color, the 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



191 



lower portion imitating in color the irridescent skin of a fish. Altogether the 
work is finely designed and executed, and it is a matter of congratulation that 
it has become the property of one of our citizens. 

The superb piece of wood-carving shown on page 183 was exhibited in the 
Italian Court. It is a Hall Seat, carved out of black walnut. It exhibits in 
a ven,' remarkable degree the advancement of skill attained in the modern 
revival of an art for which Italy was at one time world-famous. Our readers 
will find pleasure in discovering lor themselves the many and elaborate beauties 
of this elegant design, as the most casual glance will show how manifold they 
are. Yet we desire to call especial attention to the spirited attitudes and fine 




Necklace : A. Casiellani. Rome. 



carving of the winged genii who seem to be springing, crouched, from the 
curved supports to the seat. The marks on the arms are also exceedingly 
well done, and the scroll-work in the panels should not be unobserved. 

Spain has always had a great reputation for the excellency of its metal- 
work, and especially tor delicate intricacy of its damascening. The specimen 
which we illustrate on page 184 is an Iron Shield, inlaid with silver, from the 
factor}' of ZuLOAGA, at Madrid. The oriental school in which the artist who 
designed this fine piece of work was educated is plainly apparent here. The 
grotesques, medallions and scrolls — the latter interwoven in a most bewildering 
way — are eminently Moorish. It would be difficult to find any more spirited 
or gracefully fanciful pattern than that in the central zone of this shield. 

A graceful and in every way satisfactory piece of metal-work of an entirely 
different character is the Wrought-Iron Flower-Stand, made by Barnard, 



192 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



Bishop & Barnard, of England, which is illustrated in our enj^raving on page 
1 85. The perfect simplicity of the design is its chief beauty. A light open 
stand supports a shaft resembling the stem of a plant, and above a group of 
delicate blossoms, looking like modest little "Quaker ladies," surround the basin 
intended to receive the flowers. This flower-stand is decidedly one of the 
prettiest things of the kind exhibited in the Exhibition, and it has the merit 
of being suitable alike for the lawn, the piazza or the drawing-room. 




Bpergne : y. ^ L. Lobmeyr, Vienna, 



It is quite likely that the fashion, like so many other luxurious fashions, 
of decorating fans with artistic paintings, had its origin in the luxurious court 
of the Louis. Certain it is, however, that the fashion was and always has been 
most common and carried to its greatest extreme in France. Some of these 
are miracles of delicate workmanship and marvels of painting. There are fans 
in some of the European collections weighted with jewels and painted by the 
most noted artists of the day. A few years ago there was a remarkable 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



193 



revival of the taste 
for painted fans — for 
these ladies' toys are 
more subject than 
almost any others to 
the changes of ca- 
pricious fashion — 
and there are at 
present in Europe 
many persons whose 
entire time is given 
to doing decoration 
of this kind. The 
two specimens we 
illustrate on page 
186 are charming 
examples of this kind 
of work. On one is 
a pretty little pas- 
toral scene a la 
Watteau, and on the 
other is a design 
svmbolizinsr the be- 
trothal of happy 
lovers. Both are 
exquisitely painted 
and mounted in the 
most delicate and 
dainty manner pos- 
sible. 

The Dessert Ser- 
vice engraved on 




Fieri! ituri: Silk : Collective Exhibit of Frajjcr. 



page 187 is a speci- 
men of the plated silverware produced at the manufactory of the Meriden 



194 



THE I NTERNATIO NAL EXHIB ITIOX, iSjS. 



Britannia Company. The central piece is particularly rich and elegant, the 
desire ot the artist seeming to have been to produce something chaste rather 
than anything elaborate. The combination of glass with the silver is happily 
conceived, and the eft'ect of these two materials in conjunction is almost 
always good. 

The grotesque Jugs seen on page i88 are examples of Turkish pottery. 
The originals excited considerable amusement among those who saw them ; 
nevertheless, perhaps more on account of their novelty than for any other 




Beajtvais Funrifftrt- Si/ks. 



reason, they were in great demand. An exception to the charge of grotesque- 
ness must be made for the jug on the left hand, which is beautifully propor- 
tioned. As to the others, odd as they appear measured by our canons of taste, 
they possess an individuality and freedoni of design indicating genuine artistic 
feeling. 

A wonderfully beautiful example of Belgium lace-work was a Parasol 
Cover, illustrated in the engraving on page 189, shown in the collective exhibit 
of that country. The pattern is beautifully designed. It radiates from the centre 
in a series of long narrow leaves, between which are sprays of flowers. Around 
this is a zone of fine open-work surrounded by a Vandyke border of great 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



'95 





delicacyand richness. The 
skill of the designer is 
well shown in the way 
in which he has managed 
to distribute his design 
evenly over the whole 
surface ot the piece, so 
as to avoid any sense of 
crowdino- towards the 
centre, or of sparseness 
towards the circumfer- 
ence. 

The reader can see in this 
example how well flowers 
and ferns — but especially 
the latter — can be used by 
the lace-worker as sub- 
jects for his design. It 
is, perhaps, better art, ac- 
cording to our modern 
canons of taste, to con- 
ventionalize natural ob- 
jects, or to make use of 
purely geometric figures 
in decoration of this kind. 
But only the captious and 
hypercritical will be dis- 
posed to find fault with 
a minute and faithful 
copying of nature when 
the result is a work of 
such exquisite fineness and 





Designs from Panels of Tapestry : Belgium Court 



196 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



delicacy. It seems curi- 
ous that the passion for 
lace should be carried to 

such an extreme as this — 
that, for the mere pur- 
pose of display, a strong 
material, intended for ex- 
posure to the weather, 
should be protected (?) 
by a covering made of 
the most delicate and 
costly of all textiles. 

The examples of jew- 
elry shown on page 191 
are taken from the col- 
lection In the Italian 
Court. One is from Sis;- 
nor Castellani's remark- 
able exhibit of reproduc- 
tion of antique designs 
and methods of orna- 
menting metal by the use 
of granulated gold, and 
the other is more prop- 
erly a finely chased set- 
tlngf for the magnificent 
matched jewels that it 
contains, from the estab- 
lishment of M. Bellezza, 
AT Milan. 

Quite a triumph In the - 
art of glass manufacture 
is illustrated in the Or- 
namental Vase engraved ^''° 



t 



„V. 



on page 192, trom the 
establishment of Lob- 
MEVR, IN Vienna. This 
remarkable piece shows 
the newly re-discovered 
process ot enameling 
with glass on glass. The 
outer surface of the vase 
is of a brilliant red enam- 
el, -the pattern being cut 
through to the crj^stal 
beneath. The ornamen- 
tation on the base is a 
combination of chasinof 
and oildine very rich in 
effect, while the figures, 
of clear white glass, are 
treated in such a manner 
as to deaden the lustre 
and enable the contours 
of the body and the lines 
of the drapery to be more 
easily distinguished. 

Within the past quar- 
ter of a centur^an aston- 
ishing impulse has been 
o-iven to the art ot cle- 
signing- by the adoption, 
in almost every part of 
Europe, of courses of 
instruction In drawing 
in the lower grades of 
schools. France has 

,, standard: M.UhclI. Vance b- Co., N. Y. ^hyayS rCCOgnlzed the 



^^^.'^ 



(..J t. 



IX DUST RIAL ART. 



197 



importance of this 
knowledge ; but even 
in that country the 
education of children 
according to a scien- 
tific system has been 
largely improved and 
elaborated within the 
last two decades. The 
importance of a know- 
ledge of drawing and 
instruction in the cor- 
rect principles of de- 
sisrn, in a commercial 
or purely utilitarian 
point of view, can 
hardly be overesti- 
mated. England, af- 
ter the Exhibition of 
1 85 1, was persuaded 
with some difficulty to 
try the experiment of 
introducing such in- 
struction into the pub- 
lic schools and pro- 
viding institutes for 
more advanced study, 
and the result has 
been such as to si- 
lence the most bigot- 




ed opponents of the Bronze stand and Vase : Collective Exhibit of France. 

scheme. That nation, 

costly fabrics, where elaborate decoration is appropriate, 

have all the beauty of painting. Take, for example, the specimen of Furni- 



from being, next to 
the United States, at 
the foot of the list, as 
far as industrial art 
was concerned, in the 
earlier International 
Exhibitions, soon rose 
to a first rank. Our 
country is still at the 
bottom, and will re- 
main there until some 
such system of educa- 
tion in designing as 
obtains in England is 
introduced into our 
primary and higher 
grade of schools. 

As an evidence of 
the artistic skill which 
France applies to her 
industries, we have 
only to observe the 
wonderful variety and 
beauty of the designs 
that adorn her tex- 
tiles, the brilliant con- 
trasts of color, the 
harmonious blendine 
of tints and shades, 
and the grace and 
elegance of the pat- 
terns. On the more 
some of the designs 



I9S 



THE I XTERy ATIOXAL EXHIB ITION, 1S76. 



TURE SiLic from the Collective Exhibit of France, shown on page 193. The 

two groups in the medal- 




lions are the work of an 
artist. Indeed, it is more 
than likely that as elab- 
orate and varied a design 
as this is the work of 
several hands. Probably 
one man desig-ned the 
scroll -pattern, another 
filled in the wreaths of 
flowers and leaves, and 
a third furnished the 
figures. It is quite com- 
mon in Europe, in the 
larger establishments, to 
divide the work in this 
way among the special- 
ists, whose talents are 
directed and combined 
by the chief draughts- 
man. 

Other examples of 
French Furniture Silk 
are illustrated on page 
194. These came from 
the famous factory at 
Beauvais, and although 
the patterns are very 
much less elaborate than 
the former specimen, they 
are fully as good designs. 
The specimen on the right hand of the page is a particularly effective piece 
of work. The plant has been conventionalized with such skill that each phase 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



199 



and aspect ot its life has been preserved, and leaf, bud, blossom, and flower 
introduced with excellent effect. 

Still another illustration of design applied to textiles is seen in the beau- 
tiful Tapestries from the Belgium department, engraved on page 195. Here, 
indeed, the character of the work is of such a hieh decree of excellence that 
it is brought within the sphere of the fine arts, and might properly be con- 
sidered under that head. It is by such combinations as these, where the genius 






Necklace and Ear-rin^s : A, Castellani, Rome. 



of the artist unites with the skill of the artisan to produce things of beauty, 
that the aesthetic taste and the commercial prosperity of a country minister to 
and advance each other. 

No more striking illustration of the demand which modern civilization 
makes for the introduction of artistic elegance into objects of every-day use 
could readily be found than In the matter of gas-fixtures. So far has this 
demand been carried In this Instance that the original purpose seems often to 
have been lost sight of entirely, and use been made subservient to beauty. 
For all purposes of illumination, the simple gas tube answers every require- 



200 



THE I NTERNATIOX AL E X II I B 1 T 1 X, i S j 6. 



ment ; but fashion lias decreed diat this tube shall be twisted into coils or hidden 
under ornamentation of a more or less elaborate nature. Year by year fresh 




The Queen's Curtain : Royal School of A'vidleiuork. 



devices have been called for, until at the present time it seems as if we had 
reached a point beyond which it will be impossible to advance. Not content 
with reproducing in bronze the most celebrated statues of ancient Greece and 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



20 1 



Rome, and making- them our light-bearers, the skill of our artists is employed 
to model figures that in 







^tt. 



M a 







'■^jt-^gi 



I! ir fi\ 



\Mit)> 




character and pose will be 
appropriate for this use. 
One of these latter, ex- 
hibited by JNI ITCH ELL, 

Vance & Co., of New 



York, forms the subject ^'?^^^^ .'^:&^M»1 
of our illustration on page ^^^^"^'^ °^ 



196. It represents a draped 
female figure, bearing on 
her shoulder one of those 
graceful amphorse, or Avine- 
jars, from the mouth of ^ 
which spring, plant-like, 
the gracefully curving 
branches of the candelab- 
ra. Candelabra it is but 
in name, however, for the 
seeming- candles are but 
clever imitations of those 
once necessary articles. 
These modern imitations 
burn without diminution to 
their length. The figure 
rests upon an elaborate 
pedestal highly ornament- 
ed with scroll-work and 
boars' heads in relief, the 
whole being designed as 
a standard for a hall or 
drawing-room, where it 
will serve at once the double purpose of a thing of use and an object of 
















Porfions of Lace Shawls : Szviss Court. 



"@il^ 



',^- 

H 



beauty. 



202 



THE INTERN ATI OX AL EXHIBITION, jSj6. 



There is something pecuHarly oriental in the Bronze Stand and Vase that 
we engrave on page 197, and there can be little doubt that the French artists 
by whom it was made had the modern taste for Eastern art in mind when 
this group was designed. The vase is a singularly bcautiiul work of art, and 



its workmanship is 
fauldess. The rais- 
ed ornamentation 
upon the handles 
and the chasing on 
the zone about the 
body are minutely 
elaborated. It was 
a novel thought to 
make the elephants' 
trunks serve as 
standards to the 
base, and one which 
at once suggests 
the French origin 
of a work that 
in other respects 
closely follows Chi- 
nese or Japanese 
models. 

A work which 
attracted consider- 
able attention in 
the French Court 
was the beautiful 
and elaborate 




Pitcher : French Collective Exhibit. 



Altar Cloth 
shown in our en- 
graving on page 
198. A study of 
this very remark- 
able piece of em- 
broidery will am- 
ply repay the 
reader, who must 
be ignorant indeed 
if he fails to dis- 
cover the analogy 
of the parts and 
their illustration of 
the sacred story. 
It cannot be, when 
such work as this 
is executed, that the 
days 

"When art was still religion" 

have passed be- 
yond recall. 

Our illustrations 
on page 199 take 
us back to a time 
when the workers 



in precious metal executed objects that have been the wonder and the admira- 
tion of all succeeding generations. The objects themselves are of modern 
manufacture, yet so closely do they imitate the antique originals that only such 
connoisseurs as their maker, Signor Alessandro Castellani, of Rome, would be 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



203 



able to detect the difference, if any there is, in the texture of the gold or the 
fineness of the wortimanship. As long as Europe has workmen who possess 
the art-knowledge and the skill requisite to produce such works as these, there 
is no danger of the jeweler's — or, more properly speaking, the goldsmith's — art 
degenerating. The study of the forms and the re-discovery of the methods 
which obtained among the artisans in the best period of metal-working is rapidly 
gaining for goldsmiths of the present age a first rank among artists. 



The OuEEx's Cur- 
tain, from the Roy- 
al School of Art 
Needlework, shown 
on page 200, is so 
called because Her 
Gracious ^Majesty, 
the Queen, designed 
the pattern with 
which the border of 
the curtains and the 
vallance above are 
embroidered. It is 
a charming piece of 
work in itself but 
it is chiefly note- 
worthy for the ex- 
ample thus set by 
Her Majesty to 




Amphora : Siisse Freres, Paris. 



women throughout 
the realm to employ 
their leisure in re- 
fining- and elevatingr 
pursuits. 

We illustrate on 
page 201 two more 
examples of Swiss 
lace-work that may 
be profitably studied 
in connection Avith 
the specimens illus- 
trated a few pages 
back. The designs 
here shown are much 
more elaborate than 
the former ones, and 
represent a different 
quality and manner 



of workmanship. These specimens have an additional interest also, in that in 
the motive for the design we can trace some of the delicate ferns and flowers 
of Switzerland, which the artist has grouped together with rare and exquisite 
skill. 

From the exhibit of .SussE Freres, whose choice collection of works of art 
in the French Court attracted many visitors, we have selected for illustration 
the Brass Amphora engraved on page 202. This splendid piece of metal-work 
was one of the most remarkable objects in their collection. In design it is at 




Organ : Muson 6^ Hamlin Co. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



205 




once elegant, graceful and spirited. The modeling of the figures forming the 
handle is particularly fine, and the repousse work on the zone around the body 
of the piece is of the most finished and artistic description. It is from the 



2o6 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



exhibition of such objects as this, and the stimulus thus given to our own 




Group of Silver-ware : Elk'ui^ton &> Co. 




Eper^ne : Elkiiigton &• Co. 



artisans to emulate their foreign brethren, that we can hope to derive lasting 
benefit from the Centennial. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



20/ 



Another Amphora, 
page 203, may be 
taken as an illus- 
tration of similar 
results of a study 
of classical models. 
Here are two ar- 
ticles designed by 
different artists in 
different manufac- 
tories,yetbothbear- 
inof a certain een- 
eral resemblance 
and the stamp of 
antique methods. 
This piece differs 
from the former in 
that it is composed 
of bronze and white 
metal, the latter 
being used for the 
medallions on the 
body and the orna- 
mentation of the 
handles, thus pro- 
ducinof a rich and 
striking contrast. 

An object that 
attracted the atten- 
tion of the ear as 
well as the eye was 
the Mason & Ham- 
harmony with the music 
The engraving on 



also of French workmanship, which we engrave on 

LIN Organ, engrav- 
ed on page 204. 
We cannot give 
our readers any 
adequate idea of 
the volume or the 
purity of the sound 
that issued from 
this organ, but they 
can judge for them- 
selves from ouren- 
p^ravino- how beau- 
tifully the music 
was enshrined. 
Just as organ mu- 
sic suggests lofty, 
noble and cjrand 
themes, so the in- 
strument itself 
should be built on 
noble lines, without 
any of the small 
detail that can be 
applied with pro- 
priety to instru- 
ments of lower 
range. The organ 
before us seems to 
embody this idea. 
It is a grand and 
massive design, in 




Bronze Lamp . French Court. 



which will issue from its pipes. 

page 208 represents a Punch Bowl and Goblets, 



208 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i S 7 6. 



exhibited by the Middletowx Plate Company, of Connecticut. It has been 
the aim ot the artist, in designing this group, to embody and typify the jovial 
spirit and sense of good lellowship tliat accompanies tlie use of such objects. 
The bowl, a noble, generous one in size, is decorated with scrolls and medal- 
lions, in which the grape-vine in leaf and fruit appears. At either end are 







Punch BoiL'l and Cups : Muidletozun Plate Co. 



miniature bottles and o-oblets. The cover is surmounted with a little Bacchus 
seated, as god of the revels, astride a bottle, upon a cushion of vine-leaves. 
Two other jolly little fellows, mounted in like manner, whip their steeds towards 
each other from either end of the salver, on which the bowl and goblets rest. 
These goblets, like their neighbor, the bowl, suggest by their size a generous 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



209 



supply ot liquor, and the vine-leaf and grape widi which they too are adorned 
indicate what the brew should be. Next, perhaps, atter the border around the 
edge of the bowl, which is exceedingly graceful and pretty, the figures of the 
Bacchi are the most notable features in this group. They are well modeled, 
and the upper one especially is full of life and action in his pose. It is a 
question whether the bowl would not have looked tully as well without the 




Tazzii : Emil Philippe, Paris. 



upright bottles and goblets at either end of it ; but it is not likely that those 
who enjoy the punch will be critical, and an envious judgment may be imputed 
to us who have to be content with simply gazing at the receptacle. 

On page 205 we engrave a very rich example of Brussels lace selected 
from the collective exhibit of Belgium. This fine piece illustrates in an admirable 
manner the beauty of the patterns for which the Belgium lace-workers have 
long been famous. It will be observed that here, as in other instances, plant- 



210 



THE IXTERNATIONAL EX HI BIT! OX, 1876. 



life furnishes the motive for the design, and that the fern, the most delicate 
and graceful of plants, is chosen; for delicate as are the veinings and mark- 
ings of the fern-leaf it is possible for the lace-maker to copy each line with 
minute fidelity. But in order to make such a design as this before us, some- 
thing more than the ability of the copyist is required. It is necessary that the 
artist should have power to throw into his work that semblance to nature, that 
life-like appearance without which the most finished work is hard and cold and 
unsatisfactory. Look carefully at the design here ; see how gracefully and 
easily each group combines with the others, and how harmonious is the effect. 




Group of Vases : German Court. 



No two groups are alike, though the same motive inspires all, and a finish is 
given to the whole by a tiny spray of ivy uniting the groups together. 

It is possible that the ancient Greeks and Romans practised a luxury and 
lavishness in living that will never be equaled in any land or in any century. 
They studied the art of ministering to the pleasure of the senses by every 
possible means imtil they had brought it to a supreme point; and as objects 
of sensual beauty, the relics of that age will always serve as models. It is no 
wonder, therefore, that in the present revival of taste, the artist seeks his 
inspiration from these sources, or that the connoisseur finds an intellectual 
pleasure in studying his work. To the antique beauty of form, our modern 



212 THE I NTERNATIO XAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

workman adds a refinement of treatment appropriate to our modern require- 
ments and liabits of thought, producing ornamental works of exquisite design. 
Take, for example, the Epergne and the group of Table Ornaments from the 
manufactory of the Messrs. Elkington, at Birjiingham, Engl.\nd, that we illus- 
trate on page 206. 

What more graceful object as an ornament to a table could be desired 
than this first-named piece ? As an example of fine metal-work it is simply 
superb. The sides are inlaid or damascened with medallions and scroll-work; 
at the corners are winded srenii, half human, halt animal ; and the surface of 
the base is of polished steel, reflecting back the shapes of the flower-vases that 
rest upon it. From the midst rises a tripod, terminating in draped female 
figures supporting the central vase and the crowning group of Loves and Fame. 

In the second illustration we have a group of five pieces, designed after a 
favorite classic pattern. Here the legs of satyrs, surmounted by a satyr's head, 
form the support, and an open scroll-work of a simple pattern fills up the 
intervening space. Below, upon the base, a lamp is introduced, and the resem- 
blance of the whole to a sacrificial vase is heightened by the shallowness and 
general shape of the dishes supported by the standards. Without being exacdy 
the same in design, the resemblance of shape in these pieces, each to the other, 
is quite sufficient to indicate that they all belong to one set or group ot 
ornaments. 

An example of metal-work of more than ordinary richness is the Bronze 
Lamp, one of the exhibits in the French Court, shown on page 207. In the 
elaborateness of its ornamentation and the intricacy of its design it resembles 
some of the gorgeous objects of art that were produced in the days of Louis 
Ouatorze. From a leaf-covered base rises a bowl banded with ribbons and 
scroll-work in low relief. In the centre is a medallion of a lady, with a legend 
after the manner of Roman amatorii — "La Romana Noblissima." On the second 
member of the lamp are bunches of flowers and fruits, from which rise scrolls 
and bands encircling the neck and twining about the masks that ornament its 
upper portion. The most noteworthy feature in the whole are the handles of 
the lamp, composed of winged caryatides, freely and boldly modeled, the drapery, 
from the waist downward, shading off and blending into the scroll-work around 
the bowl. The whole desiofn in this work is conceived in a manner of oriental 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



213 



richness, and the deep, warm color of the bronze metal adds greatly to 
the effect. 




A pleasing 
wall ornament, 
and one which 
from its intrinsic 
beaut}' and merit 
will never be- 
come tiresome to 
the possessor, is 
the Tazza, man- 
ufactured by 
Emile Philippe, 
OF Paris, that we 
engrave on page 
209. The de- 
siorn is one of 
those happy com- 
binations of the 
grotesque w-ith 
the natural, in 
whichFrench art- 
ists delight to in- 
dulge their fancy. 
The central figf- 
ure is a cupid, 
borne aloft by 
winged monsters 
with the body of 
a bird and the 
head of a beast, 
while above him 

wrought in metal for the delectation of those who can 
whose only use is to please and amuse. 



find 



is a device sug- 
gestive of a 
crown. Below 
are cocks' heads, 
terminating in 
scroll-work. On 
the border, or 
rim, is a spirited 
and beautiful de- 
sign of leaves 
and ri o w e r s, 
drawn with a 
free, bold hand 
and much artistic 
elegance. At 
their junction 
above is a satiric 
mask of fine exe- 
cution. If the 
utilitarian asks 
what such a de- 
vice as this 
means, or what 
is the good of 
it, he will be baf- 
fled. It is not 
an object of use, 
but of ornament, 
a brilliant bit of 
fanciful design 
pleasure in objects 



214 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



Aside from the exhibit of the Royal Porcelain Works, Germany made 
but a small and unsatisfactory show of pottery. Many of her most noted 
factories were unrepresented, and some of her most famous wares were not to 
be seen. The small collection of that peculiar kind of stoneware, of a mouse- 
colored body with ornamentation in blue relief — this is but a general description, 
to which there are exceptions — was, however, mostly made up of choice examples. 
The three pieces that we engrave on page 210 are of this description. They 
are all good copies of antiques and excellent pieces of workmanship. The 
vase on the left hand is particularly remarkable for the fine modeling of its 
figures in relief, and that on the right for its graceful lines. The centre piece 
is of a more oriental character, and is equally good in its way. Although this 







^ /■ . J; Jf , >, J. 




£ i-^ ^^'i J^4- '^'•'^ .ii>i-i ■iT^d.iJ 

% 



«? 







Portion of Gold Necklace : Egypllaji Court. 



Style of vase was not new in this country, this collection attracted considerable 
attention, and every piece was purchased long before the Exhibition closed. 

The superb Mantelpiece from the collection of Messrs. Cox & Son, Eng- 
land, seen on page 211, is an admirable illustration of the advance in art-culture 
and art-workmanship that has been made in that country during the last quarter 
of a century. The wrought metal-work, the tiles, the painted panels in the 
entablature, the diapered patterns, the thorough, woi^kmanlike construction in 
the wood-work, each and all are an outo-rowth of the revival in industrial art 
matters began in 1S52. It is a substantial, massive design, correct in principle 
and most artistically executed. The materials, too, are not of an expensive 
nature ; and if the piece is costly, the price asked simply indicates the demand 
for skilled and trained labor and artistic design. There is no reason why just 
such works, equally good in every respect, should not be made in this country; 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



215 



and provided exorbitant prices are not asked, there will always be a sale for 
them here. 

The fashion of having- plants growing in our houses is, notwithstanding 
the warning of physicians, a commendable one. The trouble is to keep them 
alive; for the drj^ furnace-heated air that we breathe is more fatal to their 
health than to ours. But a portable box that can be transported from one 
room to another overcomes this trouble in a great measure, and renders it 
comparatively easy to keep plants growing in the house during the entire 




Porcelain Tea Service ; Royal Porcelain Factory of Berlin. 



winter. The Jardiniere that we illustrate on page 213 is as graceful and 
prett}^ a device of this kind as need be desired. It is the work of Reeu & 
Bartox, of Taunton, Mass., and is so artistic that even if it is not used for the 
purpose for which it is designed, it will always be a charming ornament 
in itself. 

On page 214 we engrave a section of a wonderful Gold Necklace, from 
the Egyptian Court, that shows the peculiar characteristics of that school of 
design. The reader will observe the entire absence of scrolls and interwoven 
patterns, and the straightness of the lines. Yet whatever it may lack, to our 
eyes, in elaborateness of design, is made up in the workmanship, which is 
astonishingly fine and minute. The very simplicity and severity of the device 
will probably recommend this necklace to the esteem of many. 



2l6 



THE INTERN ATI X AL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



.,//:«/.; afgsiisiai 




'/'///'// /m 









Among the minor works of art exhibited by the Royal Porcelain Works 
OF Germany were dinner- and tea-services of an infinite variety of shapes and 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



217 




ll'-'iiijii'-;'^ 1 | iw«.i! ■ii!i" I" mr. "M" 
Cashmere Shawl from Saxony, 



patterns. One of the most beautiful of the latter, a porcelain Tea Service of 
four pieces, we engrave on page 215. Though each of the pieces is noteworthy 



2l8 



THE INTERN ATI OXAL EXHIBITION 1S76. 



in its way, the central figure, the pitcher, will attract the most attention, both 
for its graceful shape and for the decorative and ornamental work displayed 
upon it. 



We cannot hope 
to convey to the 
reader any ade- 
quate idea of the 
brilliancy and rich- 
ness of the color- 
ing in the group 
of ornamental 
Glass-ware which 
we have engraved 
on page 216. The 
pieces are from the 
famous factory of 

LOBMEYR, OF VI- 
ENNA, and are 
characteristic of 
the wonderful pro- 
ductions of that 
city. Here is opal- 
escent glass, cut 
crystal, glass 
blown to the thin- 
ness of paper, col- 
ored enamels and 
gold intertwined 
together in the 








Bro7ize Vase : Spanish Court. 



most marvelous 
way, and, in short, 
illustrations of the 
latest discoveries 
in the art — an art, 
b)' the way, that 
seems in a fair 
way of recover- 
ing, during the 
present century, 
the processes of 
glass manufacture 
that have been 
lost for hundreds 
of years. 

Nowhere else 
in the world has 
the art of com- 
bining gorgeous 
color and brilliant 
design been car- 
ried to such per- 
fection as in the 
Orient. The text- 
iles of India, fa- 
mous as far back 



as history or even tradition can go, have always been the wonder of 
the world, and it is only of late years that the discoveries of science and 
the application of mechanical means have been able measurably to imitate 
the marvelous products of the Eastern loom. On page 217 we give an 
illustration of one of the best of these imitations. Every lady will recog- 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 219 



nize it at once as one of those objects dear to every woman's heart — a 
Cashmere Shawl. The pecuHar richness of the pattern in this example is 
rather heightened than lessened by the combination ot colors, that are not of 
a gorgeous kind, but ot warm tertiary and secondary shades and tints, more 
restful and pleasing to the eye than is always the case in these fabrics. The 
specimen shown was made in Saxony, but only an expert could say with cer- 
taint}' that it was not a veritable Cashmere. 

Our illustration on page 218 is taken from the metal-work display in the 
Spanish Court. It is a Bronze Vase, inlaid with silver and engraved with 
chasings in the manner peculiar to Moorish art. In its shape the vase has its 
counterpart in vases made in Persia many centuries ago, and it is to Persia 
that we trace the so-called Arabesque ornamentation and the decorative designs 
made familiar to us by the Alhambra and other monuments which have served 
as models for Spanish art ever since. It is now believed by men who have 
studied the subject that the Arabs themselves were not an artistic people, 
although their rulers were often patrons of art and science, who encouraged 
the cultivation of foreigrn tastes and the colonization of foreign workmen. 

The descendants of Mohammed having conquered Persia, doubtless modified 
the art of its inhabitants, and from this modification arose the well-known Ara- 
besque style. It fairly covers an object with interlaced scroll-work and lines of 
bewildering intricacy. Figures of beasts and monsters are introduced and inscrip- 
tions in some ancient character. It is curious to note, by the way, how this 
habit of using inscriptions in some instances survived the knowledge of the 
character itself, which from being a collection of properly formed letters, making 
words, came to be nothing more than a fanciful pattern for decorative pur- 
poses. Whether the decoration on the handles of this vase is an example of 
this, or whether it is an inscription, is beyond our knowledge to say; but at 
any rate any one can see here an illustration of our meaning. 

In the upper portion of the body of the vase, animals are introduced, and here 
again, both from the creatures themselves and the manner in which they are drawn, 
we recognize the oriental methods. We have not space, however, to dwell longer 
on this interesting subject. The reader can see for himself that here is a 
strongly marked style of decoration essentially different from all others, and for 
metal-work, perhaps it is not too much to say that it is the most effective of all. 



220 



THE INTERXATIOXAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



Among' the numerous other curious and interesting arts seen in the Egyp- 
tian Court, the one of enriching leather by decoration in gold and color, of 
which the S.^ddle-Bag engraved on this page is an illustration, was one that 
attracted much attention. The effect of this work was rich in the extreme, and 
it is apparently popular with the people, for numberless articles, from the trap- 
pings of horses to small purses and toilet articles, are thus decorated. In 
this instance the gold appears to have been used in threads as an embroidery, 
worked into a pattern drawn with remarkable skill. 
Our illustra- 



tions on page 22 1 
take us back to 
France and to 
the famous por- 
celain manufac- 
tory established 
at Sevres, and 
patronized by all 
Europe. We 
were fortunate in 
having an e.xhi- 
bition of some 
of the finer ex- 




Sjddie-Bag : Egyptian Court. 



porcelain at the 
Centennial, sent 
to us by the 
courtesy of the 
French Commis- 
sion. None of 
this display was 
on sale ; it w^as 
simply a contri- 
bution towards 
making the cele- 
bration worthy 
of its hio;h aims. 
In the same spirit 
the Sevres por- 



amplesof Sevres 

celain was not put in competition with the productions of other factories, for 

it unquestionably would have taken all the honors. 

Fostered by the lavish expenditure of royal means, afterwards carefully 
superintended at Government expense, with the best chemists in the world to 
perfect the methods of manufacture, and with great artists employed to decorate 
and design the ware, the porcelain of Sevres has long been pre-eminent. The 
factory is, in itself, a school of decorative and constructive art. 

Of the three pieces which we illustrate, one, the central piece, is of pate 
dure, or hard porcelain, and the other two of pate tendre, or soft porcelain, an 
artificial composition w^hich has always been considered the perfection of the 
potter's skill. In the former, the colors lie sharp and distinct upon the surface 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



221 



of the ware, but in the latter they sink in and obtain a depth and richness that 
seems fairlv to absorb heht. 

Many of our readers will recall, perhaps, the splendid brilliancy of the blue 
color in the piece, heightened by the gilding to the handles, seen on the right 
hand of this group. 

As an illustration of the way in which glass may be used for ornamental 
purposes, the Mirror, from the Lobmeyr Exhibit, in the Austrian Court, of 
which we engrave a section on page 222, may be studied. Looking at it, one 
would hardly realize that the polished reflecting surface of the mirror was of 





Vases of Sevres-ware : French Commission. 



the same material as its frame. In the latter, relief- work, scroll ornamentation, 
delicate pendants and medallions, finely decorated in color, are introduced. 
Gilding, too, is applied, and every kind of finish that may be desired is given 
to the surface. In one place it has the appearance of translucent enamel ; in 
another it is opaque ; again, a bosse gleams with the lustre of a jewel, and still 
other portions seem to have a velvet softness. It is, moreover, an astonish 
ingly rich piece of color, the ruby red, which this manufacture produces so 
successfully, predominating. 

From these crystal jewels we turn to the inspection of real gems — garnets, 
the carbuncle of the ancients, by whom the stone was indued with magical 



222 



THE INTERNATIOXAL EX 11 1 B I T 1 0.\\ 1S76. 



qualities. In the set of jewelry illustrated on page 223, nothing but garnets 
are used. These, carefully chosen to match in color and size and manner of 
cutting, have been set in embossed gold, so as to form a graceful and pleasing 
pattern. As a border or frame to each piece, sprays of laurel have been 
added, with ribbon-bows above and below. Beneath these, as a pendant, one 
large garnet, cut to a pear shape, is suspended in such a way that its vibra- 
tions may scintillate the brilliancy of the gem. 




Portion of Mirror : j^. &= L. Lobmeyr, Vienna. 



Doubtless many of our lady readers, in these days when the minutest 
details of the toilet are studied, will think of costumes with which this set of 
jewelry could be worn most becomingly, but we venture to say that few of 
them know, or fewer still would care to admit, that all personal adornment of 
this nature is a perpetual reminder of the servitude of woman to man. Neck- 
laces and bracelets had their origin in the collar and handcuffs of the slave, 
who was bartered and sold like any beast. It may even be that the nose-ring 
and lip skewer, still in use among savages, were used to lead resisting maidens 
and to enforce silence ; but we have no authority for this, and merely hazard 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



223 



it as a suggestion to those curious on the subject. However this may be, the 
women of the present day have their satisfaction and revenge in causing their 
lords and masters to buy the chains with which they, these same and other 
lords and masters, are afterwards enslaved and enthralled. 

It has been well said that "the resources of art in the form of pottery 
have at all times, especially in the great art epochs, been seized upon to express 
the art appreciation ot different races. The Etruscan vases have made per- 




Garnet Set: Gotdsclimidt, Prague. 



manent the chaste feelingf of their authors, and transmitted to us the refine- 
ment of other ages. The Egyptian pottery was exceedingly beautiful in form 
and outline, though somewhat rude in material ; and the vessels which have 
been used by different peoples, and have been preserved to us, are the clearest 
manifestation of the condition of domestic industrial art among them. Perhaps 
in this branch of industry the progress made during the last twenty years has 
been greater than in any other, and it has been in the direction of a return 
to simplicit}' and ancient forms. This last remark is especially true of Eng- 



224 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



land. Wedgewood produced work in his famous potteries at Etruria that was 
exceptional. With Flaxman to design for him, and with his own appreciation 
of the beautiful, he raised the potter's business almost at one stroke to a 
position among the fine arts. The example of Wedgewood has been of incal- 
culable benefit to his industry in England. Where he once stood alone in his 

the sight was a reve- 
lation. The effect of 
the system of art- 



pre-emmence, now 
there are half a dozen 
great manufacturers, 
producing pottery 
and porcelain equal 
in material and com- 
paring favorably in 
desiofn and decoration 
with European wares. 
No better illustra- 
tion of this is needed 
than the superb col- 
lection of English art- 
pottery exhibited by 
the Messrs. Daxiells 
in their department 
in the English Court. 
To one who had not 
followed the wonder- 
ful development of 
this industry in Eng- 
land within the last 
quarter of a century. 




instruction and the 
awakened interest of 
the community in 
aesthetic culture was 
visible on every hand 
in objects noticeable 
for beauty of form, 
purity of color, and 
correctness of draw- 



ing- 



Promethean Vase : Daniell 6^ Son, 



Several of the 
choicest pieces in this 
collection have al- 
ready been illustrated 
in these pages, and 
now we add another, 
in the engraving on 
this page, of the Pro- 
methean Vase. This 
vase is equally re- 



markable whether we consider the quality of the workmanship or the art 
displayed in its design. For the former it will be sufficient to say here that it 
is absolutely without a flaw, and the reader can see for himself how fine and 
harmonious are all the features of the ornamentation. The vase is of ovoid 
shape, somewhat flattened at the top. The neck is short and narrow, without 
ornamentation, and the mouth is covered by a cap. Around the base are several 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



25 



serpents, issuing from rock-crevices, and stretching upward toward the stem. 
On either side ot the body are medallions, with relief-masks, serving as brackets 
to the uprights which form the handles. To these are chained male figures, 
vigorously modeled, e.xhibiting, in pose and e.xpression, the agony of their 
position. Surmounting the cap is the figure of Prometheus, chained and bound 



to the rock, while 
perched with extended 
wings upon his thigh 
is the vulture tearing 
at his vitals. The art- 
ist has here treated his 
theme with ofreat skill, 
and not the least meri- 
torious feature in the 
whole is the manner in 
which the attention is 
concentrated on these 
three figu res b\- mak ing 
the other parts of the 
vase severely plain and 
unadorned. 

One need hardly 
be told that our next 
illustration, the Metal 
Crucifix, on this page, 
is of French manufac- 
ture, for the spirit of 




Metal Crucifix : R. P Poussielgue, Paris. 



French art is plainly 
visible in every line of 
the design ; yet, ele- 
gant as the object is 
in form, its execution 
does not equal the 
metal-work of two cen- 
turies ago, when art 
was religion, and the 
artisan and artist seem- 
ed to put the fervor of 
their faith into their 
work. Even Avith the 
many superb examples 
of the metal-work of 
that time in the mu- 
seums of Europe, free 
to the study of our 
modern workmen, it 
appears impossible to 
instill into them the 
enthusiasm and fervor 



necessary to originate equally vigorous work. This crucifix is undoubtedly a 
fine specimen of modern workmanship, beautifully designed, richly ornamented, 
and elaborately finished. The figure of the Christ is carefully modeled, and 
all the details and accessories have been studied with care and executed with 
skill, so that, after all, if we measure it by the standard of modern excellence, 
it worthily represents the best metal-work of to-day. 

The influence of French fashions and French art on our American manu- 



226 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, iSj6. 



facturers is seen in the handsome Clock and Vase, made by Mitchell, Vance 
& Co., OF New York, which we engrave on this page. An ornamental clock, 
accompanied by a pair of vases, may almost be considered a necessary part of 
the furniture of a French room. Indeed, so common is the use of clocks in 
that country that there are persons in the cities whose chief business is to go 
about winding the clocks and seeing that they are kept in repair. The clock- 
winder of the Grand Hotel, in Paris, goes his round of the rooms daily with 
the regularity of the watchmen. 

In this country, however, though we have adopted the fashion, we care less 




Bronze and Marble Clock and Vase: Mitchell, Vance &' Co., New York. 



for the use of the article than for its artistic setting. It matters very little to 
the average American housekeeper whether or not the time is registered on 
the "parlor clock," so long as its humbler prototype in the kitchen is correct; 
and the group before us is so handsome in itself that one might well desire it 
simply for ornamental purposes. 

The body of the pieces is a fine black marble, enriched with gilt bronze 
ornaments ; the vases being of rich copper-colored metal. 

The upright Ebony Pl4.no illustrated on page 227 is from the exhibit made 
by-R. Ibach & Son, of Barmen, Germany, in the German Court at the Cen- 
tennial. The case is a splendid piece of rich carving, neither over-elaborated 



I NDUSTRIAL ART. 



227 



nor too barren in detail for an object of tliis kind. The two lower panels are 
perfectly plain, with only a small beading around the frame. On the pedal 
post is a group of musical instruments carved in low relief. On either side, 
however, and serving as supporters to the key-board, are winged griffins elabo- 
rately executed in the round, and forming the most striking feature of 




Ebony Piano : R. Ibach 6^ Son. Barmen, Germany. 



this portion of the case. The upper portion, which is less concealed from 
view, is much more highly finished. The pilasters and cornice have finely 
wrought designs of a Pompeian pattern covering all their surface, and 
the central panel contains, beside, fine scroll-work, groups of loves and swans 
executed in relief The side or end panels have frames of the same style 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



as those in the base, but they have, in addition, as ornaments, vigorously 
carved masks with rings. 

It is satisfactory to note liere tlie prevalence of hand-work over machine- 
carving. The latter method has been the means of multiplying much that is 
good in wood ornamentation, but it has also been the fertile soLirce of much 
more that is meretricious and entirely bad. The multitude desire quantity 
without regard to quality, and a manuiacturer with the aid ot his machine saws 



n 
I 

4 



'{) 












,^-:. -' 



i 



l\^r!ion 0/ Bed- Cover : Japanese Couit. 






--^m 



I 



and lathes panders to this taste by turning out vast quantities of articles loaded 
down with florid and cheap ornament. There is no reason why a good model 
should not be selected in the first place, but as a matter of fact this is rarely 
done ; or if it is, the manufacturer, putting his taste above that of the trained 
artist, makes some change that he thinks will make the article more salable 
and popular. Certain it is that "the best workmanship and the best taste are 
invariably to be found in those manufactures and fabrics wherein handicraft is 
entirely or partially the means of producing the ornament." 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



229 



This it is that makes the work of oriental nations of such high excellence. 
The hand and the mind of the Eastern artificer always work together, and the 
one portrays the changing fancy of the other. Take, for example, the fabric 
of Japanese workmanship illustrated on page 228. Although the pattern here 




Enameled Card- Case : French Court. 



is much more uniform than is usual, it will be observed that no two of the 
scrolls are alike. The artist simply contemplated producing an harmonious 
whole, which he has succeeded in doing most admirably. How much more 
satisfactory and enjoyable is such a design as this than the repetition with 
mathematical accuracy over a surface of some one stereotyped fio-ure ! The 



2^0 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENH IBITION, 1S76. 



one shows a poverty of inventive art, as the other indicates richness and 
versatiUty of fancy. 

Our ilkistration on page 229 represents in its full size an Enameled Card- 
Case, exhibited in the French Court. This beautiful example of an art long 
practised, even among the ancient nations, but in later years brought to its 
highest degree of perfection in Limoges, illustrates the excellence the art 




Silver Tazza : Elkin^ton 6* Co., Binnin^ham, 



still maintains in France. In the centre of the case is a medallion likeness 
of Diane de Poitiers, and the brilliant and elaborate decoration surrounding the 
portrait of this beautiful woman is of a style and richness worthy of the time 
in which she lived. Indeed, the case itself is just such a costly and exquisite 
toy as this queen of luxury would have loved. 

In order that those of our readers unfamiliar with this art of enameling^ 
may have a more intelligent idea of the subject, we will endeavor briefly to 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 231 



sketch its more salient features. Tlie art of enameling is tlie process of deco- 
rating a surface witli some vitrifiable material by the process of fusion. This 
material Is colored by the use of metallic oxides, great care and experience 
in their use being necessary to obtain the desired results ; but the scale of 
colors which the artist has to choose from is not so limited as is generally 
supposed. Enamel colors are either opaque or transparent, and they are applied 
in three different ways. Incrusted enamels form the first and great division ; 
the painted enamels come next, and the translucent enamels on surfaces in 
relief make the third division. 

With the incrusted enamels our readers are already familiar in the examples 
of cloisonne and champleve oriental vases that have been illustrated in these 
pages. But this art was not confined to the East. It found expression in 
various parts of Europe, especially in France, in many superb ornaments, and 
the art obtained in Britain at a very early day. Of the two kinds in Europe, 
the cloisoime is by far the rarest and most valuable. Limoges was the chief 
centre of its production, and many famous examples now remaining in various 
parts of Europe are traced to the Limousin workmen. 

Here, too, the art of painting with enamel colors was first practised exten- 
sively and brought to its highest state of perfection. The museums of Europe 
abound with specimens of the brilliant work executed here during the renais- 
sance. So great was the desire to possess articles decorated with enamels, that 
for a season the goldsmith's chisel was superseded by the enameler's pencil, 
and dishes, vases, cups and objects of ornament glittered with brilliant colors 
that concealed wholly or partially the precious metals beneath. A long list of 
famous names is connected with the enamel-painter's art during the period 
when it was most practised. As time advanced, new methods of enameling 
were discovered, ' and toward the latter end of the seventeenth century the 
process of painting portraits in miniature was brought to a high degree of 
perfection. Some of these are perfect marvels of delicacy, both in color and 
finish. The same processes were applied to the painting of natural objects, 
such as flowers, birds and butterflies, on trinkets and all kinds of small personal 
ornaments, and the decoration soon became so fashionable that it was applied 
to the baser metals. 

In an article on Enamels prepared for one of the hand-books for the great 



232 



THE IXTERNATIOXAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



Kensineton Museum is this account ot the third division of which we have 
spoken : — 

"Translucent enamels upon relief were made by Italian artists about the 
year 1300, and grew more perfect as time went on, reaching the highest excel- 
lence in the sixteenth century. Benvenuto Cellini gives a detailed description 
of the mode of preparing and applying the enamels. He says that the colors 
were first to be pulverized and carefully washed; then to be dried, by pressure, 




Palissv Pta/e: Biirbizei &• Son, Pari 



as dry as possible ; the enamel was then to be laid very thinly upon the surface 
of the relief, in order that the colors should not run into one another. In 
placing the piece in the furnace, much caution is to be used so that the enamel 
might approach it gradually and be heated slowly, and afterwards as cautiously 
watched that it might not run. It was then to be withdrawn, and having gradu- 
ally become cold, another layer of enamel was applied, and the same process 
of fusion was repeated. When the piece had again cooled, the enamel was 
reduced in thickness until sufficiently transparent, and lastly polished." 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



233 



Fine specimens ot the above description are extremely rare and valuable. 
The subject of our illustration on page 232 belongs to the second division, or 
a painting in enamel colors — in this instance both opaque and transparent. 

Our readers are already tamiliar with the high character of the display 
made at the Centennial by the Messrs. Elkington, of Birmingham, through 
the superb pieces of metal-work from their manufactory which have been illus- 
trated in these pages. No one, looking at that splendid exhibit, made up 



entirely of ob- 
jects for or- 
namental use, 
could fail to 
acknowledge 
the rapid and 
ereat advance 
in art and art- 
industry that 
Enorland has 
made in the 
last quarter of 
a century. It 
was here in- 
deed that we 
could see the 
highest art ap- 

gan. If the other manufacturers of England in t-heir several specialties advance 
at the same rapid rate in the application of art to the industries as is advancing 
this representative firm of metal-workers, they will acquire for themselves a 
position second to none in Europe. 

The illustration on page 230 is another of the Elkington pieces shown at 
the Centennial. It is a large Tazza, or dish, profusely ornamented with rich 
and intricate scroll-work around the rim, and containing in the centre a charming 
group, executed in repousse, of Venus borne upon the waves by Neptune. We 
are not aware whether or not this piece is after a design of M. Morel Ladeuil, 
who is employed by the Messrs. Elkington, but certainly the vigorous drawing 




Communion Service : Cox 6* Son, London. 



plied to the 
precious met- 
als. The la- 
bors of the 
artist and arti- 
san were so 
thorou ghly 
and perfectly 
mingled — as 
they should be 
— that it was 
hard to say 
where the skill 
of the one 
ended, and the 
inspiration of 
the other be- 



234 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIB ITION, 1S76. 



of the sea-king, the graceful pose and beauty ot his lair burden, and the atti- 
tudes of the pretty, playful loves, suggest the work of a master-hand, and the 
whole forms a group not unworthy ot that great artist. 
Another famous 



metal-working firm, 
the Messrs. Cox & 
Son, of London, 
whose exhibit also 
has furnished us 
with several beau- 
tiful examples of 
their art, are rep- 
resented in the en- 
graving on page 
233. This repre- 
sents a group of 
ecclesiastical ves- 
sels for church cere- 
monial. Church 
furniture, by the 
way, is one of the 
firm's specialties, 
and they have 
achieved great suc- 
cess not only in the 
makincr of orisrinal 




Knig : Cou7tt von Klostcrel Thu7i, Bohemia. 



perb ecclesiastical 
vessels of former 
times. England is 
particularly rich in 
these treasures, and 
the English metal- 
workers have a 
rare opportunity to 
study in them some 
of the finest ex- 
amples preserved 
anywhere. 

The influence of 
this advantage is 
seen in the work 
before us, where 
the large chalices 
are, if not repro- 
ductions, conceived 
in the same style 
as some of the 
fifteenth century 
cups. The vessels 
for holding the 
wine also are of 
an antique type, 



designs in these 
objects, but in re- 
producing the su- 

and the general character of the design is carried out in the decoration of the 
patterns. In the group before us there seems to be three several sets of 
Communion Vessels — the lower one of simple form and modest size, suitable 
for and within the means of a village church; and the upper ones of different 
degrees of richness and elaboration, worthy to decorate the altar of some lordly 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



235 



place of worship. There seems to be a growing tendency in this country and 
in Europe, among many religious sects, to revive ceremonial of one kind and 



another, and to 
increase the 
attractions of 
worship b)' an 
appeal to the 
senses. With- 
out discussing- 
the propriety 
of this move- 
ment, or the 
grounds of the 
opposition it 
meets with in 
certain quar- 
ters, the unsec- 
tarian observer 
cannot but re- 
joice in the ef- 
fort to make 
the house of 
God beautiful 
beyond the 
abodes of men, 
and his worship 
in itself glori- 
ous and im- 
pressive. 

Few objects 
in pottery are 
so much valu- 




■5 



<1 



ed by connois- 
seurs as pieces 
of Bernard Pa- 

L I S S Y - W A R E. 

This f a m o u s 
potter and 
chemist, who 
lived and work- 
ed under the 
patronage of 
Henry 111, and 
died miserably 
in the Bastile 
for his faith, to- 
ward the close 
of that mon- 
arch's reign, 
invented pro- 
cesses which 
other potters 
were unable to 
discover, and 
modeled natu- 
ral objects with 
a vigor and nat- 
uralness quite 
unequaled by 
contemporary 
articles. Of 
late years the 



taste for Palissy-ware has revived to such an extent that fabulous prices are 
paid for genuine specimens, and the market is flooded with more or less 



236 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, 1876. 







pertect imitations. One of 
the great firms in Paris, 
Messrs. Barbizet & Son, 
have devoted considerable 
time and attention to repro- 
ducing this particular ware, 
and their labors have been 
eminently successful. In 
their exhibition in the French 
Court at the Centennial, 
there were pieces in design- 
and execution quite worthy 
of the great master himself, 
and some of their copies 
placed side by side with the 
originals would deceive even 
an expert. 

The Palissy Plaque illus- 
trated on page 232 gives an 
excellent idea of some of 
the characteristics of the 
artist's manner. Every nat- 
ural object modeled by him 
was copied with remarkable 
accuracy both in form and 
color. It was rarely, too, 
if ever, that he went out- 
side of nature for his themes. 
His fish and shells were 
found in the Seine, and his 
plants are such as grew in 
his neighborhood and came 
under his observation. An- 
other favorite style of deco- 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



237 



ration with him was an imitation of rock-worlc, in wliicli he excelled, but the 
name ''Palissy-ware" is commonly associated with the style of work seen in our 
engraving. Here are fish, eels, frogs, lobsters, lizards, and water-bugs distribu- 
ted among a confusion of land- and water-plants. On one side is a dragon-fly 
poised above a flower, and on the other a nest-full of birds on the sand. 
These objects are all executed in low relief, and colored as in nature. It is 
our impression that this plaque is a copy of one of Palissy's own invention ; 
but even if it is not, it is sufficiently in his style to give an intelligent idea 
ot his peculiar methods of decoration. 




Testimonial Vase: Tiffany 6^ Co., New York, 



Although Bohemia was noteworthy at the Centennial principally on account 
of the splendid display of glass made by her manufacturers, the sister industry 
of pottery-making was not without its representatives. The Count von Klos- 
TEREL Thun made the most extensive exhibit, chiefly of decorated table-ware, 
tea-, dinner-, dessert-serv^ices, etc. In addition to these there were numerous 
glazed and colored ornaments in faience, together with vases and fio-ures ot a 
clear, white material resembling parian in texture and finish. The fine Krug 
which we engrave on page 234 is of this character. It is an ornamental piece, 
standing some three feet high, and will be recognized by many as the central 
object in the Count von Thun's display. In shape this vessel resembles some 



^38 



THE IXTERNATIOXAL EXH IBITION, 1S76. 



of those antique stone-ware pieces chiefly made in Cologne and other cities of 
Germany, but commonly spoken of as gris de Flatidrcs. Its ornamentation, 
however, is quite of a different character. On the zone surrounding the body 
of the vessel is depicted a dance and drinking-revel, where the sport is fast 
and furious. The figures are executed in relief and are examples of uncom- 
monly good modeling. The drawing, too, and the grouping of the figures is 
very well done. Above this zone is a circle of vine-leaves and fruit also in 




ye-wel Casket : Zuloaga &= Son, Madrid. 

relief but less raised than the former. Above this again, on the neck of the 
vessel, is an armorial shield with supporters. Garlands and bunches of fruit 
and flowers surround it. On the cover, seated upon a kind of throne, with her 
drapery disposed negligently about her, is seated a female figure, typifying the , 
goddess of the revels. On her knees rests a lute, and in her right hand she 
holds a goblet of wine. Her hair hangs loosely about her shoulders. The 
handle has less ornament than any other part of the vessel ; yet here, just at 
its upper junction with the neck, a winged mask is cleverly introduced. Taken 
as a whole, this vase is an admirable example of the artistic skill and excel- 
lence of the Bohemian potters. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



239 



As another example of the skill of the Belgian lace-workers, we give an 
illustration, on page 235, of a Lace Border manufactured by Verde de Lisle 
Brothers, of 



Brussels. It is 
not possible, in 
an engraving of 
a fabric of this 
kind, to convey 
any adequate 
idea of the ex- 
ceeding fine- 
ness of the 
workmanship, 
but the richness 
and beaut)' of 
the design have 
been admirably 
rendered in the 
illustration; the 
profusion and 
variet}' of the 
flowers and 
ferns suggest 
the richness of 
tropical luxuri- 
ance, and they 
have been 
grouped and 
intermingled by 
the artist with 




porcelain Va^c 



charming- prrace 
and natural- 
ness. An ex- 
cellent feature 
of the design 
is the way in 
which the repe- 
tition of the 
groups is ar- 
ranged, so as 
to convey as 
little idea as 
possible of 
sameness, and 
to make the 
whole harmo- 
nious. A fine 
vine 
with delicate 
tendrils and 
sprays of leaves 
depending over 
the plants be- 
low gives a 



runnmg 



straight and 
well-defined 
border, sepa- 
rating the figure 
from the plain portion of the fabric, and making a finish to the whole. 

A happy blending of realism and fancy is seen in the graceful design in 
the panel, a specimen of Wood-Carving, by Professor Frullini, of Florence, 
illustrated on page 236. The artist seems to have had in view the idea of 



240 



THE TNTERXATIO XAL EXIIIBITIOX, 1S76. 




Buffet: Collinson &• Locke, London. 



conveying- a sense of a tangle of branches of trees and tall grasses by the 
multiplication of the curves and intricate convolutions of lines with which he 
has covered the panel. Among these, as in a thicket, are birds, reptiles and 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



241 




Lbony Labinet : U. U. I-rcdcyuh, Drcsder?. 



insects, executed with mucii spirit and skill. In the centre of the panel is a 
fanciful figure, half bird, half monster, above which, standing in a shell, is a 
pretty group of Venus and Cupid. There is something peculiarly free and 



242 



THE I NTERNATIO XAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



vigorous in the execution of this design, which, as a whole, is one of great' 
beauty. 

After the Court of Arbitration on the Alabama question, consisting of fiv 
members appointed b}- the Governments of the United States, Great Britain 
Italy, Switzerland, and Brazil, which met at Geneva in 187 1, had completed their 
labors, our Government, in recognition ol tlieir services, presented each of the 
foreign commissioners with a service ot handsome plate. One of these pieces, 




0)!vx I'lise : French Court. 



manufactured by Messrs. Tiffany & Co., of New York, is illustrated in our 
engraving on page 237. It is a large vase or bowl, elaborately ornamented 
with scroll-work and figures in relief, and bearing en its side an inscription 
explanatory of the nature of the gift. At either extremity of the piece are 
heads of Bacchanti crowned with grape-leaves and fruit, attached as handles to 
the bowl. These heads are well modeled and finely executed, and the whole 
piece is a representative and excellent example of metal art-workmanship. 

On page 238 we engrave an illustration of a Jewel Casket, manufactured 
by M. ZuLOAGO, of Madrid, and on view at tlie Centennial among his exhibits 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



243 



In the Spanish Court. The great beauty of this elegant affair, aside from the 
design, is the exquisite finish of the workmanship. The fine Arabesque deco- 
rations on the ends of the box are as carefully and perfectly wrought as they 
could well be, and the delicate inlays in the medallions and border on the front 
and top and back are without a flaw or false line. The lock is perhaps the 
most elaborately finished part of the whole, but even here there is a notice- 




Porcelain Plaque : French Court. 



able absence of the tendency to over-elaboration tliat too often mars Spanish 
art-work. The designs for the medallions, it will be noticed, are quite free from 
exaggeration, and nothing could be simpler than the pattern of the border, yet 
the effect of the whole is one of extreme elesfance. 

The large Porcelain Vase engraved on page 239 is somewhat different in 
the st)'le of its decoration from any of the other pieces of Chinese pottery 
which we have illustrated in the preceding pages. The body, neck and lips of 
the vase are covered for the most part with a fine vine and flower scroll pattern 
done in polychrome, but the front portion is occupied by medallions painted 



244 



THE INTERN ATI OXAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



with figure-subjects. What the subject of the upper design is, is uncertain, 
though it might very well represent a high official beset by rival office-seekers. 

But the lower picture tells its 
i^ >^*-l o^^'n story. Here is a grand 




^^1, Mogul seated at his ease, 
/?^ 

'^^ watching the performance of a 
couple of clowns. Standin 
^l/m *|^^^*^""^^ o" the steps just outside of the 



Mogul's court is the master 
of the clowns, urging the poor 
fellows on to renewed exer- 
tions, while on either hand, 
keeping him, the master, to 
his work, are two courtiers, 
one expostulating with him 
kindly, and the other standing 
silent, with drawn sword, and 
a most sinister look on his 
face — an action more potent 
than words. 

This picture is a very good 
illustration of Chinese picto- 
rial art. It is full of character 
and action. What could be 
better than the attitude and 
expression of the master of 
the clowns here, or of the pe- 
destrian who has paused in 
his walk to enjoy their an- 
tics ? It is not fine art, con- 
sidered by our canons of good 
drawing and perspective, but it shows more artistic perception and ability to 
portray the salient points of a situation, than many European artists possess. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



245 



The severe plainness in 
style for furniture that has 
quite superseded the pat- 
terns of twenty-five )'ears 
ago is illustrated in the 
Buffet exhibited by CoL- 
LiNSON & Locke, of Lon- 
don, in their department at 
the Centennial. It is alter 
the manner made familiar 
to us in this country by 
Mr. Eastlake in his book 
on Household Art. The 
benefit of that volume to 
the people both here and 
in England has been quite 
incalculable. Itwoke every- 
body up to the evils of 
glue and veneer and mere- 
tricious ornament and dis- 
honest f\'orkmanship. It 
called for good, honest 
joinery in wood-work, and 
protested against shams. 
It showed, too, how much 
more harmonious and how 
much more truly artistic a 
room would appear fur- 
nished in the manner he 
advocated than with the in- 
congruous assortment of 
fragile bow-legged mon- 
strosities to which the public had become accustomed. It is possible that the 
enthusiasm of Mr. Eastlake led him too far in his crusade, but in the main his 




246 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, 1876. 



suggestions were marked 
with orood strono- common 
sense and a correct appre- 
ciation of art. 

It will be observed that 
the lines of this buffet are, 
in the main, straight, fol- 
lowing the grain of the 
wood, and that the detail 
of the ornament is very 
simple, and that it is of a 
character suitable to the 
material used. In several 
places tiles have been in- 
troduced as panels, thus 
adding; richness and color 
to the whole. Carrying 
out this style, in the mind, 
through a whole set of 
dining-room furniture, we 
can hardly imagine a more 
comfortable or thoroughly 
satisfactory series, or one 
better calculated for use 
as well as ornament. 

The engraving on page 
241 illustrates an Ebony 
Cabinet, one of the chefs 
d'ceuvre of the exhibit of 
O. B. Frederick, of Dres- 
den, in the German Court. 
Although this fine piece 
of carving is designed in 
the renaissance style, its 



Sanctuary Lump : Mitchell, Vance&'Co. 



appearance is more mas- 
sive and severe than com- 
monly obtains in furniture 
of that period. The lower 
portion of the piece is 
divided into panels by 
pilasters of Doric pattern, 
which latter, by their plain- 
ness and absence of orna- 
mentation, give greater 
emphasis to the elaborate 
scroll-work with which the 
side panels are adorned. 
The centre panel, other- 
wise unornamented, con- 
tains a central medallion 
on which is carved in low 
relief and with exquisite 
skill a pastoral scene of a 
classic character. Here 
Pan is represented playing 
upon a flute, while groups 
of shepherds and shep- 
herdesses are gathered at 
his feet, listening to the 
music, while their flocks 
browse peacefully about 
them. In the upper por- 
tion of the cabinet are two 
panels containing figures 
of dancing girls, also carv- 
ed in low relief and in the 
same classical style. In- 
deed all the details of the 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



247 



work, the frieze below and 
the entablature above, are 
conceived in a classic 
spirit. This entablature, 
it will be observed, is 
supported by columns ot 
the more elaborate Co- 
rinthian order. There 
are eis^ht of these col- 
umns — four at the back 
and four in front — the 
space between being left 
open, affording a place 
for the arrangement of 
statuettes, pottery or any 
ornamental objects. 

The charming group 
of little Loves, illustrated 
on page 242, bravely en- 
deavoring to raise and 
carr)' the vase which they 
have garlanded with a 
rope of leaves, makes 
a pretty picture. The 
central figure, quaintly 
draped — as if such inno- 
cence needed drapery — 
with her hair done up in 
a matronly fashion, in her 
serious belief that she is 
aiding her companions, 
who really have assumed 
the whole burden, is a 
delightful little creature. 








T 



Bronze Candelabra : French Colirl. 



For the others, the artist 
has succeeded admirably 
in portraying that expres- 
sion of manly determina- 
tion and strong endeavor 
so comical in the earnest 
play of little children. 

When we consider, 
however, that this group 
has been carved from an 
onyx, a hard species of 
quartz resembling agate, 
it becomes a matter of 
wonder that anything so 
beautiful could be exe- 
cuted in such a hard ma- 
terial ; yet the art of the 
lapidary is one of the 
most ancient of exisdng 
arts, and unlike others 
of like antiquity, has 
come down uninterrupt- 
edly to the present day. 
Perhaps no more mar- 
velous proof of the per- 
fection of art-workman- 
ship among the Greeks 
is to be found than in 
the engraved cylinders 
and intaglios and cameos 
which they e.xecuted. 
Amonof them we find 
specimens of such mar- 
velous execution as defy 



248 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, JS76. 



all attempts at imitation. In most of the museums of Europe, beside these 
smaller examples, are cups and vases of later date, carved from crjstals or 
from precious stones, illustrating the continuance of the art in another form. 
In the Louvre are many notable pieces, and it may be the French artist who 
executed this onyx vase gained his inspiration from the study of that magnifi- 
cent collection. 



The Porce- 
lain Plaque, 
illustrated on 
page 243, which 
is also a speci- 
men of French 
art-workman- 
ship, is remark- 
able for the 
delicacy of the 
design and the 
extremebeauty 
of its execu- 
tion. It is very 
rarely, and only 
when done by 
artists of merit 



who have given 
long- time and 



study to the 
work, that pic- 
torial designs 
executed upon 
porcelain give 
thoroughly sat- 
i s f a c t o r y re- 
sults. So much 
allowance has 
to be made for 
the change of 
color in the 
firing and the 
different ap- 
pearance that 
is given by the 
glaze, that the 
designer often 
is obliged to 

work not on a picture growing to completion under his hands, but on one which 
is finished after his work is ended, and in which no repairs or after-touches are 
possible. 

In the design before us the reader can well judge for himself of the beauty 
and grace of the drawing. The nude female figure is a model of loveliness, 
and the little cupids disporting about her, laughingly avoiding the playful strokes 
of her whip, are charmingly graceful in their attitudes. The group is arranged 
in a flowerinsf branch sueeestive of a bower, and the skill with which the leaves 
have been made to harmonize gives a particular merit to the composition. 




Necklace and Ear-rings : Geissei 6^ Hartuug, Hanau. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



249 




Fire Screen : Royal School of Art Needlework. 



The coloring of the piece, of which no idea can be conveyed in an 
engraving, is another of its excellent features. The flesh tints are admirably 
managed, and are finely relieved against the deep dark background. The border 



250 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



has been intention- 
ally subdued so as 
not to distract the 
attention from the 
group in the centre, 
and the decoration 
is of simple geo- 
metric character. 

The fashion of 
using porcelain 
plaques for wall 
decoration, thoug-h 
liable to be carried 
to excess, is a com- 
mendable one when 
practised in moder- 
ation. Persons un- 
familiar with this 
use of plaques will 
be surprised at the 
admirable effect of 
a single artistic 
plate, such as this, 
properly framed 
and hung upon the 
wall. Many pieces 
that are quite lost 
among a number 
of others resting in 
a cabinet or upon 
a mantel-shelf can 
be thus used to ex- 
cellent advantage 
in adornine a sit- 




tmg-room or par- 
lor. 

Nottingham 
Lace is known over 
pretty much the 
whole civilized 
world, and the 
m a n u f a c t u r e is 
justly celebrated, 
for nowhere else 
has the mechanism 
for this kind of fab- 
ric been brought 
to greater perfec- 
tion. The specimen 
which we engrave 
on page 244 is an 
excellent example 
of this famous 
work. The fern, 
which seems to be 
such a universal 
favorite witli all 
lace-designers, is 
repeated here in a 
very pretty pattern. 
Delicate woodland 
vines surround the 
ferns and form a 
pleasing tangle in 
the border. 

A curtain of a 
totally different 
style, and one es- 



Lamp-post : Gcrvian Court. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



251 



sentially French in character, is seen in the next illustration on page 245, which 
is engraved as a specimen of lace exhibited in the French Court. This curtain, 
from the pictorial nature of the design, is evidendy intended to hang perfectly 
flat, as otherwise the 
harmony of the out- 
line would be spoiled. 
Here, too, about the 
border we have ferns 
and wood-plants in- 
terwoven with scrolls, 
but the central subject 
is a little naked Cupid 
standing upon a pe- 
destal, and bearinof 
upon his shoulder a 
sheaf of lilies which 




he has been gather- 
ing. Springing up 
on either hand and 
framing him with their 
leaves are flowering 
grasses, while above 
the little fellow are 
suspended the em- 
blems of his craft, 
guarded over by 
birds. It is pleasant 
to picture in one's 
mind all the appoint- 
ments of a room in 
which such curtains 

as these would be hung, for unless it was one equally rich in its details, any- 
thing so elaborate as these hangings would be out of place. 

The great advance that has been made in artistic metal-working in this 



252 



THE IXTERXATIOXAL EXHIBITIOX, 1876. 



country within late years was excellently well illustrated b)- the various displays 
made by the several exhibitors in the section of the United States department 




Porcelain Vase : French Court. 



in the Main Building devoted to this branch of industry. Our illustration on 
page 246 represents a Bronze Sanctuary Lamp, manufactured by Mitchell, 
Vance & Co., of New York, whose department was particularly rich in art- 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



253 



work of a hie'i order 
of excellence. The 
oraceful character of 
the design in this ex- 
ample is well shown 
in our engraving. By 
an ingenious piece of 
mechanism the lamp 
can be raised or low- 
ered any desired dis- 
tance, where it is held 
in position by bal- 
ancingf-weiofhts. In 
contrivances such as 
this, ingenious devices 
for economizing labor, 
any one who has 
studied the handicraft 
of foreign nations and 
our own must admit 
that we are pre-emi- 
nent. In art -know- 
ledge, that can only 
become general when 
we have a systema- 
tized art -instruction 
with abundance of 
good examples to 
study from, we are 
still woefully deficient, 
but we are convinced 
that, with the means 
of study supplied, our w 
a quickness and aptitude 




Lace Curtain : Emrlish Court. 



orkmen will avail themselves of the opportunity with 
which will redound to their credit. 



254 



THE IXTERXATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



No one glancing at our engraving on page 247 would imagine that it was 
other than a work of art intended for purely ornamental purposes. Only the 
glass globe rising from the amphora which the girl is balancing on her shoulder 
betrays the use for which this lovely bronze is designed. Observing this, we 



know at once that this 
globe conceals a gas- 
burner, and that the 
place for this figure is 
the newel -post of a 
stairway, or in some 
other position where 
lioht is needed. We 
are not disposed to 
aeree with those art- 
advocates who depre- 
cate the use of figures 
such as this for pur- 
poses of this kind, 
though we heartily 
condemn the absurd 
disproportion which 
is often seen between 
the figures themselves 
and the illuminating 
apparatus they have 
to bear. Unquestion- 
ably this graceful 




Eve Nursing Cain and Abel : Terra-cotia iji 
English Court. 



water-jar poised on 
her shoulder, is a fin- 
ished group, and all 
above the jar is out 
of place, and in a 
sense, inharmonious; 
yet the addition is so 
evident and so en- 
tirely separated from 
the figure itself as to 
work its own remedy, 
and in contemplating 
the one we pay little 
or no attention to the 
other. Especially at 
night when the gas is 
lit is this separation 
the more complete, 
and for that matter 
there is no reason 
why everything not 
immediately pertain- 
incr to the statue could 
not be so arranged as 



Greek girl, with the ^ 

to be removed during the day, if any one so desired. 

Examples of jewelry, manufactured by Messrs. Geissel & Hartrung, of 
Hanau, Germany, are shown on page 248, in illustration of the styles of 
workmanship popular among the women of that country. The necklace itself 
is of a severely plain pattern, but the pendant hanging from it is quite elabo- 
rate. This latter is of finely-chased gold and filigree-work, something after the 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



255 



manner of the Florentines. In the ear-rings we have specimens of cameo- 
cutting — one the portrait of a lady, and the other a fanciful subject, a Cupid 
in a bower of ferns, pouring water through a hollow log. 

It is hardly necessary to inform those of our readers who have come with 
us thus far that the illustration on page 249 represents another of the charming 
pieces of work designed and executed under the auspices of the Royal School 
OF Art Needlework, in London. The design was doubtless made by one of 




Thofwaldsen s Ganymede in Terra-cotta : Madame Ipsoi, of Denmark. 



the artists employed by that institution, after which it was embroidered upon 
the cloth and mounted as we see it here. A fourth panel, concealed from view 
in the illustration, but similar in character to the one on the right, completes 
the harmony of the design, which is in every way admirable. 

In a country-house or in any dwelling where gas is not in use, the Lamp- 
Stamd of German manufacture, shown in our illustration on page 250, would be 
about as pretty and useful an article for the purpose as could be devised. It is 
light and graceful in shape, and yet of sufficient weight to withstand any ordinary 
jar. The lamps are raised to a sufficient height to be out of the way and to 



256 



THE INTERXATIONAL EXHIBITION, i S 7 6. 



give their light the proper elevation, while a broad, shallow vase is added to 
the top, in which flowers ma)- be arranged to advantage. 




Waskingto7i Race-Oip : Tiffany &" Co. 



The DouLTON Pottery, of which we have spoken at length in a former 
number, is seen in our engraving on page 251, which well illustrates the variety 
and artistic excellence of the pieces made by the Company that gives its name 



IXDUSTRIAL ART. 



257 



to the ware. The absence of all overloading in ornamentation or of mere- 
tricious decoration is particularly noticeable in these pieces, each one of which 
is eminently satisfactor\- in itself and gives evidence of a thorough, intelligent 
study on the part of the artist who designed it. 

Pottery ot the highest class, as far as material is concerned and of merito- 
rious decoration, is seen in the Porcelain Vase, illustrated on page 252, which 
was exhibited in the French Court. From the character of the design which 
covers the body of the piece — a fox and implements of the chase — it is possible 
that the vase may have been intended as a hunting-trophy, to be presented to 
some victor who has followed the hounds and been in first at the death. 





Pin-Cushions : Roy at School of Needlework. 



The Lace Curtain, from the English Department, shown in our engraving 
on page 253, illustrates a favorite st)'le of design for the decoration of these 
fabrics. It has more solidity than the ordinary flower- and fern-patterns, and 
the effect of the curtain when hanging in folds is heavy and rich. The con- 
ventional treatment of the palm-leaf common in the decoration of Indian fabrics, 
is introduced here with striking effect ; and in addition to these figures, garlands 
of flowers depending from arches make a pleasing pattern for the centre of 
the piece. It is well to observe how artistically the designer has preserved a 
proper balance in this elaborate work, lightening the figure above and massing 
it in the lower portion. 

In a previous number we have advocated the use of terra-cotta for pur- 



THE INTERNATIONAL EX H I B I T 1 N, i S j 6. 



poses ot architectural and ornamental construction as one of the cheapest and 
most durable materials known, particularly recommending itself on account of 
the facilit}' with which it can be modeled. Now, however, we would call atten- 
tion to its adaptability for works of art, especially for those of large size 



and those liable to 
exposure to the 
weather. All gar- 
den statuary, foun- 
tains and lawn orna- 
ments come within 
these classes, and 
can be made in 
terra-cotta as well, 
if not better, than 
in any other material 
cast in a mould. The 
great difficulty so 
far attending the use 
of terra-cotta for 
small and delicate 
objects, such as stat- 
uettes, has been the 
unequal shrinkage 
of the material in 
drying, but this is 
being rapidly over- 
come, and we may 
hope soon to see it 




Clock, Louis XllI : Susse Frircs, Paris. 



become a favorite 
medium of expres- 
sion for artists. 

Our illustration 
on page 254 rep- 
resents an artistic 
group manufactured 
in terra-cotta and 
exhibited in the 
English department 
by the Watcomb 
Terra-cotta Com- 
pany. The subject 
is the famous French 
statue of Eve nurs- 
ing Cain and Abel, 
or "The First 
Cradle," and the 
work is a capital 
reproduction of the 
original. The beau- 
tiful, even tint of a 
warm fawn color 
eiven to the ma- 



terial adds greatly to its appearance and to the beauty of the group. 

On page 255 we engrave an illustration of one of the admirably-executed 
bas-reliefs in terra-cotta in the exhibition of Madame Ipsen, of Copenhagen, in 
the Danish Court. This charming group is after Thorwaldsen's fine original — 
Ganymede, "the most beautiful among mortals." It will be remembered that 
while the earlier legends tell how the youth was made cup-bearer to the 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



259 



immortals, later writers assert that Zeus caused an eagle to bear him up to the 
abode of the o-ods. Knowinof this, we see how the artist has sug-crested both 
episodes in his arrangement of the group before us. 

The Cextexnial Race Trophy, illustrated in our engraving on page 256, 



was another of the ex- 
cellent examples of 
silver-work by which 
the Messrs. Tiffany 
maintained their repu- 
tation as art-workers 
in the precious metals, 
and excited the admi- 
ration of our foreign 
visitors at the Centen- 
nial. We say another, 
in reference to the sev- 
eral elegant examples 
already presented to 
our readers in these 
pages. Too much 
credit can hardly be 
accorded to this enter- 
prising firm for the 
prestige they gave to 
the department of the 
Exhibition in which 
their stall was located. 
Their display of art- 




Cajidelabra, Louis XIV : Susse Freres, Paris, 



istic work in all the 
branches of their trade 
not only redounded to 
their own credit, but 
gave evidence of the 
culture and refinement 
and wealth of the com- 
munity where such 
choice objects could 
find a market. 

The elegant group 
before us was made 
as a substitute for the 
usual cup prize given 
at race-meetings, and 
offered for the 1876 
Fall Meeting of the 
New York Jockey 
Club, as the gift of 
Mr. August Belmont. 
The fortunate winner 
was Mr. Georee Loril- 
lard's "Tom Ochiltree." 

It was desired, in 



order to give distinction to the prize in the great racing event of the Centen- 
nial year, to connect the two subjects of patriotism and horses, which has been 
admirably done by the artist of Messrs. Tiffany & Co., who conceived the 
happy idea of introducing Washington in the role — less familiar to us than that 
of soldier or statesman — of a raiser of fine horses. 

Irving, in his "Life of Washington," says: "I have just seen Washington's 



26o 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



horses; they are as good as they are beautiiul, and all splendidly trained. He 
trains them himself." 

The figure of Washington is a remarkably sympathetic and expressive 
likeness. His hand is resting in graceful ease upon the shoulder of the 
thoroughbred mare, who is leaning over a colt that bears its mother's points 
of beauty, though undeveloped, and both animals seem under the benign influ- 
ence of a poetical power that has won their confidence. 

This group was a bold attempt in silver-work, and though there are a few 




Benvenuio Cellini Helmet : Italian Court, 



points in the modeling which we think might be improved, it ranked high 
among the metal sculptures of the Exhibition. 

Examples of the embroidery exhibited by the Royal School of Art 
Needlework are shown on page 257. These pieces include cushions, mats and 
furniture-covers, or, as they are still called in England, notwithstanding the 
vulgarity of the name, anti-macassars. Each of the designs here shown is 
thoroughly artistic, and of a character suited to the work. No attempt is made 
at pictorial representation, the nearest approach to anything of the kind being 
the birds on the scroll of branches in the central piece. How much more satis- 
factory this is than the fashion, not yet out of date, of attempting to copy 
natural objects in Berlin wool ! Who does not remember the animal mon- 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



261 



strosities depicted upon canvass, that we have been expected to admire ? — the 
green dogs with pink eyes, and the beasts tliat resembled nothing in the whole 
range of natural history. Neither the heavens above, nor the earth beneath, 
nor the waters under the earth, contained such things. 

A pleasing ornament for any room is the Clock manufactured by Susse 
Freres, of Paris, shown on page 258. The lower portion containing the clock- 
works may be taken to represent the base or pedestal of the statue of the 




Shield of Henry IV : Italian Court. 



Amazonian warrior which forms the chief ornament. The shape of this base and 
the ornamentation upon it is of a strictly classical character. It resembles the 
entrance to some ancient temple, above which this warrior is seated as the type 
of the goddess of Victory. 

Another fine work in bronze exhibited by Susse Freres is the Candelabra 
engraved on page 259. This elegant object has all the richness of form and 
ornamentation of the time of Louis XIV. Male and female masks are freely 
introduced, and much attendon is g-iven to the chasing^ and detail of the 
several parts. 



262 



THE JNTERNATIO XAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



The perfection of metal-working, as far as vigorous design and brilliant 
execution are concerned, was reached by that master workman, Benvenuto 
Cellini, so liberally patronized by Pope Clement V'll and King Francis I. The 
Helmet engraved on page 260 is attributed to him, and certainly it is a superb 
piece of work. The only absolutely authentic works by this great artist, known 
at present, are a gold salt-cellar in the Vienna Museum and three or four cups 
and medals in the Florence Gallery ; and while doubtless among the many 




Vase; Collective Exhibit of Gicn ct Loiret. 



thousands of articles treasured as Cellini's work, many are worthy of his chisel, 
and some are probably by him, yet we cannot be too careful in comparing 
them with the known pieces before we pronounce upon them. 

Another remarkable piece of metal-work is the famous Shield of Henry IV, 
engraved on page 261. The chasing is of the most elaborate description, and 
the design, as will be seen by examining our illustration, contains a multitude 
of figures. The richness and elegance of the border are particularly noteworthy. 

Both these pieces were reproduced in electro, and exhibited in the Italian 
Court at the Centennial. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



263 



The collective exhibit of Gien et Loiret, in the French Court, contained 
a bewildering display of faience. Examples of almost every style obtaining in 
France through successive reigns were here to be seen, but the pottery was 
principally remarkable for the brilliancy and combinations of the colors used. 

A fine specimen of ^\'s, fabrique is illustrated on page 262. It is a large 
oval \'ase, very finely modeled, with masks in relief, and decorated on the sides 




Faience : French Court. 



with medallions containmg figure-subjects. The design before us represents a 
sleeping Venus, whom Cupid is awakening by music. The conceit is a pretty 
one, and furnishes the artist with a lovely theme for illustration. 

Other examples of French Faience, more or less elaborate, are seen in 
our illustration on this page. The covered dish shows much elaborateness of 
detail in the decoration, and the dessert-plate an equal delicacy and refinement 
of treatment. The handle to the beer-mug, on the left, in its close imitation 
of nature is in striking contrast with the decoration in the body of the mug. 



264 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, 1S76. 




C abinci- Sideboard : Cooper &= Holt, London. 



A capital design, simple yet effective, and thoroughly artistic, is seen 
unpretentious pitcher on the right ot the group. 

The Cabinet Sideboard illlustrated on this page, one piece of a 



on the 
suit of 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



26; 



dining-room furniture exhibited by Messrs. Cooper & Holt, of London, is a 
noble piece of workmanship. Its height and breadth make it unsuitable for 
anv other than a large room, but, suitably placed, its fine proportions and artistic 




Porcelain Vase : Chinese Court. 



ornamentation would attract attention. Brilliant eold and color decoration is 
introduced with great effect into the carved under-surface of the pediment above 
the mirror, and handsomely painted tiles are inserted in the panels of the doors 
on either side. In the lower portion, the panels contain rich and elaborate carving 



266 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i S j 6. 

in relief. Various recesses and shelves are arranged for die display of china 
and plate, and the artist evidently studied the effect that would be produced 
when the Avhole was, so to speak, furnished, when making his design. 

The subject of our illustration on page 265 is a Chinese Porcelain \^ase, 
of an unusually large size, fine in quality, rich in color, and of superior finish. 
These points of excellence would be noted by the dealer or the connoisseur, 
but to the ordinary' observer who has little or no knowledge concerning these 
matters, the vase is interesting chiefly on account of the novelty of the design. 
It is the novelty that makes Japanese and Chinese goods so popular with us 
and Europeans. In form, construction, ornamentation, and decoration, the 
products of these nations are different from anything produced elsewhere. 
Particularly are their pictorial representations interesting, because they illustrate 
costumes, custom and a life that might belong to a different world, so opposed 
are they to our notions of the fitness of things. Take, for example, the group 
before us in this engraving. Doubtless to a Chinaman these figures appear 
all right, but to us they seem all wrong. The idea of men being arrayed in 
such garments as these, and their hair done up after that fashion ! Even with 
their sex evidenced by the moustachios, we are half inclined to doubt the man- 
hood of these individuals. If the Chinese mythology included three Graces, we 
should be inclined to think that the artist, a Celestial satirist, was indulging his 
humor by picturing those beautiful women on a masquerading escapade. Never- 
theless, for aught we know to the contrary, they may be three worthy citizens 
taking a Sunday afternoon walk in their best clothes, or the three mightiest 
potentates of the empire, before whom even the cats of China blink. Yet let 
the reader consider for the moment that, allowing- for a litde extravagance in 
the detail, we have before us a representation of costumes worn of men, as 
accurately portrayed as the fashions on the plates in a tailor's window. Look 
at the man on the left with a small parasol stuck into his head. Observe the 
central figure: what a coiffure he has made already, and apparently he is still 
at work on his back hair. The third man seems to be less of a dandy than 
his companions, yet even he has made his modest pigtail attractive by twisting 
it into an artistic knot. As for the costumes, Mrs. Swishelm herself could not 
invent or name such garments. And yet these fashions are the expression of the 
oldest civilization on the face of the globe, of a people who have always prided 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



267 



themselves on their clothes ! According to the Christian belief, the first mother 
covered her nakedness with a fig-leat, but the Chinese Eve discovered silk and 
wove a fabric of the thread and made a fine gown for herself Blessed amone 
women should she be! - 

Yet suppose, having had our laugh at these heathen, we look for a moment 





Furniture Siik : French Collective Exhibit. 



at our manner of dressing. It does not require a Chinese standpoint of view 
to see that much of it is monstrous — not the men's fashions (they are well 
enough), but those of the women. Do not they torture their feet and contract 
their waists and place protuberances on their persons and erect constructions 
on their heads — in short, deform their natural shapes? The female form is our 
t)'pe of beauty, and the Greek idealists are recognized as having given it most 
perfect expression in their statues. One — a man at least — would think, there- 
fore, that women would endeavor modestly to clothe themselves so as to preserve 



268 



THE IXTERXATIONAL EXHIBITIOX, 1S76. 



it" not to betray the sym- 
metry of a perfect figure. 
It not wcW tormeil by na- 
ture, it is reasonable and 
perhaps justifiable that 
they should resort to art ; 
but to go beyond this, to 
mar their own beauty, — 
that women should do 
this would be inconceiv- 
able, if we had not the 
evidence always before 
us. Few women pause 
to consider how these 
chanjjes of fashion from 
the simple robe girdled 
at the waist have been 
brought about ; why one 
portion of the figure is 
exaggerated and another 
contracted. We think 
perhaps it would be better 
it they did ; for certainly 
no intelligent woman can 
do this without discover- 
ing that sensuality is a 
gfoverninor motive. 

On page 267 we illus- 
trate two different pat- 
terns of Furniture Silk 
from the Collective Ex- 
hibit in the French Court. 
They prove that, notwithstanding the advice of would-be reformers of taste, 
the public continue to demand the very designs in textile fabrics which they 




Lace : Collective Ex li id it of Brussels. 




Bohemian Glass Vase and Pedestal : Lobmeyr, Vienna. 



270 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, 1876. 



declaim most against. These instructors say tliat to have wreaths and garlands 
of flowers, imitating- nature, woven into a carpet which we walk over, or into 
a fabric which we sit down upon, is quite contrary to the canons of aesthetic 
art ; yet, for all that, the best skill of French workmen, the most artistic work- 




T/ie Amazon {bronzed zinc) : y. L. Mott Iroti Co., New York, 



men in the world, continues to be employed in weaving just such patterns into 
the finest and most costly fabrics used for the purposes named. 

The example of Lace which we engrave on page 268 from the collective 
exhibit of Brussels differs only in elaborateness and pattern from the speci- 
mens already illustrated. Like those the fancy of the designer here has brought 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



271 



flowers and ferns together in beautiful groupings, and tiie skill of the lace- 
worker has been taxed to reproduce the pattern, thread by thread and stitch 
by stitch, in the delicate network which keeps the figures in the place. 

It seems hardly credible that the elaborate Vase and Pedestal, seen in 
our eno-raving on page 269, is made entirely of glass ; yet if the reader saw 




Repousse Plated Ware : Keed i^ Barton, Taunton. 



or could have seen the original, he must have wondered the more that all that 
richness of color, gilding, high relief, ornamentation, and delicate tracery of 
intricate design could be produced in that material. It may well be considered 
a triumph in that branch of manufacture. As we recall the remarkable exhibit 
of LoBMEYR, OF ViENNA, from whose collection this vase is illustrated, it seems 
as if every known method of manipulating glass had its example there. But 



272 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



a chief place in the display was given to the exhibition of the manufacturers' 
latest discovery, the method ot enameling a transparent glass of one color upon 
another, so that, by grinding down the outer covering or cutting through to the 
under surface, a variety of hues and colors especially brilliant and pleasing was 
produced. This vase is an example of this process. 

The famous statue of "The Amazon" engraved on page 270 is a favorite 
subject for reproduction in marble, bronze, the precious metals, and clay. It 
forms the ornamental portion to innumerable clocks, paper-weights and trifles 
for the desk or mantel-shelf We have even seen a gas-burner attached to the 




Faience : Indian Court. 



Amazon's cap, but in the present instance the group is intended to serve only 
its original purpose. It has been cast in zinc and bronzed by the J. L. Mott 
Iron Co., of New York, and is a very excellent piece of work. The muscles 
of the beasts, the expression of the woman, the texture of skin, hide and hair, 
each and all have come out remarkably clear and distinct. 

The group of plated ware from the exhibit of Reed & Barton, illustrated 
on page 271, shows to what perfection this branch of manufacture has been 
brought in this countrv. As far as beautv of form and elaborateness of design 
go, no greater amount of work or more careful study of detail could be desired 
even if it was to be expended upon a service of solid metal. 

Several examples of the curious faience of India, exhibited by the British 



IND US TRIA L ART. 273 



Government, are shown in our illustration on page 272. The decoration upon 
them is simple, yet highly artistic, free in execution, and admirably suited to the 
material and the object itself. The forms are all graceful, the most pleasing, 
perhaps, being the flat vase with tall, lily-shaped neck. The incised work shows 
the scrolls, palm-leaves, etc., which we commonly see on oriental textiles. 

Another curious ware is the faience of Russia, characterized by a certain 
angularit}^ of outline and a tendency to follow geometric lines and patterns in 
decoration. The colors usually are uncommonly rich and well contrasted, the 
effect being heightened by the separating line between the colors being 
depressed, as if the pattern had been traced by a fine blunt instrument upon 




Faience : Russian Court. 

the green ware. This makes little cushions, which, when colored, give to the 
whole an appearance suggestive of the squares of worsted on canvass-work. 
We engrave a number of specimens of this ware on this page, the group being 
made up from the display in the Russian Court. 

On page 274 we engrave an illustration of a very remarkable example of 
wood-carving exhibited in the Italian Court. It is the work of Signer Luigi, a 
famous artist in this particular, and will be found well to repay careful exami- 
nation. It was a very bold conception thus to make a pordon of a ruin, 
overgrown with clinging and climbing plants, the motif for a piece of furniture, yet 
the artist has treated his theme with consummate skill. All the details have 
been carefully studied and are elaborately wrought, the evidence of a master- 
hand being visible in every mark of the chisel. 

Many of our readers will recognize with pleasure the subject of our illus- 



274 



THE INTERN ATIO XAL EXHIB ITION, 1S76. 




l\ 'ood- Carving : Italian Court. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. ' 275 



tration on page 276. It is the famous Bryant Vase presented to the honored 
poet by his friends and countrymen on tlie eightieth anniversary of his birthday. 
It is undoubtedly one of the most important pieces of artistic silver-work ever 
produced in this country. Both tor its intrinsic excellence and the pleasant 
associations surrounding it, it fitly occupied a central place of honor in the 
Main Building at the Centennial, and perhaps no single object in the whole 
American Court attracted more attention than this testimonial to William 
Cullen Bryant. 

The vase was designed by Mr. James H. Whitehouse, chief artist of 
Messrs. Tiffany & Co., of New York, by whom it was made. We cannot do 
better than give the reader the artist's own description of his work : — 

"It is intended to symbolize Mr. Bryant's life and character through the 
medium of a classic form, covered with ornamentation drawn from nature, and 
suggested by his works. As in Mr. Bryant's career there has been nothing 
inharmonious, all the details of this design are made subordinate to the simple 
classic outline which is preserved unbroken. The heavier lines of the fretwork 
are derived from the apple-branch, which suggests that while Mr. Bryant's 
writings are beautiful, they also bear a moral : as the apple-tree blooms with 
a beautiful flower in the spring, and in the autumn bears fruit. Poetry is sym- 
bolized by the eglantine, and immortality by the amaranth, which is said never 
to lose its fragrance, and these are blended with the lines formed of the apple- 
branch. 

"The primrose, for early youth, and ivy for age, form a border directly 
above the handles. Encircling the neck at the narrowest part, the immortal 
line, 'Truth crushed to earth shall rise again,' is rendered verbatim, the begin- 
ning and end being separated by a representation of the fringed gentian, which 
Mr. Bryant remembers in one of his poems as always pointing to heaven. 
Eras in the poet's life are illustrated by a series of bas-reliefs. In the first, as 
a child, looking up with veneration at a bust of Homer, to which his father 
points as a model. The second shows him in the woods, reclining in a medi- 
tative attitude under the trees. Between the first and second of these medallion 
pictures is a portrait of the poet, laurel-crowned. Above this, the lyre for Mr. 
Bryant's verse ; and beneath, the most primitive printing-press, for^ his connec- 
tion for over half a century with the 'New York Evening Post.' In a smaller 



276 



THE INTERS ATI OX AL EXHIBITIO.Y, 1S76. 



medallion is the 
waterfowl, used 
by Mr. Bryant 
as an emblem 
of faith, and 
introduced for 
that reason as 
the key-note of 
his writings. 
The ornament 
around the low- 
er part of the 
vase is of the 
Indian corn, 
with a single 
band of cotton- 
leaves, and at 
the foot is the 
water-lily, em- 
blematic of elo- 
quence, for Mr. 
Bryant's ora- 
tory. The han- 
dles are in har- 
mony with the 
general outline, 
but subordinate 
to it, and as hu- 
mor is a subor- 
dinate element 
in Mr. Bryant's 
writings, it is 
suggested here 
by the Ameri- 




T/ie Bryant Vase: Tiffany &-' Co., Sk'cw York, 



can bob-o'linU 
lor the humor- 
ous poem of 
'Robert of Lin- 
coln.' The two 
great American 
staples are in- 
troduced to 
complete the 
ornamentation 
of the handles 
— the stalk, leaf 
and grain of the 
Indian corn on 
the inside, and 
the bud, flower 
and ripened boll 
of the cotton on 
the outside. On 
the base which 
supports the 
vase is the lyre 
for verse, which 
with the broken 
shackles point 
to Mr. Bryant's 
services in the 
cause of Eman- 
cipation. 

"The design- 
er has intro- 
duced symbols 
from nature, as 
the fittest means 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



277 



of illustrating the life of an author whose writings teem with symbols drawn 
from the same source, and has intended to bring unity out of elaborate detail." 




4?' 








Curiam Borders : Royal School of Art-Needlework. 




\ 



\ 



\ 






t 



V 

1 



\\ 



w 



On this page we engrave two examples of Curtain Borders from the 
exhibition made by the Royal School of Art-Needlework. The first of these 



V8 



THE INTERXATIONAL EXH IB ITION, rSj6. 



is an ex'ceedingly effective piece of work. The flower-sprays are embroidered 
on a dark, chocolate-colored cloth, admirably suited in tone to the colors of 
the leaves and blossoms of the plant. The design, too, is a beautifully graceful 
one, copying nature, but treating the subject in such a manner as to be in no 
way offensive to good taste. The narrowness of the border, moreover, pre- 
cludes the probability of the unity of the figures being destroyed by folds in 
the curtain. The second design is of an entirely different character, the theme 
being a succession of plant-tendrils and flowers conventionalized to such an 
extent and located in such a manner as to suggest the Pompeiian borders 
which are familiar to all designers. In this as in the other example, the pattern 




Bi-acclct : KrumbuFel, Russian Court. 



"^ '^A^k-^ 



has been wrousfht in the fabric with threads of different colors, or true 
embroidery. 

We are pleased to see that this kind of work is finding favor among the 
women of this country, and that already schools of design and needlework are 
forming in several of our cities. We believe that as soon as the absurd preju- 
dice, too long obtaining among the decayed gentility classes in this country, 
against manual labor for women has been overcome, that a new and powerful 
impetus will be given to the progress of all branches of decorative art among 
us. The field is an extensive one, and one peculiarly fitted for women to work 
with profit and success. 

In this connection we cannot refrain from calling attention to a circum- 
stance that recently came to the knowledge of the public. It appears that a 
certain well-known citizen of New York, who had become involved in difficul- 
ties of one kind and another, fled to Europe, and an investigation of his affairs 
discovered that his family were reduced from wealth to poverty. But during 
the days of his prosperity he had taken care to provide for his children in a 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



i7g 



manner that no mutations of fortune could rob them of Each of his daughters, 
beside receiving the education usual for girls in their position, had been taught 
a trade or profession. One was a competent drawing-teacher, another a thorough 




Jeweled Pendnnts : Starr &' Marcus, New York. 



Bonhonnierc ; M. Boiicheron, Paris. 



musician, and the third had learned the trade of a milliner; so that they had 
the means of making an honorable livelihood secured to them at a time when 
nothing was more improbable than that they should have to have recourse to 



28o 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



these means. The moral of the story is plain, and that it is worth heeding is 
evidenced by the thousands of helpless, poor women brought up in luxury now 
living on the charity of their friends. It is not their fault, poor creatures, that 
they are in this pitiable state of dependence, but the fault of their parents. If 
the future of girls was studied and provided for with the same care as that of 
boys, we should hear less talk of woman's rights and radicalism. 

The richness of the display of gold- and silver-work and jewelr}' in the 
Russian Court at the Exhibition was a subject of common remark. The col- 




Faience : Russian Ccurt. 



lection was of bewildering magnificence, and of a splendor which, though the 
term is questionable, is best described as barbaric. The minute and exquisitely 
delicate workmanship, such as obtains in the south of Europe, was not seen 
here to any extent, the characteristic of the work being heavy masses of gold, 
brilliantly enameled, gleaming with jewels — vigorous, bold designs, and strong 
contrasts and massing of color. On page 278 we give an example of Russian 
jewelry and goldsmith-work — a Bracelet — from the exhibit of Krumbugel, of 
St. Petersburg. It is an excellent illustration of the several characteristics 
which we have noted. 

As specimens ot the proficiency of our own countrymen in the jeweler's 
art, the two pendants seen in our engraving on page 279 are notable examples. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



281 



In the first, around the superb central gem, are grouped wreaths of flowers 
composed ot jewels set in the finest possible trame-work of gold. In the second, 
the art of the chaser and engraver has been employed to produce a memorial 
jewel worthy of the event inscribed in the legend. Both of these princely 



ornaments were 
made by Messrs. 
Starr & Mar- 
cus, OF New 
York, and exhib- 
ited in their dis- 
play at the Cen- 
tennial. Com- 
pared with the 
exhibits of the 
same character 
made by foreign 
manufacturers, 
these and like 
jewels shown by 
our American 
firms proved 
that in this par- 
ticular we could 
fairly compete 
on equal terms 
with European 
designers and 
artisans. 




Majolica Faience : Danieil 6* Son, London. 



The BONBON- 

NIERE, the low- 
ermost of the 
group on page 
279, is a charm- 
ing toy, as costly 
as it is small, 
exhibited by M. 

BOUCHERON, OF 

Paris. It is 
hardly larger 
than a silver dol- 
lar, yet it is made 
of gold, and is 
profusely jewel- 
ed andenameled 
with various col- 
ors worked into 
a design of cu- 
rious minute- 
ness and intri- 
cacy. It is a 
trifle for princes 
to hesitate over, 



for poor men to wonder at, and for women to desire. 

The fondness for strone and briofht contrasts of color noticeable in the 
art-workmanship of Russia is peculiarly visible in the decoration of their 
pottery. In the examples shown on page 280 of Russian Faience, the enamel 
colors, principally red, blue, green, and yellow, are arranged to give the highest 
contrasts ; and was not the arrangement made with consummate skill, the effect 



282 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



would be too gaudy to be pleasing; but whether by instinct or training', which- 
ever it may be, the decorative artists of Russia certainly have a fine apprecia- 
tion of the limits to which color-treatment can be carried, and while in desiornino- 



they mostly con- 
fine themselves 
to geometric 
forms, in the use 
of pigments they 
give their fancy 
free play. 

How different 
is the treatment 
of the decoration 
in these pieces 
from that of the 
ornament illus- 
trated on page 
281, though all 
are of the same 
material, faience. 
This piece is one 
of the numerous 
art-works exhib- 
ited by the 
Messrs. Daniell 
& Son, of Lon- 
don, and shows, 
as indeed did the 
ereat bulk of 




m iMlMnMSMIIIilllfl I fiiJWJffiMMfffl*!!!!! 

Bronze Vase : Japanese Court 



their display, the 
perfection of the 
English potter's 
art. In studying 
this fine piece of 
work, the eye 
naturally rests 
first upon the 
two little vine- 
wreathed figures 



restmg 



agamst 



the base of the 
column, their 
hands full of 
fruit. The pose 
of these little 
fellows is charm- 
ingly graceful 
and pretty, and 
the contours and 
flesh -tints have 
been wonderfully 
well preserved 
through all the 
several firings 
which the piece 



had to undercjo before it was finished. From these figures we turn to the 
other ornamentation, the scroll-work and shell-shaped receptacles at the base, 
the elaborate bracket for the fruit -baskets at the sides, the medallion on 
the base of the column, and the shaft itself, capped by a third and larger basket 
for fruit and flowers, and finally the harmony and proportion ot the whole is 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



283 



obser\'ed. The piece possesses the rare merit of being- pleasing just as it 
appears, while the imagination, picturing" it in use, its baskets heaped full with 
fruit and flowers, can see that it will gain added beauty by the addition. 

The beautiful Bronze Vase of Japanese manufacture illustrated on page 282 
is an example of how faithfully and accurately the artisans of this wonderful 
nationality can reproduce in metal natural forms, either animate or inanimate. 




Lace Shawl : Collective Exhibit of France. 



We have here rocks, trees, animals, and birds, treated without the least con- 
ventionality, the artist appearing to have endeavored to copy them to the life. 
On the cover of the vase is a mass of rock, jagged and broken, its surface 
partially covered with the leaves of a clinging vine. Poised on the top, as if 
just about to spring from its rest, is a pheasant, its wings outspread, its beak 
open and crest erected, in an attitude of attack. On the sides of the bowl, in 
the place of handles, are gnarled and rugged roots and branches of trees, 
twisted and contorted like the laurel of our swamps. Below, as feet to the 
vase, are animals' heads, each one grasping in its mouth a ring attached to the 



284 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



base on which the whole rests. The modeUng and finish of each of these 
several objects is perfect. One hardly knows which to admire most, the delicate 
delineation of the feathers on the bird, the hair on the beasts, the veining of 
the leaves, or the close counterfeit of the texture of rock and bark. Nor has 




The Seasons Plaque : Elkvigton ^ Co., London. 



minute attention to detail led the workmen to neglect the necessity of con- 
sulting the effect of the whole, which is vigorous and bold, as well as har- 
monious and well balanced. In the panel on the side of the vase is a little 
picture in relief, just a bit of nature such as might be studied from a window — 
a tree-trunk and branch, two or three birds disporting themselves, some flowers 
and grasses, yet all instinct with life and movement, and in keeping with the 
rest of the design. It is such work as this that wins for the Japanese recog- 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



28s 




Waiuui Book-case : F. RomanclH, Florence. 



286 



THE IXTERXATIOXAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



nition as amonor 

the most con- 
summate artists 
and skillful metal- 
workers in the 
world. 

Lace and dia- 
monds have loner 
been esteemed 
among women 
as the chief out- 
ward indications 
of gentility ; but 
of late years 
diamonds have 
had to take a 
second place, and 
lace, the most 
precious of tex- 
tiles, has the su- 
premacy alone. 
Its use is so en- 
tirely confined to 
ornamentation 
that even in its 
simplest form the 
fabric maybe re- 
garded as a lux- 
ury.though whole 
garments are 
sometimes made 
of it, and lace 
shawls are uni- 
versally popular 




Lace Curtain : Collective Exhibit of Brussels. 



and admired. A 
very beautiful ex- 
ample of these is 
shown in our en- 
graving on page 
283, which rep- 
resents a shawl 
selected from the 
magnificent dis- 
play made in the 
collective exhibit 
of France. A 
large central 
bouquet of flow- 
ers is surround- 
ed by garlands 
interwoven to- 
gether and ar- 
ranged so as to 
fill the triangular 
space within the 
border with an 
elegant and 
gfraceful desisfn. 
The border itself 
is a beautiful 
piece of work, 
two series of 
curves being dis- 
posed the one 
above the other, 
giving the effect 
of a flounce to 



the edge. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 287 



The Seasons Plaque, illustrated on page 284, is another of the examples 
of artistic metal-work exhibited by Messrs. Elkington & Co., of Birmingham. 
We hav^e in this beautiful design a treatment of a subject which has been the 
theme of poets and artists from the earliest ages. In the present instance the 
artist has symbolized Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter, by giving them 
personalit}- — for the first three, women, and for the fourth, an old man. Spring, 
a youthful, girlish face is crowned with the earliest flowers of the year, blos- 
soming buds and young leaves; Summer, a face full of warm and glowing 
life, is garlanded with the luxuriant richness of the season; while Autumn, in 
the guise of a matron, comes with head wreathed with fruit, the harvest-moon 
upon her brow, typifying the fullness and fruition of the year. Old Winter, 
grave and serious, has for his wreath a branch of holly, emblem of the jollity 
and mirth with which we speed the parting, melancholy guest. Between these 
faces, gracefully intermingling with each other, are tendrils of plant-life, expressive 
of the same theme ; and poised between, each on some playfulness intent, are 
cupids whose actions — one shielding himself from cold, another shooting a love- 
dart, another bearing flowers, and the fourth fruit — complete the harmony of the 
design. In its workmanship the execution of this plaque is thoroughly satis- 
factory. The firmness and vigorous outline to the repousse-^orV is remarkable, 
and the exquisite finish and minuteness of detail in the inlaid or damascened 
portions are quite worthy of an oriental metal-worker's skill. 

The W.ALNUT Book-Case, illustrated on page 285, is from the exhibit of 
carved wood-work in the Italian Court at the Exhibition, and is the work of 
F. RoMANELLi, OF FLORENCE. While in outline it is plain almost to severity, 
this only makes the elaborateness and richness of the carving in the panels 
the more noticeable. The large glass panels in each door further limit the 
space for decoration, so that in fact the carver has only the uprights or pilas- 
ters on either hand, and the base and pediment, on which to display his skill. 
In general design and in detail the artist has followed classic models. In the 
panels at the base are winged masks, half human, half animal, carved in relief 
with scroll-work, while a Pompeiian pattern, a succession of vases, scrolls and 
emblems, is introduced in the pilasters. The pediment is ornamented with an 
elaborate frieze, consisting of birds and leaf-scrolls, with phoenixes in the square 
panels at the ends. Above the whole, at either corner, are shallow Pompeiian 



288 



THE INTERNATIONAL EX H I B I T 1 N, 1 8 7 6. 



lamps, and as a central and crowning ornament are two cupids supporting a 
scroll and medallion on which arms or a monogram may properly be carved. 

A beautiful example of one of the higher grades of Brussels lace is seen 
in our engraving on page 286, a Lace Curtain exhibited in the collective 
exhibit of Brussels lace-manufacturers. The design is not only elaborate : it is 
intricate and minute in no ordinary degree. In the central medallion are a 




Sideboard ; Wright 6= Mansfield, London. 



harp and lyre and other implements of music surrounded by a Avreath of 
flowers. These are supported on a vase, the lines of which wind off into a 
bewildering scroll-work of flowers and tendrils. Cornucopias on either hand 
are overflowing with fruit, and above them climbing plants meet and intertwine 
with others suspended from above. In this part of the design there is some- 
thing of oriental richness and feelinof, though with a more accurate and careful 
balancing of parts. The scroll within the border and the border itself are 
thoroughly Eastern in character. 



I X DUST RIAL ART. 



289 



As in our modern manner of furnishing the dining-room the sideboard is 
made the most conspicuous object in the room, more attention is given to its 
design and construction than to any other of the pieces of furniture. It is the 
one object that can be ornamented and decorated to any extent that the fancy 
of the designer may suggest. Chairs and tables trom their construction and 




Majolica Fountain : Daniell &^ Son , London. 



use can only receive ornamental treatment in design within certain definite 
limits, but in the sideboard no rules except those of harmony with the rest of 
the furniture obtain, and as it is essentially a "show-piece," it is quite right 
that it should be elaborated accordingly. 

The Sideboard shown in our illustration on page 288 is selected from the 
exhibit made by Messrs. Wright & Mansfield, of London, as a fine example 
of the adaptation of our modern methods of decorating to the Queen Anne 
style of construction. It will be observed that all the lines of this piece are 
plain and simple, unrelieved by any other than the most moderate ornamenta- 



ago 



THE I XTERXATIOXAL EXH IBITIOX. iSj6. 



tion, and with numerous broad flat panels. These latter afford an excellent 
ground for the color-treatment and pictorial designs which are so much in vogue 
at the present time, and consequently they have been seized upon by our 
modern decorator for that purpose. What a happy effect is obtained by this 
means can be seen by referring to our illustration. Each of the four principal 
panels has a central medallion with figure-subjects painted in color on a dark 
ground after the style oi the Pompeiian frescoes, and surrounding them are 
scrolls, garlands and pendant designs inlaid with ebony into the light-colored 




yapauese Porcelain : yapnnese Court. 



panel wood. The same treatment has been carried out with less elaborateness 
in the smaller panels and on all the flat surfaces, so that a bright rich color- 
effect is produced, and the eye attracted at once to a study of the detail which 
produces such a pleasing result. 

A pleasant feature of the Exhibition, and one affording satisfaction and 
enjoyment to the thousands thronging the vast corridors of the JNIain Building 
during tlie heated summer days, was the arrangement at intervals, in these 
walks, of fountains playing streams of water into shallow basins and cooling 
all the air about with their refreshing spray. Opportunity was thus afforded 
the exhibitors of these objects to show them to the best advantage — that is, 
with the water forming the curves, cascades and transparent liquid sheets 
Avhich are, or should be, as carefully studied for effect as the outline of the 
fountain itself Indeed, it may be said that a fountain, to be perfectly satis- 
factor}- as a work of art, should appear at its best when the water is in play, 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



291 



but yet be so perfect in itself as to be an ornamental feature when not in 
actual use. 

There were fountains of great variety, adapted for lawns, garden or con- 
servator}-, shown at the Exhibition ; some of iron, others of marble, more again 
of terra-cotta, and still others of majolica. These latter, from the character of 
the material and richness of decoration and ornament, were, of course, intended 
for use in conservatories or other sheltered places. Our illustration on page 289 
represents one of the most beautiful of these majolica fountains, which was 
shown in the exhibit of I\Ies,srs. Daniell & Son, of London. It Is remarkable 




yapancse Porcelain : Japanese Court, 



not onlv for the elegance of the design and the richness of color in its several 
parts, but also for the technical excellence which, in so large an object, is very 
great. In shape it is like a vase. Around the stem or shaft are dolphins 
modeled in full relief, heads downward and with mouths open for the passage 
of the water, which gushes out in as many streams into the basin in which the 
fountain is supposed to stand. Above and around the body of the vase is a 
charming design in relief — cupids swinging in hammocks suspended between 
comic masks, and leaning over as if watching the play of the water beneath 
them. It is not apparent that there is any play of water above the vase, but 
if there is we may imagine it flowing over its curved lip in a crj'stal sheet, 
bathing the naked bodies of the little cupids in a manner refreshing to 
contemplate. 



292 



THE INTERN ATIOXAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



On pao-es 290 and 291 we illustrate several examples of the wonderful 
JAPANESE Porcelain, a material which in the hands of oriental artificers seems 




^.g^MA^AiiiMa&miiiiaMlli^^ 



11 ..::illlt MirrO'-hr.-.m 



fr: 



capable of almost any form and color-treatment. Our first group ot illustra- 
tions show these several styles of vases, each one of them odd and curious 
enough in shape and decoration to repay careful examination. On the broad 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



293 



surface of the first vase is a bit ot pictorial art — a group of tall palm-trees 
bendinof beneath the weisfht ot their leaves, while in the foreo;round, on' the 
edge of a marshy pool, stands a stork reaching forward in the act of seizing 
its prey. The study of nature here, as indeed in all Japanese work ot this 
character, is perfect. Every detail of plant-lite, bud and leaf and flower, has 
been carefully and faithfully studied and as carefully and faithfully portrayed. 
So too with the bird : its pose is instinct with life, and vividly conveys the 
impression of alert watchfulness. ** 

The second vase. 



with its elephants' 
heads for handles, 
has somethinof of 
grotesquenessabout 
it, though its outline 
is severely plain. 
The principal deco- 
ration here is in the 
panel on the side, 
representing a crest- 
ed bird, like a cock- 
atoo, swooping for- 
ward with extended 
wings after an insect 
on the flower-spray 
before him. The 




third vase is much 
the most elaborate 
of the three. In 
shape it is a double 
vase, one seeming 
to rest upon the 
other. The lower 
of the two rests in 
a woven basket on 
a stand of bamboo 
pieces tied together. 
Above, the basket- 
work blends off a 
pattern of brilliant 
color-decoration, 
strongly outlined 
ao;ainst the white 

surface of the bowl itself P'rom the upper vase two serpents are winding slowly 
downwards, their sinuous bodies clinging to the curves of the vases and forming 
the handles. The other decoration is of the simplest character — a leaf, a spray, 
a flower thrown on the surface of the piece at the fancy of the artist. 

The central object ot the second group, on page 291, also is an oddly- 
shaped vase, fashioned without curves. The quaint group in the panel on the 
side might be taken as a Japanese portrayal of the story of Adam and Eve. 
But the most interesting objects on this page are the two little porcelain figures, 
which the reader should carefully observe. They are as perfect in modeling 



Urmolic Clock: French Collective Exlub/! 



294 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



and sharp in finish 
as if they had been 
executed with a 
carver's chisel, and 
a minute execution 
is given to the de- 
tail that is truly 
wonderful. An ad- 
mirable feature in 
these fiofures is the 
treatment of the 
drapery, and this is 
especially excellent 
in the dress of the 
woman. Observe, 
also, her pose ; how 
perfectly natural it 
is — leaning gently 
upon the vase, with 
her riofht hand 
hanging idly beside 
her; in her left 
hand holding a 
book open at a 
passage which she 
is reading with ab- 
sorbed attention. 
The male figure 
appears to be that 
of a priest or scribe, 
as his feet and head 
work of Frullini, of Florence. 
dark, close-grained w^ood, and may 
Both the outer and inner edee 



are bare, and he 
carries an ink-horn 
in his girdle. He 
stands resting his 
hand on a vase in 
somewhat the same 
attitude as the 
w^oman, and the 
two figures make 
an excellent group 
or pair. Prettier 
or more interesting 
ornaments than 
these to a mantel- 
shelf or •' whatnot" 
could hardly be de- 
sired, and they pos- 
sess an additional 
value to us as being- 
correct copies of 
the costume worn 
by the wonderful 
people who fashion 
these things. 

We have already 
illustrated several 
examples of wood- 
carving by Italian 
artists, and on page 
292 we give an- 
other specimen, the 
It is a Mirror-Frame, executed in some 

be regarded as a study in the classical style. 

of the frame have a beviled surface, orna- 




T^ible Lamp : German Court. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



295 



merited with an incised pattern cut in low relief. The upper flat surface is 
divided into panels by raised mouldings, and to the ornamentation of these 



the lower panel, 
half concealed in 
the leafage of the 
Scrolls, are cupids 
bearinof wreaths 
and smiling down 
upon the satyr 
whose head is 
thrust out be- 
tween them. In 
the upright or 
side panels are 
designs of a char- 
acter such as are 
commonly seen 
in P o m p e i i a n 
decoration — a 
combination ot 
vases and scrolls, 
garlands of fruits 
and flowers, rais- 
ed one above the 
other in bewil- 
dering succes- 
sion. All of this 
work is carved 
in medium relief, 
but with such 
precision and 
nicety and atten- 
tion to light and shade as to make it appear higher than it really is. 

On page 293 we illustrate an Ormolu Clock, one of the dainty and hixu- 



panels the artist 
has given his 
careful attention. 
The desio-n of 
each is diflerent, 
though a per- 
fect balance and 
h a r m o n \- has 
been preserved 
throughout. In 
the four corners 
are groups sym- 
bolic of War, 
Peace and the 
Arts, each one a 
a prett}^ study in 
itself. In the 
horizontal panels 
above and be- 
low are g-raceful 
scrolls starting 
from a common 
centre and wind- 
ing off to the 
right and left in 
fanciful curves, 
in which we can 
discover curious 
masks and grif- 
fins' heads. In 




Flall-Lamp : yobit Stock Company of Bertin, 



296 THE INTERN ATI OX AL E N II I B I T 1 N , iSj6. 

rious articles of ornament and use sliown in tlie Fkexch Collective Exhibit. 
It is designed with all the abundant richness of ornamentation that character- 
ized the Louis Ouartorze period. Winged griffins support the base, rich in 
gilding and scroll-work. A glass panel, engraved with a design as fine as 
cobweb, protects the mechanism of the clock from the dust while permitting 
its Avorking to be seen. The clock-face, brilliant with many-colored enamels, is 
set in an ormolu frame or case with shells and foliated figures executed in 
hiofh relief. 

On the continent, where gas is used to a much less extent than with us 
in this country, lamps are in correspondingly greater demand, and great atten- 
tion is given to make them as ornamental and attractive as possible. The 
central object of a table, often of a dinner-table, in the evening, is the lamp, 
and according as it is beautiful or homely it adds to or detracts from the beauty 
of its surroundings. On page 294 we engrave an illustration of a Table-Lamp 
of great elegance and beauty. The stand is of bronze, and consists of a central 
shaft and a trio of light rods supporting the cup for the fluid. At the foot of 
the piece three grififins' legs, bent at the knee, radiate outward, forming a 
triangular base. The band around the fluid-cup is ornamented with rosettes, 
and the rods have terminal rino-s, which swine free and serve as handles in 
carrying the lamp from one place to another. The fluid-cup is of plain white 
porcelain, without decoration of any kind, but the ground-glass shade around 
the chimney is richly engraved and is shaped like a lily. This lamp was manu- 
factured in Germany, and was exhibited in the Court of that nation at the 
Centennial. 

On page 295 we engrave another lamp, also of German manufacture, and 
part of the same exhibit, but a much more elaborate piece of workmanship. 
This is a Hall-Lamp, intended to be suspended from the ceiling, and is there- 
fore a larger and weightier object. The main portion or case containing the 
light is of crystal, the sides being composed of a row of cut-glass prisms which 
give a most brilliant effect when illuminated. This is upheld by three bronze 
rods coming together around a central ball suspended by a single rod from the 
ceiling. All of these are finely chased and engraved, and the supporting rods 
are finished with flowers and leaves. Suspended above the centre of the lantern 
is a porcelain shade with pendants, and above this, as on a pedestal, stands a 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



297 



graceful little figure of Love testing the keenness of an arrow. On the rim 
ot the lantern is a group composed of a wreath, crossed quivers and a pair of 
doves, while at either side are winged female figures supporting shallow crystal 
vases. The finish and execution of this fine work is in the very best manner, 
and both the design and workmanship reflect credit upon the manufacturers. 

In a verj' interesting paper written by Signor Alessandro Castellani, of Rome, 
he describes the labors and research with which his new school of jewelry, which 




Gold Necklace: Signor Castellani, Rome. 

aims at the perfect imitation of ancient and mediaeval works of art in gold and 
precious stones, has been established. In 18 14 the elder Castellani opened a 
studio in Rome for the imitation of the jewels of France and England, in which 
he was very successful. Some years later he turned his attention to chemical 




Gold Bracelet : German Court. 



science, looking for aids and methods which could advance his art, and he made 
discoveries in coloring gold and the application of electrotype and similar 
processes to the art of gilding that attracted much attention. About this time 
the ancient cemeteries of Etruria yielded up the beautiful jewels that had been 
buried for so many centuries, and Signor Castellani conceived the idea of 
reproducing them with the greatest possible exactness. In the Regulini-Galassi 
tomb were remarkable works in gold, which furnished the means of acquiring 
a more precise knowledge of the character of the early Etruscan jewelry, and 
facilitated his researches into the methods used by the ancients in working gold. 
Let us quote here Signor Castellani's own words : — 



29S 



THE I XTERXATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



"Having determined to restore as well as possible, and, as we may express 
it, to renew the ancient school of jewelry, our first step was to search alter the 




Monumental Brass : Sm^cy &= Co,, Frome, England. 



methods of fabrication employed in ancient times. We observed that all the 
jewels, except those intended for funeral ceremonies, instead of owing their raised 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



299 



parts to chiseling or engraving, were formed by separate pieces brought together 
and placed one upon the other by means of solder or chemical processes. This 




Monumental Brass : Singer ^ Co., Frame, England. 



it is, in our opinion, that gives them so peculiar and marked a character, derived 
from their expressing, as it were, the fresh idea and inspiration of the artist, 



;oo 



THE INTERN ATIOXAL ENHIBTTION^ 1876. 



and unattainable by 
the cold and regular 
execution ot the 
workman. The very 
imperfections and 
omissions, purposely 
made, give to the 
workmanship that 
artistic character alto- 
gether wanting in the 
greater number of 
modern works, which, 
owing to a monoto- 
nous uniformity pro- 
duced by punching 
and casting, have an 
appearance of trivial- 
ity, depriving them of 
all individual charac- 
ter, that charm which 
so constantly strikes 
us in the productions 
of the ancients. 

"The first problem, 
then, that presented 
itself to our attention 
was to find the means 
of solderinsf together, 
with the utmost neat- 
ness and delicacy, so 
many pieces of ex- 
traordinary minute- 
ness. Amonof others, 
those almost invisible 






jardinieres and I 'asc : French Court. 



grains of gold, like 
fine sand, which play 
so important a part 
in the ornamentation 
of antique jewelry, 
presented nearly 
insurmountable difli- 
culty. We made 
innumerable essays, 
employing all pos- 
sible chemical agents 
and the most power- 
ful solvents to com- 
pose a proper solder. 
We consulted the 
writings of Pliny, The- 
ophilus and Benvenu- 
to Cellini; we studied 
the works of the In- 
dian jewelers, as well 
as of the Maltese and 
Genoese, and neglect- 
ed no other sources 
of instruction which 
tradition could supply, 
but it was only in a 
remote corner of the 
Umbrian Marches, at 
St. Ano-elo in Vado, a 
little district hidden 
in the recesses of the 
Apennines, free from 
every centre of civili- 
zation, that we found 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



301 



still in use some of the processes employed by the Etruscans. There yet 
exists, in fact, in this region of Italy, a special school of traditional jewelry 
somewhat similar — not, indeed, in taste or elegance of design, but at least 
in method and workmanship — to the ancient art; and the beautiful peasant 
cfirls of these districts, when at their weddino^-feasts, wear necklaces and lonpf 
ear-rings called 



navicelle, much 
resembling the 
antique in their 
workmanship. 
We procured, 
then, from St. 
Angela in Vado 
a few workmen 
t o w h o m w e 
taught the art of 
imitating Etrus- 
can jewelry. In- 
heriting the pa- 
tience of their 
forefathers, and 



caring nothing 




God of Contentment ( porcelain) : Chinese Court. 



geometrical ex- 
actness is attain- 
ed in modern 
jewelry, these 
men succeeded 
better than all 
whom we had 
previously em- 
ployed in the 
imitation of that 
freedom of style 
which is the pe- 
culiar character- 
istic of the art 
among the an- 
cients." 

The events of 
1848 and the dis- 
astrous years fol- 
lowing caused a 



lor those me- 
chanical contriv- 
ances by which 

suspension in the work, and it was not until 1858 that Signor Castellani was able 
to resume his researches. The discoveries at Cumse, at Ostia and at Kertch in the 
Crimea gave new subjects to work upon. No difficulty was experienced in copy- 
ing the jewels of ancient Rome, but those of Etruria and Greece required special 
labor, and many attempts were made before the uniform and granulated work 
and the various enamels were successfully reproduced. The discovery made 
while examining some ancient Etruscan ornaments, that the places from which 
the granulated work had been broken off presented the same appearance as 
these gold surfaces from which the enamel that once covered them had been 



^02 



THE INTERXAT/OyAL EXIJIB ITION, 1S76. 



been ai^plicd according to 
his new method. The ar- 
ticles for beauty and deli- 
cacy ot worlcmanship rival- 
ed the superb collection of 
veritable antique jewelry 
exhibited (also by him) in 
Memorial Hall. Beside 
them was a small shallow 
saucer, no larger than a 
silver dollar, seemingly 
filled with gold dust or 
filings ; yet on examination 
through a magnifying-glass 
these particles proved to 
be minute spheres, or gra- 
nag'iie, and such atoms as 
these fastened upon the 
surface of the ornament 
produced the elegant effect 
seen in the jewels them- 
selves. On page 297 we 
illustrate a Necklace from 
the collection, in which the 
ancient art is fairly equaled 
by the modern process. 

A beautiful jewel, of a 
character entirely different 
from the preceding, is the 
Gold Bracelet engraved on 
page 297. It is of German 
manufacture, and was exhibited in the Court of that nation at the Centennial, 
among the fine collection of examples of goldsmiths' work there to be seen. It 
consists of a series of square gold plates joined together by broad massive bands, 



torn away, led Signor Cas- 
tellani to try a new pro- 
cess for the production ot 
that granulated work which 
modern goldsmiths had 
acjreed to consider inimi- 
table. The results of the 
attempt were so far suc- 
cessful as to solve, in a 
great degree, the problem 
that for twenty years had 
engaged his attention. 
Other processes were then 
studied in order to reach 
the degree of perfection 
that characterizes antique 
personal ornaments. In 
1868 Signor Castellani 
founded another fabriqiLe 
in Naples, where, after long 
and assiduous labor, he dis- 
covered the method of re- 
producing the granulated 
work of the Phoenicians 
and Etruscans. 

In the Italian Court, in 
the Main Building at the 
Centennial, Signor Castel- 
lani exhibited a number 
of examples of jewelry in 
which the zranaplie had 



Panel of Tdpcstry : frziick Court. 



IXD us TRIAL ART. 



303 



cut and chased in an elabo- 
rate manner. Enamels of 
various rich colors are used 
to heighten the effect, and 
seed-pearls, turquoises, gar- 
nets and other gems are in- 
troduced into the intricacies 
of the tracery with marked 
success. It will be observed 
that while the design on the 
bands is the same, each 
square presents a different 
pattern, and the ingenuity 
of the designer has been 
cleverly shown in the skill 
with which he has preserved 
a harmony in the whole, 
while o-ivino" to each creo- 
metric figure a variation 
peculiar to itself The sev- 
eral parts of the bracelet 
are connected together by 
invisible hinees in such a 
manner that when clasped 
together in a circlet the 
whole appears to be with- 
out juncture or division of 
any kind. 

The study of the monu- 
mental brasses of England 
and Europe is one of the 





Panel of Tapestry : Frt'iich Court. 



most interesting fields open 
to the antiquary. Begin- 
ning in a remote antiquity, 
the custom of erectinor to 
the memory of the dead, 
engraved memorial tablets 
in brass or bronze has con- 
tinued without interruption 
to the present time. Of 
late years it is true that the 
practice has fallen into com- 
parative disuse, but now, 
with the new art-revival, 
we find attention returning 
to this subject, and the ap- 
propriateness of the custom 
having never been ques- 
tioned, we may hope to see 
a speedy and general re- 
turn to its use. 

Some few years ago there 
was exhibited in this city a 
fine collection of copies of 
monumental brasses in the 
English cathedrals, obtained 
by transfer of the designs 
from the monuments them- 
selves on to tracing-paper. 
The transcriptions thus ob- 
tained were therefore abso- 
lutely correct, and the ex- 



hibition was one of such rare interest as to claim general attention. 

On pages 298 and 299 we engrave a couple of examples of Monumental 
Bras.ses which were exhibited in the English Court at the Centennial. In desiijn 



304 



THE I.XTERXATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



and treatment the work as seen in our iliustration resembles that in monu- 
mental windows of stained glass, and of course the object, to comnumorate the 
memory ot the dead, is the same in both. But while the window is liable to 
a thousand accidents, the monumental brass continues lor ages an enduring and 
indestructible memorial to the deceased. The general reader will fmd much to 
admire in the beauty and elegance of these designs, and whoever is learned in 
ecclesiastical lore will recognize the appropriateness and significance of the 
vignette subjects and the other details ot the work. 

The group of articles in faience, illustrated on page 300, we need scarcely 



say is obtained from 
the French Court. 
There is a lightness 
and delicacy about the 
decoration and orna- 
mentation peculiar to 
French workmen. 
These remarks do not 
indeed apply to the 
Persian vase or jug, 
but that is manifestly 
a copy from an ori- 
ental model ; but the 




Tapestry Chair : Department of Aiibusson. 



jardinieres, with their 
light bronze stands and 
scroll and figure deco- 
ration, are essen dally 
French. The larger 
one of the two is par- 
ticularly graceful in 
design. 

"It was Tiresias the 
prophets counsel to 
Menippus, that trav- 
elled all the world over, 



even down to hell it 
self, to seek content, and his last fare well to Menippus, to be merry. Contemn 
the world (saith he) and eoiint all that is in it vanity and toyes : this only covet 
all thy life long ; be not cnrious, or over solicitous in any thing, but ivith a loell 
composed and contented estate to enjoy thyself, and above all tilings to be merry. 

" Si, mimnerus uti censet, sine amore jocisque 
Nil est jucundum, vivas in amore jocisque." 

Thus writes Democritus Junior in the second partition of his "Anatomy of 
Melancholy," that wonderful treasury of learning which has furnished many a 
pedant with his apt classical phrase, and where the thieves of literature prowl 
undetected. Contentment, then, and merriment, in the prophet's mind, went 
together, and, though not synonymous, were coequal. See now how curiously 
the Chinese have embodied the same idea in their God of Contentment, which 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



305 



is illustrated on page 301. Above all things be merry; that indeed he is, and 
with rollicking joyousness that knows no solicitation tor anything, and which 
counts all that is in the world vanity and toys. He is a good liver, too, and 
evidently has all a boii vivanfs keen sense of humor. Would that we knew 
what the joke is now, which is making his jolly, fat sides shake with laughter, 
and has given an expression to his face that makes us laugh to look at him. 
Who will say that there is not deep philosophical reason underlying this 
humorous conception of Contentment, and that the Chinese, in typifying the 
god under the guise of a jolly fellow, are not giving expression to a great 



fundamental truth? 

Why the little man 
is represented as a mis- 
shapen dwarf and with 
a razor in his hand, as 
if he was a barber by 
profession,could doubt- 
less be explained satis- 
factorily by one learned 
in oriental mythology. 
Perhaps his good na- 
ture, notwithstanding 
his deformitv, is the 




Tapestry Chair : Department of Aubusson. 



more emphasized in 
this, but the signifi- 
cance of the tonsorial 
instrument passes our 
powers of conjecture. 

This little figure is 
made of a fine quality 
of porcelain and mod- 
eled with great nicety. 
The block on which it 
stands has a texture in 
imitation of ivory. 

The pair of Tapestry 



Panels, illustrated on pages 302 and 303, are chosen Irom the fine exhibit made 
by France which was displayed both in Memorial Hall and in the Main Building 
at the Centennial. In the galleries of the former building were examples of the 
marvelous work anciently executed at Gobelins and at Beauvais, serving as a 
standard by which the achievements of the tapestry-makers of the present day, 
whose contributions were displayed in the Main Building, might be estimated. 
The examples before us are of this modern workmanship, and our readers will 
agree that they need not fear comparison with the ancient products of the loom. 
The designs, in which a group of the instruments of war and another of the 
implements of peace are wound about by garlands of flowers, are exceedingly 
artistic and graceful, and evidence much skill in composition. The choice and 
blending of the colors has been carefully and skillfully executed, and the finished 



3o6 THE IXTERNATIOXAL EXHIBITION iSj6. 

work has much of the quality of a paintuig, and indeed is equally a work 
of art. 

France has long enjoyed the reputation for making the most exquisite and 
costly fans in the world, and although the demand for such magnificent articles 
as were made for the ladies of the Court in the times ot Louis have ceased, 
highly artistic workmanship is still in demand and liberally paid for. Fan- 
painting has for many years been a means of subsistence to a numerous band 
of artists, some of whom have achieved distinguished success in this branch 
of their art ; while in the decoration of handles of the fan, the ingenuity and 
skill of workers in the metals, wood, ivory, pearl, tortoise-shell, and the like is 
taxed to produce new and attractive designs. On page 310 we engrave a 
couple of these beautiful articles, in which the reader can see for him.self to 
what elaborateness, even in this day, the decoration of the handles is carried ; 
and doubtless could we open this pair of fans we would find the surface of 
their face painted with a design as beautiful in its way as is the decorative 
work before us. 

Doubtless the use of fans in Europe was borrowed from the Italians, who 
in turn had them first from oriental countries. That paper fans were not gen- 
erally known in England in the beginning of the seventeenth century is proved 
by the remarks of Thomas Coryat, who, writing of his continental tour in 1608, 
says: "Here [Italy] I will mention a thing, that altho' perhaps it will seem 
but frivolous to divers -readers that have already travelled in Italy, yet because 
unto many that neither have beene there, nor ever intend to go thither while 
they live, it will be a meere novelty, I will not let it passe unmentioned. The 
first Italian fannes that I saw in Italy did I observe in this space betwixt 
Pizighiton and Cremona ; but afterwards I observed them common in most 
places of Italy where I travelled. These fannes both men and women of the 
country doe carry, to coole themselves withall in the time of heat, by the often 
fanning of their faces. Most of them are very elegant and pretty things. For 
whereas the fanne consisteth of a painted piece of paper and a litde wooden 
handle; the paper, which is fastened into the top, is on both sides most curi- 
ously adorned with excellent pictures, either of amorous things tending to 
dalliance, having some witty Italian verses or fine emblems written under them; 
or of some notable Italian city, with a briefe description thereof added there- 



lA- DUST RIAL ART. 



307 







Brass Corona Chandelier : Mitchell, Va7ice 6^ Co., Aeiv York. 



30S THE INTERN ATI OX AL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



unto. These I'annes are of a meane price, lor a man ma)- buy one ol the 
fairest of them for so much money as countervaileth ou.r English yroate." 

The two chairs covered with tapestry, ilhistrated on pages 304 and 305, 
which were exhibited in the French Court oi the Main Building at the Cen- 
tennial, may be accepted as examples of the styles of furniture which French 
upholsterers consider fit for use with this costly and most artistic covering. The 
frames are of ebony or ebonized wood, ornamented with carving and gilding, 
but with these in rather less profusion than we are accustomed to see in 
Parisian work of this nature. The shape and size of the chair-trame being 
given, the design for the tapestry is made, and thus a pattern tollowing the 
lines of the frame and adapted to them is prepared. In one of our examples 
it will be seen that cornucopias, bouquets and garlands of flowers are enclosed 
in one large wreath, which forms a second frame within the wooden rail of the 
back. The second design is of a more elaborate character, and includes a 
group of a little cupid leading a lion at his will. Although the patterns of the 
covers for the seat and arms of these chairs cannot be seen in our illustra- 
tions, it is scarcely necessary to state that they are in harmony with those on 
the back, though less elaborate, because they occupy a less conspicuous position. 

We have selected for illustration on page 307 the Brass Corona Chan- 
delier, manufactured and exhibited by Messrs. Mitchell, Vance & Co., of New 
York, and worthily ranking among the c/icfs d'ceiivre produced by that house; 
and there can be no doubt that in the manufacture of artistic gas-fixtures our 
American makers are unsurpassed by those of any European nation. For 
example, it would be difficult to find an^'where a more beautiful and in every 
respect satisfactory design than this one which is before us. Beginning with 
the graceful crown just below the ceiling, the lines of the chandelier expand 
to the first circle of lights, where they break into a network of curves and 
angles, which, though they change with every movement of the observer, never 
become confused or cease to convey that sense of richness combined with 
lightness which is one of its chief excellencies. Here indeed is an example of 
American industrial art-workmanship which Europeans can look at with pleasure 
and profit. 

If the question is asked. What is it that makes a work of this kind so 
thoroughly satisfactory? we answer, without hesitation, the fitness ot the orna- 



IXD us TRIAL ART. 



309 



ment to the material, the use for which the object is designed, and the excel- 
lent taste displayed in the treatment of the design. The great fault in the 
ornamental work usually produced by gas-fitters is the exaggerated imitations 
of the florid French styles which the designers affect. These objects are showy, 
flashy and generally overloaded with ornament, often consisting of foliage and 
flowers, copied after nature and presented without any constructive arrangement 




Group 0/ Silver-ware : Elkington &' Co., Birm'mghan 



whatever. Thus they present a tangle of leaves, flowers and branches, in which 
all characteristic form is lost, and which indeed simply adds weight without 
strength. In this corona the very reverse of all this is true. The artist has 
given his fancy play in his design, but has always kept within those limits in 
which mere decoration is made subservient to a unity of style and the needs 
of construction. Such work as this is in itself an incentive to the study of the 
principles of design and ornament in manufacture. Nor must the blame for 
the inartistic work before referred to be placed on the designers. They are 
employed to produce works that will take with the public and sell rapidly; and 



310 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



until the public is 
educated up to an 
appreciation ot true 
honesty in construc- 
tion, fitness of orna- 
ment to material and 
decorative subordi- 
nation, we must ex- 
pect to see the art- 
istic sense of the 
designer submit to 
the popular demand. 
Our readers are 
familiar with many of 
the beautiful works 
of art manufactured 
by the Messrs. El- 

KINGTON, OF BIRMING- 
HAM, England, as 
they have been illus- 
trated in these pages. 
The exhibit of these 
celebrated silver- 
smiths, as compared 
with the extent and 
importance of their 
business, was not a 
large one, but it was 
representative of 
their art department. 
Every object shown 
had its art value, and 
in this the collection 
was quite without a 



A 



'V 



^ 



;o^ 



Fa7zs : French Court. 



parallel in the Eng- 
lish Court. On page 
309 is shown a group 
ot this artistic silver- 
ware just as it was 
arranged for our art- 
ist. At the back is 
a superb plaque, or- 
namented with re- 
poiisse-\\'or\< ; on the 
right is a pitcher, or- 
namented in the same 
manner, with medal- 
lions and figures like 
the Thalia in the one 
before us. An ink- 
stand, with a group 
of figures in relief, 
and an exquisitely 
e.xecuted panel be- 
low, and a noble dish 
of classic design for 
fruit or flowers, com- 
pose the quartette of 
objects, any one of 
which will fully indi- 
cate the perfection of 
the art-workmanship 
obtaining in the 
Messrs. Elkington's 
estabhshment. 

It is quite natural 
that we should look 
for art in works in 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



311 



the precious metals, for here the works of the artist and the artisan go hand 
in hand. As long as the artist regards the material in which he works merely 
as a vehicle with which to express his art-idea, he is safe, but as soon as the 
desire manifests itself to bring forward the value of the material itself, the 
art-idea suffers in proportion. It very often happens that an admirably con- 
ceived and moulded design of an artist is spoiled by the belittling treatment it 
receives at the hands of the workman by whom it is produced in the precious 



metal ; for the latter, with his lower range of art-feeling, sees more value i 



m 




Fan : French Ccrurt. 



the vehicle than in the idea itself, and he labors accordingly to give promi- 
nence to the fact that This is silver, or That is gold, ignoring the art-idea. In 
ancient metal-work errors of this kind were avoided, because the artist and 
artisan were one. Now the artist conceives and the workman executes. 

We can imagine that the Fan shown on this page may be one of the two 
already illustrated a few pages back, for this also is from the collection on 
exhibidon in the French Court. But in this instance the face is not painted, 
but is made of the finest lace, the pattern being designed and worked expressly 
for this purpose. Nothing more delicate and fairy-like could be imagined, 
nor could the most capricious beauty demand a more exquisite or a more 
choice toy. 

The massive Gold Bracelet, resplendent with jewels, which forms the 



112 



THE IXrERXATIOXAL EXHIB ITIOX, iSj6. 



subject of our illustration 
on this page, is from the 
exhibition of oriental jew- 
elry in the Turkish Court 
at the Centennial. There 
is something quite bar- 
baric in the splendor of 
the jewels and the richness 
of the ornamentation, and 
even the clasp by which 
the ends are bound to- 
gether is different from 
the fastenings adopted 
by our jewelers. As a 
Turkish woman's fortune 
consists chief!)' in her 
personal ornaments, the 
ineenuitv of the Turkish 
artisans is taxed to the 
utmost to make these ob- 
jects as rich and costly as 
possible, and in this in- 
stance the workman has 
made a jewel which even 
the favorite of the Sultan 
would treasure. 

Doubtless many of our 
readers will recognize in 
our illustration on page 
313, the beautiful Stained 
Glass Window exhibited 
by F. X. Zettler, of Mu- 






nich, in one of the north- 
ern windows ot Memorial 
Hall. This elaborate com- 
position, in the execution 
of which the perfection of 
the art, as it now exists, 
was manifest, attracted a 
great deal of attention 
from those whose know- 
ledge of the subject en- 
abled them to appreciate 
the technical difficulties 
that had been overcome, 
and also from the un- 
learned who were simply 
attracted to it by the rich- 
ness of the color and the 
beauty of the design. The 
work reflects the highest 
credit on the manufac- 
turer, and was well worthy 
of the honorable mention 
it received from the spe- 
cialists commissioned to 
pass upon its merits. 

It is remarkable that 
while this art of staining 
glass is better understood 
now than in ancient times, 
one of the chief beauties 
of the ancient work should 
have been so often over- 



looked — that is, a proper regard for the material itself. In ancient glass pic- 
tures the shadows, laid on with dark colors and fixed in the fire, were but 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



313 



sparingly used, never indeed to the extent obtaining' at present, where the 
primary object of the glass as a means of transmitting light is sacrificed in 
order to introduce opaque effects of shadow. In the example before us this 
fault has been caretully avoided. 

In the exhibition made by the Messrs. Elkington, of Birmingham, Eng- 




Stained Glass Window ; F. X. Zettler, Munich. 



LAND, was a collection of reproductions in electro-plate of celebrated works in 
metal, chiefly copied from the magnificent collection belonging to the South 
Kensington Museum. Here were specimens of the exquisite workmanship of 
Benvenuto Cellini; cups and other specimens of Roman work in silver, some 
of which belonged to the famous "Treasure of Hildesheim ;" work of the Byzan- 
tine goldsmiths ; the remarkable St. Patrick's bell ; and, in short, notable works 



314 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, 1S76. 



of the goldsmiths and silversmiths of England, France, Germany, Spain, and 
Italy, from the ninth to the fifteenth century, beside the work of modern artists 
of fame, and ancient pieces whose origin is the discussion of antiquaries. This 
collection was, indeed, an excellent illustration of the history of the gold- and 




Antique Dr'niking Cup : Elkiii^ton 6^ Co., Birmingham, England. 



silversmiths' art, and as such invaluable for purposes of study, The reproduc- 
tion of the articles by the electrotype process insured absolute exactness in 
every detail in the duplicate, and where the originals had jewel enrichments 
the copy was supplied with perfect imitations of the gems. No amount of 
money could buy out of hand a similar collection of originals, and such another 
could only be acquired in time by actively competing at every sale with the 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



315 



museums of Europe; but by purchasing these duplicates, which they obtained 
at a moderate price, our Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art 



have secured to this 
city a collection quite 
as invaluable for pur- 
poses of instruction, 
and perhaps even 
better adapted for 
these ends than the 
orio-inals themselves. 

On page 314 we 
engrave an Antique 
Drixkixg Cup, taken 
from this collection, 
which gives an ad- 
mirable idea of the per- 
fectness of the Elk- 
IXGTON reproduction. 
On the lid of the piece 
is perched a little 
Bacchus, wreathed and 
drinking from a bowl. 
Around the circumfer- 
ence of the cup is a 
group, executed in 
very high relief, repre- 
senting a Bacchic or- 
gie. Male and female 
figures are shown in 
every stage of inebri- 
ety. One, an old man, 
his bald brows crown- 




Antique Chalice : Klkington &> Co. 



ed with vine -leaves, 
staggers helplessly, 
though supported by 
his companions. The 
wine falls wasted to 
the ground from the 
vessel held carelessly 
in his hand. Another, 
overcome by liquor, 
sprawls helplessly on 
the ground beside a 
swine. A satyr looks on 
in grim and malignant 
derision. A ^'ouncf fe- 
male conies forward 
bearing a basket of 
fruit on her shoulder, 
and a companion her- 
alds her approach by 
blowing lustily on his 
horn. The work is 
executed with great 
spirit and true artistic 
feeling. The grouping 
of the figure is con- 
ceived with fine skill, 
and the treatment 
throughout is admi- 
rable. In the minor 
details, the ornamenta- 



tion is confined to bands and scrolls, in which the leaf and fruit of the grape are 
a motive. The handle is of the simplest description ; yet here too the sugges- 



3i6 



THE 1 XTERX ATIO XAL EXIl IB ITIOX, 1876. 



tion of the vine is conveyed by the reverse curves and the points as in the 
grape tendrils. Though we are not informed concerning the original of this 
piece, we should judge that it was of German workmanship, late in the six- 
teenth century, when the Italian style and manner had become incorporated 



with the earlier 
nadonal feeling-. 
Our illustra- 
tion on page 315 
is another ex- 
ample of ancient 
metal work taken 
from the col- 
lection of the 
Messrs. Elking- 
TON, above re- 
ferred to. It is 
an antique Eng- 
lish Chalice, re- 
markable for the 
extreme beauty \ 
of its design and 




Cellini Shield and Helmet : Italiatt Court, 



it worth while to 
attempt it here. 
With the illus- 
tration before us, 
the reader will 
observe for him- 
self the incised 
work on the 
bands around 
the bowl and 
cover and the 
beautiful chasingr 
on the pedestal. 
We would say a 
word, however, 
about the Eng- 
lish oold- and 
silver-work of 
old times. Al- 
though much was 
destroyed dur- 
ing the period 
of the Reforma- 



ornamentation. 
The detail of this 
fine cup could 
hardly be intelli- 
gently described 
in words ; nor is 

tion, by far the largest propordon of the articles remaining to us are the vessels 
used for the purposes of church decoration and use. Beside these are the 
cups and vessels manufactured for the guilds or great corporations, which must 
have been used in great quantities. In the older specimens the date of manu- 
facture cannot always be fixed with certainty, but after the beginning of the 
fifteenth century, when hall-marks began to be used, there is no trouble in 
fixing the date. Lists of these have been prepared by the South Kensington 



IXDUSTRIAL ART. 



317 



Museum, where they can be consulted by those wishing to investigate any 
particular mark. 

The next examples which we have selected from this fine collection of 
Elkixgton reproductions are the Shield and Helmet engraved on page 316. 
These are the workmanship of Benvenuto Cellini, the best known of all the 
metal-workers of the sixteenth century. This famous artist "was born in 1500, 
and having spent some years as an apprentice in one or two of the best work- 
shops of Florence, he worked in several towns of Italy. As time passed he 
established the highest reputation, and was largely employed at Rome by Pope 




Silver Basket : Trostrup, A'orway. 



Clement VII. Unfortunately Cellini was ordered by that pope to destroy as 
well as to make ; and to his hand we must trace the destruction of numberless 
artistic treasures which probably might, or at least some among them, have 
come down to our own days. Whilst Clement was besieged in the castle of 
St. Angelo, Cellini tells us in his memoirs that he received orders to unset all 
the precious stones tliat were upon the tiaras, the sacred vessels, and vestments 
of the pope, and to melt down the gold, of which he obtained two hundred- 
weight. We need not wonder, judging from this instance alone, why it is that 
so very few pieces of ancient and mediaeval gold- and silver-work can now be 
found. Afterward Cellini went to France and was patronized by Francis I ; 
yet, though he executed there many splendid works, only one can be identified — 
a gold salt-cellar, preserved in the museum at Vienna." 



318 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Cellini, although not the only goldsmith of his time, was undoubtedly the 
most famous. The number of pieces attributed to his hand are among the 
precious examples of his art in the museums of Europe. He lived in an age 
when the workmen of his craft found constant occupation, and when their work 
was esteemed at its full artistic value. The jewelry and plate of this period 
are simply superb, but even these are rivaled by the magnificent suits ot armor 
worn by the nobility, in making which the very best skill of the metal-worker 
was employed. Nothing could illustrate this better than the shield and helmet 




Krucrg yugs: Austrian Court. 



before us. In execution and finish they stand unsurpassed, and the beauty of 
the design is manifest. 

As an example of the workmanship of the silversmiths of Norway, we 
illustrate on page 317 a Silver Basket, made by Trostrup, of Christiania. 
Like all the other examples of industrial art exhibited by that nation, this 
basket evidences a fine appreciation of artistic taste and a cultivation of national 
feeling In design rather than a servile copying of foreign styles. The orna- 
mentation of this basket is admirable ; the pattern is exceedingly graceful and 
rich, and appropriate to the material in which it is wrought and the use for 
which the article is designed. There is just sufficient openness in it to suggest 
lightness and solidity, strength as well as grace. The shape of the piece, too, 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



319 



is elegant in its simplicity, and makes it a handsome ornament to the 
table. 

The quartette of Krugg Jugs, which we illustrate on page 318, were made 
by that celebrated manufacturer, and exhibited in die Austrian Court at the 
Centennial. These jugs are of taience and gris, and may be accepted as 
examples of the curious forms and styles ot decoration at one time so popular 
and so much soueht alter. 




Lambeth Faience: Doulton &> Co., England. 



The first represents a warrior in his coat of mail, his helmet, which forms 
the lid of the jug, upon his head, his back and belly protected by armor. It 
is a quaint conceit, and one that the fat knight Sir John Falstaff would have 
loved. The second jug and third are of a more ancient pattern. The surface 
of the first is divided into a number of medallions, in which are little groups 
of figures illustrating scripture subjects. We recognize in the medallions seen 
in the engraving, Rebecca at the well, the daughter of Herodius, and the 
Widow's son restored to life. Probably, could we see the central medallion 
on the front, we should discover the tableaux of the Nativity or the Cruci- 
fixion. But though these vessels bear such subjects on their face, they were 
used in many a jolly carouse. The work on this jug is perhaps finer and 



320 THE INTER XATIOXAL EXHIBITION, i8j6. 



more minute than on any of the others, although the features of the figures 
in the next piece are sharply and clearly defined. In this piece it will be 
observed that there are several costumed figures, which in the originals are 
always of value, as illustrating the dress of the time in which the jugs were 
made. The fourth one ot this group is of a pattern now again popular. A 
band or zone with figures of gods and goddesses surrounds the body of the 
piece, which is moulded to represent a woven surlace. A narrow border, deco- 
rated with a pretty flower-pattern, encircles the rim, which is surmounted by a 
flat cover. As has been indicated in these descriptions, all of these jugs are 
either copied from or designed after antique models. 

The Lambeth faience, manufactured by Duulton & Co., of Engl.\nd, is 
already familiar to our readers by many beautiful e.xamples already engraved ; 
but the collection exhibited by the Messks. Duulton at the Centennial included 
so many styles and varieties of objects to which the skill of their artists had 
been applied that the supply of fresh objects for illustration of their famous 
ware is practically inexhaustible. On page 319, for example, is seen a group 
of jugs, vases, ewers, etc., of antique and modern shapes, each with some charac- 
teristic bit of decoration, giving to the piece a unique value. We say unique, 
because it must be remembered that each of these pieces is decorated by hand 
at the artist's pleasure ; no two articles are exactl)' alike. How much better 
this is in an art point of view than the multiplication ot one given style, we 
need not here consider. It is sufificient to point out that while an object 
accepted as a model or standard of excellence in form, ornamentation and 
decoration is always beautiful and loses nothing by duplication, this servile 
copying is fatal to all artistic activity and progress. The study of the beautiful 
is always to be commended, but it should be pursued with a view to directing 
original ability in the proper directions and subject to the acknowledged canons 
of art. Here and there in the group before us we recognize examples of the 
pottery known as Doulton-ware, which in its way is quite as beautiful as the 
Lambeth faience. 

In wandering through the several European courts at the Centennial, the 
American visitor, whose experience of civilization had been confined to this 
country, gained for the first time a realizing sense of the luxury of the old 
world. It is true that the homes of our wealthy classes are crowded with 




Ebony Inlaid Cubintt : S. L^c-, //u.i^/i C^urt. 



322 THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, 1S76. 

objets de luxe and master works of great artists brought from abroad, but 
never before had the furniture for palaces, the magnihcent carved pieces, the 
exquisite textiles, the costly porcelains such as we all had read about, been open 
to the general view. Every nation contributed of her best and choicest objects 
in honor of our Centennial Exhibition, and many of the chefs d'aiivre there 
displayed now adorn the palaces of Europe as well as our own palatial 
homes. 

One of these pieces, an Ebony Inlaid Cabinet, manufactured by S. Coco, 
OF Florence, and exhibited in the Italian Court, is seen in the engraving on 
page 321. 

We can readily imagine the magnificence of the apartment in which such 
a piece of furniture as this should be placed. The mere cost of the mechanical 
labor in constructing this cabinet, without considering the price paid for the 
artistic work, must have been very great. Its details cannot be appreciated 
without careful study. Each statuette — and there are seventeen of them, not 
including the busts and the central group — is a perfect work in itself. In the 
panels are medallions with portraits of master artists in music and sculpture 
and painting inlaid in the wood. Wherever the eye rests there is some beau- 
tiful piece of carving or design to hold the attention; w-hile looked upon at a 
sufficient distance for the effect of the whole to be taken in at once, the work 
is seen to be noble in its proportions and free from those frivolous ornamenta- 
tions which so often take away all characteristic form from such elaborate 
constructions as this. 

In the English Court at the Centennial was an exhibit composed entirely 
of objects, principally of personal ornaments, made from the Irish bog-oak. 
This wood, while coarser in grain than ebony, is nearly as hard, and after being 
submitted to a certain process becomes quite as black and lustrous. The root 
of the tree is most esteemed in the manufacture of these small articles, as it 
is harder and closer-grained than the trunk and branches. After being thoroughly 
dried and seasoned it is cut into blocks and given to the carvers. The prin- 
cipal seat of the manufacture of the ornaments is in Dublin. The personal 
ornaments mostly are mounted in red gold, which makes a rich contrast with 
the black wood. INIuch skill is displayed by the carvers, who copy natural 
objects, such as leaves, flowers, ferns, birds, butterflies, etc., or exercise their 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



323 



inofenuitv in devisinor 
conventional and geo- 
metric patterns. A 
very favorite object 
with them is the sham- 
rock. On this page 
we engrave several 
examples of these 
bog-oak ornaments. 

The artistic excel- 
lence of Japanese 
workmanship is finely 
illustrated in the 
Bronze Lamp en- 
graved on page 324. 
The modeling of the 
bird is most spirited 
and life-like. The 
arrangement of the 
feathers, the curve of 
the neck, the muscles 
of the legs, the erect 
position, the balance, 
all show a careful 
study of nature and 
a thorough know- 
ledge of expression. 
The detail work is 
marvelously minute 
without any triviality. 
The feathering of the 
body is suggested 
rather than imitated ; 
the texture of the 






Iris/i Bog -Oak Brooches: English Court. 



long plumes in the 
wings and tail is in- 
dicated by a few 
strou"- lines. Nor is 
the least admirable 
part of this work the 
portion which plays 
the part of the lamp. 
In treating this, where 
so many spoil the 
whole effect by add- 
ing some dispropor- 
tioned and inharmo- 
nious contrivance, our 
artist has rather 
added to the charac- 
ter and enhanced the 
beauty ot his work. 
His stork, in seizing 
at an eel, has grasped 
the lower portion of 
a lily as well as the 
fish in his strong bill, 
and torn the plant up 
by the roots. The 
open flower itself 
forms a vase for the 
lamp, while its leaves 
and blossoms make 
a graceful ornament 
below. Here again 
we see the wonderful 
observation of the 
Japanese in their 



324 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



study of natural objects — this time, liowever, coupled ^vitll that subtle desire to 
give a grotesque turn to the work, which is their great characteristic. The lily- 
plant is somewhat conventionalized, and the root writhes about as if sensible of 
the same fears which animate the fish ; while to the stork is given an expression 



of amazement which 
plainly questions, 
What manner of mon- 
ster have I captured, 
this time ? 

A fine example of 
ornamental Book- 
binding, an art too 
much neglected in the 
present day, is given 



page 325. 



It 



was one 



of the fine display 
made b)' Lortic, of 
Paris, which attracted 
much attention from 
those interested in 
this subject. The de- 
sign is a conventional 
flower and leaf pat- 
tern twined about a 
frame-work which is 
a geometric develop- 
ment of the parts 
formine the medal- 




Bronze Lamp : Japanese Court, 



lion in the centre. 
The whole is most 
gracefully treated, and 
Is in admirable con- 
trast to those foolish 
conceits that aim to 
attract to the con- 
tents of the book 
without any regard to 
artistic fitness in de- 



sign. 



Doubtless it is well. 
when, possible to give 
some suggestion of 
what is in a book by 
the design upon the 
cover, but the desire 
to do this, and further 
to attract to the con- 
tents by making the 
outside attractive, has 
introduced some most 
meretricious notions 
into bookbinding es- 
tablishments. It is 



bad enough to see a Book of Common Prayer widi a looking-glass bound into 
one of its sides, but this is not as bad, in an artistic and workmanlike sense, 
as to see a tiny volume for the pocket hinged and bossed like the portly 
mediaeval tomes whose weight and rich carving required these protections. 

On pages 326 and 327 we have engraved examples of the Jewelry 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



325 



manufactured by Bellezza, uf Rome. The first is a graceful, thread-like orna- 
ment, a web in which jewels are caught, like dewdrops in the net of the spider. 
With every movement the delicate gold filaments binding the jewels are set in 
motion, and the gems dance and dazzle in the light. Observe, too, how inge- 
niously the artist has contrived to harmonize the lines of his design, making 




ExatnpU of Artiitic Book-binding : M. Lortic, Paris. 



them all circle about one central ornament, which contains the largest and most 
brilliant gem of all. His task was to display to the greatest advantage a 
number of jewels. Neither gold nor enamel-work nor ornamental-work of any 
kind was to interfere with this primary object ; and as the play of light on the 
surface of a jewel adds to its attractiveness, it was necessary to set them so 
that they should be sensitive to any, the least motion. See how this has been 



326 



THE IXTERNATIOX AL EX H I B I TI N, i S 76. 



accomplished. From the bar of gold forming the circlet of the necklace they 
are suspended by threads of gold, with dainty gold leaflets between each pair 
of jewels. In the centre of the bar is a rosette of delicate workmanship and 
some elaborateness, from which are pendant the chief jewel and its encircling 
bands. The second of these bands, which is the longer, is made to resemble the 
spray of some delicate plant. A forget-me-not is suspended from the centre 
of the line within. On either side of this central design are ribbon-like bands 
of gold, looped together into a knot, from which depends a single thread of 



gold, strung with 
jewels, hanging be- 
tween other and 
longer threads, which 
are joined together 
below into one, a leaf 
and jewel marking 
the point of junction. 
The other example 
is of a novel and more 
elaborate style than 
the former. A mag- 
nificent central jewel, 
encircled with a cable 




Portion of a Necklace : N, A. Bellezza, Rome. 



of twisted gold, forms 
the central ornament. 
The whole is sus- 
pended from the band 
of the necklace by 
broad gold bands 
decorated with fine 
chasing. On either 
side are suspended 
chains of a peculiar 
design, from which 
radiate long golden 
spicules, their sur- 
faces covered w-ith 



small projections, and resembling in shape and size the delicate "needle-shells" 
found on the southern sea-coast. The effect of the whole, the great flashing 
jewel, the heavy cable of red gold, and the scintillating rays on either side, is 
rich to gorgeousness, and suggests something of the splendor of ornament 
affected by tlie women of the East. 

The Jardiniere and Plaque engraved on page 328 are selected as speci- 
mens of the glassware exhibited by Lobmeyr, of Vienna. Every one who 
visited the Centennial will remember that very remarkable display made by this 
manufacturer in the Austrian Court of the Main Building. Glass in almost 
every imaginable form was there, a bewildering mass of color and glitter and 
sparkle. Indeed, w^e fancy that where so much was crowded together, but few 
persons really took in more than the general effect, being quite unable to 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



327 



examine in detail a tenth part ot the curious and beautiful things there to be 
seen. Here, for instance, are two objects which are worthy of careful study, 
and which will excite the admiration of every one, now that they are seen by 
themselves ; yet these and a hundred other beautiful objects were simply lost 
among the numberless specimens of his art that crowded Lobmeyr's stalls. It 
was indeed the fault of the Exhibition, if it had a fault, that it was too vast in 
its plan and too much elaborated in its details. No one who has ever talked 
with another on any given department can have failed to remark how many 
things the one saw that the other did not. It was simply a physical impossi- 



bilit}' to see 
everything we 
specially de- 
sired to see. 
The eye grew 
weary and re- 
fused to per- 
form its func- 
tions. The gaze 
would be cen- 
tered uncon- 
sciously upon 




Portion of a Necklace : N. A. Betlezza, Rome. 



an object, the 
while the mind 
was searching 
for it. We are 
not sure that 
this embar- 
rassment of 
riches could 
have been 
avoided, or 
that it would 
have been wise 



to attempt it; yet we think that the exhibitions of the future will look 
more towards quality than quantity; that the commissioners of the several 
nations will be asked to exercise a wise discretion in accepting exhibits, 
and confine their selections to what may be worthily exhibited as typical 
examples of art and industry, rejecting all duplicates. We believe, indeed, 
that France intends to adopt some such regulation- as this in her forthcoming 
Exhibition. 

Returning to the subjects of our illustration, we must first remind the 
reader that they are made entirely of glass. The Plaque is made in two 
layers — one of colored glass and the other of clear crystal. The colored sur- 
face is in fact a red glass enamel upon the imdermost and thicker body. The 
centre, in which a rosette has been cut, and the rim with its mouldings, are not 
enameled, however, so that the effect of the colored portion is as if it was 



THE IXTERXATIONAL EXIIIBITIOX. iS~6. 




i^ 



separate and detached, and simply rested upon the crystal. This delusion is 
increased by the beautiful scroll decoration seen in the enq^raving, which is 
accomplished by cutting through the enamel to the crystal surface beneath. By 



IXDUSTRIAL ART. 



329 



this means a very brilliant effect is produced, and a couple of these plaques 
hung against a Avall would form a most pleasing ornament to a parlor or 
library. 

The Jardiniere is a more elaborate work, and in the decoration of its 
surface the engraver has exerted himself to make it a masterpiece. Each 
tendril and leaf-point and flower-petal is executed with the greatest nicety 



and skill. The winged 
female figures at the 
ends of the vase, serv- 
ing as handles, are of 
glass, treated in that 
manner which rough- 
ens its surface and 
makes it white, opaque 
and without lustre. 
By this means the fine 
modeling of the fea- 
tures and the render- 
ing of the texture of 
the wings and gar- 
ment can be seen to 
better advantage than 
if the surface was 
clear and polished. 
jVIost of the other or- 
namental accessories 




Mafon d'Odeur: French CouH. 



connected with these 
figures are of glass of 
different colors, and a 
judicious use is made 
oi gilding in order to 
heighten the already 
brilliant effect. Sim- 
ply as an ornament 
for a drawino-room 
table this finely exe- 
cuted work would at- 
tract attention, but 
filled with flowers and 
ferns, and placed as a 
centre-piece on the 
dining-table, it would 
be superb. 

A dainty and ex- 
quisite toy, a Flagon 
d'Odeur, with gold 



mountings, is illustrated in our engraving on this page. It is of French manu- 
facture, and like all the costly trifles produced by that nation there is an artistic 
excellence and finish in the workmanship that renders its origin almost unmis-' 
takable. Moreover, in producing things of this kind the fancy of the artist 
has full play, and he can give expression to any caprice or thought that pre- 
sents itself. The object is so purely ornamental that the consideration of use 
is of little consequence. Hence in French jewelry and personal ornaments of 
all kinds we find novelties constantly tempting us, and while many of the objects 



_^.^o 



THE IXTERXATIONAL EXHIBITIOX, iSj6. 



are bizarre to our soberer judgments, the major portion show an intunate 
knowledge and study of the art of design, and very few- indeed are without 
artistic excellence of some kind. French artists and artisans seem indeed to 
have learned that what is worth doing at all is worth doing well. In this pLAgoN 
d'Odeur we have an admirable and spirited design executed in an admirable and 
spirited manner. Even the small knob which protects the base of the phial is 
as perfect in its proportions as the elaborate work above it ; and as if the 
sumptuousness of the gold and modeling was not enough, jewels have been 
added wherever an effective point could be found. 




Silver yewel-Casket : Zimmerman ^ Co., Haiiau. 



Next we have on this page a Je\vel Case, made by Zimmerman & Co., of 
Hanau, and exhibited in the German Court. This case or casket is of solid 
silver, about twelve inches long, six inches wide, and as many high. The metal is 
wrought in repousse. It is an admirable study of purely classical design. Around 
the sides of the cover is a band with scrolls woven about grotesquely formed 
animals, forming a continuous pattern such as is seen in ancient friezes. At 
the ends of the casket are eao-les' heads wdth rin^s in their beaks for handles. 
In the front is a medallion containingf a female head wreathed with a laurel 
crown. On either side of this, on the same panel, are vines twining upwards, 
and doves disporting themselves on the branches. Borders of the pine-apple 
pattern surround the base and cover of the casket, completing its ornamentation. 

The Brass Gate, which forms the subject of our illustration on page 331, 



IXDUSTRIAL ART. 



331 



was part of the enclosure around the stall of Mitchell, Vance & Co., of New 
York, in the United States Court. It is an admirable piece of artistic metal- 
work, a credit alike to the artist who designed it and the workmen who executed 
it. Use has been considered before ornament in its construction, and we see 
how true excellence in the former can be allied with simplicity. The material. 




Brass Gale : Mitchell, V.ince 6^ Co., New York. 



too, in which the work is wrought, has not been forgotten, and all the ornamenta- 
tion is of a perfectly legitimate kind. A vine gives the theme. Strips of metal. 
terming double reversed helices, the smaller above, the larger below, fill the 
space within the square of the frame-work with their graceful curves. From 
the main stem, tendrils branch off and by their curves give more breadth to 
the design. Each helix has a flower-shaped terminal, and here and there along 
the length of the curve are leaf-like projections, all introduced not only with 



THE IXTERXATIONAL EXHIBIT! OX, 1S76. 



an eye to the general effect, but to give strength and stabiHty to the whole 
construction. 

The display of ornamental crystal in the English Court was not equal in 
comparison with the importance ot the industry to the display of ornamental 
pottery, but among the pieces shown were some worthy of illustration as 



examples of that branch 
of Industrial Art. On this 
page, for example, we illus- 
trate a Crystal Epergxe, 
which for lightness and 
delicacy ot design is note- 
worthy. The base con- 
sists of a broad shallow 
bowl, suitable for fruits. 
From its centre rises an 
ornamental pedestal to a 
dish, in which flowers and 
comfits can be placed, and 
above this rises a tall, 
slender, trumpet- shaped 
vase for flowers and 
grasses. The vase, the 
dish and the bowl are of 
the clearest crystal, the 
two latter engraved with 
a graceful pattern, as deli- 




Crystc.l Eper^^.'ie : English Court, 



cate and fine as the tracery 
of a cobweb. 

Two examples of Jew- 
elry, the one from Rome 
and the other from Milan, 
are shown in our engrav- 
ings on page 333. The 
lower one is a portion 
ot a necklace, as purely 
classic in style as it is 
possible to obtain. Indeed, 
we should not be sur- 
prised if it was a repro- 
duction of some one of 
the ancient examples. It 
consists simply of a series 
of pendant gold orna- 
ments, shaped like am- 
phorse, linked together by 
means of perfectly plain 
bands. Nothing could be 



more severely pure than this design, and yet its quiet elegance is apparent. 

Beautiful of its kind, }et in marked contrast with the one below it, is the 
Necklace and Cross from Rome. Here the precious metal is made simply a 
vehicle for the display of the most brilliant enamels and the subtlest skill of 
the engraver's chisel. Gems, too, are introduced as occasion offers, and aside 
from the beauty of the design, the ornament will be admired as an example 
of the perfection of technical execution. 

On pages 334 and 335 are two more examples ot Exgll'^h Glass. The 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



333 



first is a specimen of opalized glass, reflecting the peculiar tints of tliat gem 
from its surface. On the side is a medallion head executed in relief, sur- 



rounded by a 
wreath of ferns and 
flowers delicately 
indicated bv li^ht 
etching. The piece 
is of that finely 
symmetrical shape 
which is always 
most observable in 
oflass which is 
blown. The second 
example is a speci- 
men of glass-cut- 
ting. Here lustre 
and prismatic 
beauty are obtain- 
ed by a proper 
cuttingof the facets, 
and this jewel-like 
effect is especially 
noticeable in the 
handle of this de- 
canter. 

As examples of 
the art-pottery of 
Austria, we engrave 
on page 336 a 
group of Porcelain 




Portion of Necklace and Cross : Salvo &= Co., Rome. 




Vases selected from 
the exhibidon in 
the Austrian Court. 
One is much sim- 
pler in its decora- 
tion than the others, 
there being but 
little work in relief 
upon its surface, 
and the decorative 
pattern consisting 
chiefly of geometric 
patterns with leaf- 
sprays between. 
The second piece 
of the group is 
classic in shape and 
richly decorated, a 
noteworthy feature 
in the design being 
a winged cupid, 
executed in a most 
spirited manner 



and with rare grace. 



Portion of Necklace : yerardini, Milan. 



The third vase is, 
perhaps, the most 
elaborate of the 
three. The sea 

furnishes the theme for the design. A group of dolphins form the base, and 
their bodies wound about a sea-plant make the pedestal. Above, the bowl, its 
edge bound round with sea-weed, is ornamented with four sea-horses bending 
over the margin, as if contemplating a swim within the basin. Shells and 



334 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, 1876. 



coral and other .s\mbol.s of the ocean are grouped about this piece, which is 
altogether an extremely well-conceived piece oi work. \ 

Of all the arts, that of the potter has perhaps the widest and most diverse 
range. The ornamental and decorative objects which he fashions are only less 
numerous than the humbler articles of pottery which obtain all over the world. 
The growth of civilization can be traced in the progress ot the fictile art 



through its original 
crude stages to the 
production of works 
the very perfection of 
artistic skill and excel- 
lence. In this country, 
where nature has sup- 
plied the workman 
with the very best 
materials for the man- 
ufacture of all grades 
of stoneware, china 
and porcelain, it is 
only a question of 
time and education 
until we hold a fore- 
most place in this most 
important manufac- 
ture. American man- 
ufactures of several 
kinds are already 





Crystal Decanter: English Court, 



making their way into 
foreign markets with 
surprising rapidity. In 
a recent report on 
some American man- 
ufactures, the Consul- 
Gen eral of Great 
Britain says that "in a 
commercial point of 
view the United States, 
and Great Britain may 
be said in certain re- 
spects to be changing 
places, and with a ra- 
pidity which no one 
anticipated, though it 
has long been per- 
ceived that the ten- 
dency has been that 
way. The excellence 
of some of the Ameri- 



can manufactures, particularly of metals and cottons, is manifest, and cannot 
justly be decried by British importers. On the contrary, sagacious manufactu- 
rers who visited the Centennial Exhibidon have fully admitted that the decline 
In wages and raw materials in the United States, and the sample labor-saving 
appliances, coupled with the Intelligence and excellence of the work of the 
artisan, must of necessity produce a formidable competition with foreign pro- 
ductions." All we need now to cultivate, to excel In the higher and ardstic 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



335 



branches of industry, is the intelligence of our workmen. In this particular 
field of pottery, their artistic instinct must be manifest to every one who visited 
the American Court and saw the specimens of fictile art exhibited there. Intel- 
ligent training and familiarity with the best models would in a few years make 
the work, which already has the technical excellence necessary, compare favor- 
ably with that of foreign nations. 

If we remember how absolutely deficient in artistic excellence English 



potter}' was before the 
days of Wedgwood, we 
may hope that another 
such as he mav s^ive the 
needed impetus to our 
own manufacture. We 
are speaking now more 
especially of the fictile art 
in its ornamental uses; 
for the part that pottery- 
plays in the production 
of Wedgwood ware is a 
subordinate one. The 
exquisite work made 
by this master is more 
allied to sculpture or the 
glyptic art than to pot- 
ter}'. The gem-cutter's 




.JL, 



.'^: 




Crystal Decanter: English Court. 



potter's work, and by 
this means it was that 
the Wedewood cameos 
are literally deserving 
of that name. Wedg- 
wood it must be remem- 
bered, besides making 
minute and exact copies 
of antique bas-reliefs 
and alto-reliefs, employ- 
ed such artists as Flax- 
man and Pacetti to fur- 
nish him with original 
designs, which he had 
modeled by Webber, 
one of the most skillful 
workmen of his time. 
It was this aiming after 
the very best in art that 
grave the inventor of 



tools were always used 
to finish and perfect the 
this unique English ware his great name and fame. 

It has sometimes been contended that the ceramic art in England reached 
its highest excellence in these marvelous productions of Wedgwood, but this is 
certainly too broad and sweeping an assertion. That in this particular form of 
ornament nothing has since been produced to rival the Wedgwood ware is quite 
true, but there are other ways in which the art has been brought to the highest 
perfection, and in a manner, moreover, more in harmony with the traditions and 



336 



THE IXTERXATIOXAL EXHIBITIOX, 1S76. 



methods of fictile art, as, for instance, in the pdfc-sur-pdfc, examples of uliich 
we have engraved in these pages. Wedgwood discovered new processes and 
a new art, an art as distinctively national and as important in its way as was 
the discoverv of Lucca della Robbia. His beautiful and ingenious imitation of 



the Pordand or Bar- 
berini vase will always 
remain a monument 
of excellence in a pe- 
culiar art which is 
now in its decadence; 
but new methods and 
other processes of 
manufacture must 
not be judged by the 
former standard. 




In Italy there is a 
movement making to 
return to the old ways 
of decorating pottery, 
and more especially 
to use the same ma- 
terials and pigments 
as formerly. The 
labor of chemists and 
students of ceramics 



is being devoted to 




Group of Porcelain Vitses : Austrian Conri. 



a re-discovery of the ancient processes, which surpass all modern work. There 
was exhibited at the Centennial a small but exceedingly interesting collection 
of faience made at a fabrique near Naples, in which the efforts of one man in 
this direction were illustrated. In makinof and decoratingf his wares he endeav-- 
ored to follow as nearly as possible the traditional methods which produced 
what are now the treasures of our cabinets. Though the work was somewhat 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



337 



crude, there was abundant evidence to prove that he was laboring in the right 
direction. Some of the pigments, the blues and greens in particular, were quite 




y. Templeton e^ Co., Glasgow. Scotland. 



as brilliant and of a purer color than those in ordinary use which are com- 
monly imported from Germany. The artist had not reached that point when 



j38 THE IXTERNATIONAL EX H I B I T 1 N, 1 8 j 6. 

he felt that he could attempt the production of the lustered ware, the true 
majolica, biit he was confident that he would attain to that stage in due season. 

Our illustration on page ■^■^■] represents a section of a Carpet exhibited 
by Messrs. J. Templeton & Co., of Glasgow, Scotland. The pattern in the 
centre consists of geometric figures, as graceful and delicate as snow-crystals, 
symmetrically arranged on a ground of neutral color, but two or three shades 
darker than the figures themselves. At regular intervals, medallions of a bright, 
positive color are introduced, on which are small, flower-shaped figures of the 
same hue as the pattern in the other portion of the fabric. A bright border, 
with a much lighter ground, surrounds the centre, and makes an effective con- 
trast of color. The design in this portion of the carpet is of a different 
character from that in the other portion, the designer doubtless having in view 
the fact that as this part of a floor-covering is subject to less wear or use, a 
less conventional style of decoration is more admissible. He has therefore given 
us here a series of garlands and vases, with bouquets of natural flowers along 
the sides, ending in the corners in wreaths and vignettes. 

It is a curious fact that the custom ot decorating carpets with flowers, 
leaves, grass, moss, and the like, strewn over the surface, is comparatively of 
modern origin, while the pictorial representation of animals, grotesque and 
fabulous monsters on rugs and floor-cloths can be traced back to a very remote 
antiquity, even to Babylonian times. These ancient rugs, however, are more 
properly to be classed as heavy tapestries than carpets. All through Asia the 
business of carpet-weaving has been carried on for ages, and to this day their 
hand-woven rugs exceed in richness and harmonious blending of color, and in 
real excellence of design, the most perfect products of European looms. There 
was a time in England when the imitations of Turkey carpets produced there 
were even more expensive than the genuine, but this was owing to the fact 
that in the imitations worsted yarn was used instead of wool, as in the Turkey 
carpet. 

For many years after the introduction of carpets into Europe, they were 
esteemed as great luxuries, and, indeed, a floor entirely hidden under a covering 
of this kind is a caprice of modern times, only made possible by the discovery^ 
of a means to manufacture carpet by machinery^ Rushes, plaited or strewn 
smoothly over the floor, was the first step made in this respect towards warmth 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



339 




fl Al il'^i?A .^ -'■«^|| ISA-i 'i 



=356 



..Y.aI(l,i?jj|illilyi 3 i i^lliti^^) iji^l:fflMl4^^ 



Banner and ^tule : Belgian Department. 



340 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



and comfort by our ancestors. Long after the small Eastern rugs were known 
to Western Europe, the homely straw or rushes continued to be used in most 
of the reception-chambers of the household. 

The first carpet factory of importance in Europe was established in France, 
from whence the manufacture extended to England and German)-, where there 
grew up many notable centres for the trade. It was reserv^ed for an American 
inventor, Mr. E. B. Bigelow, of Boston, to succeed in bringing the aid of 
machinery to bear upon the production, and so to revolutionize the whole trade. 
It is now some forty years since this gentleman discovered a means of applying 
the power-loom to carpet-weaving, and in the next few years, by perfecting his 









Russian Jewelry : M. Krumbu^el , St. Petersburg. 



machinery, making it capable of producing the several kinds of carpet from 
Ingrain to Brussels. This invention, as we have said, revolutionized the busi- 
ness, and has been the means of making what was once a luxury and novelty 
to the rich, a part of the furniture of the humblest home. 

On page 339 we illustrate an ecclesiastical Banner, exhibited in the Belgian 
Department of the Exhibition. This fine example of embroidery is intended 
to figure the grand doctrine of the Atonement, and from the pictorial presen- 
tation of the subject in the centre of the banner, through all the symbolic acces- 
sories to the design, we have the one theme strongly and unmistakably brought 
before us. 

The Intimate connection of the development of this beautiful art of 
embroidery with the Christian religion Is admirably shown in the collections of 
ecclesiastical vestments preserved in many of the churches and museums of 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



341 



Europe and England. The pious munificence of the rich presented the Church 
mth the most precious stuffs of the loom, enriched with the most cunnino-. skill 
of the needle. In the schools connected with the monasteries, embroidery was 
taught, and what is now an art known only to women was in ancient days 




i4HfrfH4H 



haL. 



Clock : Austrian Court. 



4 



largely practised by men. Going further back still, to the times of the Bible, 
we read of the rich vestments made for the priests who ministered in the holy 
places, and mention is made of one, Ooliab, the son of Achisamech, of the 
tribe of Dan, who made vestments for Aaron, showing that the art was even 
then fostered and encouraged by religion. 



342 



THE 1 XTERXATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



On page 340 we illustrate a number of examples of Russian Jewelry, 
from the exhibit made by M. Krumbugel, of St. Petersburg. There are several 
very different styles in this group, yet each and all are marked with originality 
and characteristic treatment. The central pair of ear-rings have a suggestion 
of French feeling in their design, but not enough of it to allow them to be 
mistaken for French jewelry. In the other pieces, especially in the right-hand 
one of the group, the oriental spirit and freedom of design are manifest. 




Norwich Gate: Barnard, Bishop &= Barnards, A'orwich, England. 



In execution, the Russian jewelry at the Centennial as a rule did not affect 
minute and delicate treatment as much as brilliancy of effect and gorgeousness 
of color. Enamel was freely used whenever a rich contrast could be produced 
with it, and a profusion of the most brilliant gems was another characteristic 
of the display. 

Until the invention of wheel-clocks moved by weights, which some persons 
attribute to the genius of Archimedes, the science of horology was in a crude 
state of development. The clepsydra, or water-clock, was perhaps the most 
perfect piece ot mechanism for measuring time known to the ancients, although 



IXDUSTRIAL ART. 



343 



It was not as accu- 
rate as the sand- 
glasses which af- 
terwards came into 
ver}' general use. 
The eariiest form 
of clepsydra was a 
reservoir, usually a 
transparent vase, 
filled with water. 
A small orifice at 
the bottom allowed 
the liquid to flow 
out gradually, the 
level of its surface 
in the vessel mark- 
inor the time. Later 
a method by which 
the, water was made 
to drip, drop by 
drop, upon a wheel, 
which communi- 
cated motion to a 
statue that pointed 
with a wand to a 
disk marked with 
divisions of time, 
was invented. 
Some of these 
clepsydras were 
very costly and in- 

tion of the pendulum for this purpose, a new era began in clock-making, and 
the ingenuity of scientific men was directed to perfecting the methods of its 
use and making the machinery what it is at present, the perfection of mechanism 




Enlargement of Norwich Gate : Barnard , Bishop (S^ Barnards. 



genious, and to 
these pointing stat- 
ues may be traced, 
perhaps, the mod- 
ern dial with its 
movable hands. 
The earliest form 
of sun-dial by 
which the time of 
day was measured 
was, probably, a 
plain column erect- 
ed on some level 
spot — the instru- 
ment known to us 
as a sun-dial be- 
longing to a much 
later period. 

But all these 
ancient styles of 
horoloeues were 
superseded by the 
application to time- 
markers of ma- 
chinery moved by 
weights, and after- 
wards by springs, 
and the use of the 
pendulum with its 
exact oscillations. 
With the introduc- 



344 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



and scientific knowledge. Correct timekeepers, both watches and clocks, are 
things of such ordinary and universal use no\v-a-days that few people pause to 
consider what a triumph of invention the mechanism is. Assuming, as a matter 
of course, that the works are all right, the purchaser of a costly watch or clock 




seeks rather to please his fancy a:s to the style, shape, size, etc., of the object ; 
and it would be hard to find any article of use or ornament, or both combined, 
that is offered to the public under so many different shapes and disguises as 
the modern clock. Almost the whole range of classic sculpture has been made 



IXDUSTRIAL ART. 



34S 



subservient to its use. Atlas sweats under the weight of its works, and the 
Laocoon writhes with it in his belly. A favorite and an excellent style is to 
insert the works and dial into a pedestal for a statuette, usually of bronze. 



Many of these are 
exquisite works 
of art, admirable 
copies of the an- 
tique or modern 
productions; but 
by far the greater 
number are about 
as poor specimens 
of ornament as the 
market affords. In- 
deed, as a rule, 
clock-statuary is to 
be avoided. 

On page 341 we 
illustrate a style of 
Clock, exhibited 
in the Austri.\n 
Court at the Ex- 
hibition, that makes 
no pretence of be- 
ing anything other 
than what it is, and 
in which the design 
and ornament is 
studied with due ref- 
erence to the use for 
which the object is 




Cabinet : Cooper (S^ Noll, Londoti. 



intended. The sim- 
plicity of the design 
is offset by elabo- 
rateness in the de- 
tail of the decora- 
tion, which is rich 
and Avell conceived. 
In the panels of the 
dome is some very 
fine work, speci- 
mens of which are 
shown in the vig- 
nettes. Above the 
dome is an open 
belfry, containing a 
bell and hammer — 
which, by the way, 
in ancient times, 
was the clock of the 
horologue — so that 
the vibration of the- 
metal, when the 
hours are struck, is 
not muffled, but 
rings out clearly 
and with distinct- 
ness. Another fea- 
ture, companion- 



able or distracting, according to one's mood, is the pendulum swinging backward 
and forward across the face of the dial, attracting the eye by its mute motion 
to the ever-advancintf hands and to the significant legend inscribed above them. 



346 



THE IXTERXATIOXAL EXHIBITJOX, 1876. 



We have already made mention ot die admirable display of wrought-iron 
work in the English Court of the Exhibition, notable examples of which have 
been illustrated in these pages. Another example, and one well worthy o\ 
careful stud\- by those interested in the subject, are the Norwich Gates, manu- 
factured by Barnard, Bishop & Barnards, of Norwich, England, shown on 
pages 342 and 343. These gates are made ot wrought-iron, welded together 
and secured by wrought-iron bands. Each leaf, tendril, sprig, and branch of 
the scroll-work was wrought by hand from forged iron. In no instance was 








Faience of Gien et Loiret : French Collective Exhibit. 



the die, stamp, mould or matrix used. The work is in every respect creditable 
to the skill of the artisan and the artist. In considering the design it will be 
seen that it has two principal features — open scroll-work and panels. For the 
former the oak and thorn are taken as types, the analysis of their foliage and 
flowers and method of growth being studied with a view to the ornamental 
forms to be derived from them. In the same way the ornamentation of the 
panels in the lower part of the piers is derived from the wheat- and corn- 
flower, the oat, the barley and wild poppy, the grape, the rose, the purple iris, 



IXDUSTR/AL ART. 



347 



the monkshood and wild geranium, with other flowers. In the upper panels 

are various kinds ot heaths, wherein the rebus of the firm — Four Bees — and 
the monogram of the designer are introduced. 

The upper panels of "the gates are ornamented on one side with swallows 

and other birds, and a pattern of apple-blossoms, and with butterflies, moths, 

may-flies, etc., and a pattern of almond-blossoms. On the other side the cor- 
responding panels contain the convolvulus, honeysuckle, the sun and the lark. 




Portion oj Curtain : Royal School of Art Needle-work. 



symbolizing Day; and the ivy and pine, the owl and the bat, symbolizing 
Night. 

In the lower panels of the gate the four seasons are typified by the naked 
branch, the branch with bud and blossom, the full foliage of summer, and the 
fruit, of autumn. All of diis enricliment is executed in repousse, the design 
having first been drawn on the metal plate, which was then placed on a soft 
metal table, and the pattern beaten up from the back with hammers and 
punches, and finished on the face with similar tools. 



34S 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



Another example of English metal-work and ornamental design is illus- 
trated on page 344. The subject here is a Fire-place, with all its lurniture, 
manufactured and exhibited by Messrs. Steel & Garland, of London. As a 







m 







rule, we in this country know too Htde of ornamental open fire-places. The 
huge chimney chasms in our old houses, intended for burning logs, made no 
pretence to anything but homely comfort ; and the air-tight, sheet-iron American 



IND US TR I A L AR T. 



349 




Ch I y jj I li ot ig Coop ijr^ Holt Lotldon 



stove — a most efficient and economic room-warmer — followed afterwards by 
the invention of the hot-air furnace and steam-heating apparatus, have since 



iSO THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIB ITJON, fSjo. 

come into almost universal use. But in England the pleasant traditions of the 
hearth-stone have been kept and made a living reality in the modern fire-place. 
So, when the present art-revival began, and everybody set to work studying 
furniture and room decoration, attention was at once directed to the fire-place 
as one of the principal features of the apartment. Our illustration shows what 
has been achieved in this direction. Here is a design which the most exacting 
household-art critic will find no fault with, though it suggests more solid comfort 
than can always be derived from the styles of furniture which he most 
approves of. 

As an offset to the Fire-place, we may fancy the Cabinet, illustrated on 
page 345, occupying a recess in the same room. This fine piece ol work, made 
by Cooper & Holt, of London, is quite in keeping with the Fire-place, and is 
another example of the effect of art-culture applied to the industries. Honesty 
of construction, avoidance of trivial and over-ornamentation, the study of utility 
before decoration, each and all of these are exemplified in this Cabinet. There 
is nothing sham or make-believe about it. With the exception of the enrich- 
ment of the panels, which are admirable specimens of the carver's art, there 
is nothing in the work that could not be done by any clever carpenter owning 
a box of tools and a lathe. It is the harmony of the design, the correctness 
of all the proportions, that give to the whole its pleasing effect, and here it is 
that education in the principles of art applied to the industries becomes 
apparent. 

Having placed this Cabinet in the room with the Fire-place, we may place 
among the bric-a-brac on its shelves the specimens of Faience of Gien et 
LoiRET, illustrated on page 346. These characteristic examples of this kind of 
pottery are taken from the French Collective Exhibit, which was rich in modern 
wares and copies of ancient styles. The decoration of these pieces is of 
felicitous excellence, and as they may be regarded more as ornaments than 
works of utility, the profusion of enrichment increases the pleasure in dieir 
beauty. 

And having grouped the last three illustrations together, we may with pro- 
priety add the Curtain, a portion of which is seen in the engraving on page 
347, as part of the hangings in this ideal apartment. Those of our readers who 
have followed us this far will have rightly guessed, already, that this Curtain is the 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



3SI 



work of the women at the Royal School of Art Needle-work, in London. 
The desio-n is one of the most graceful and artistic of the many which were 




Plaque — Batk-Skeba at the Bath : Elklngton &' Co., Birmingham, England. 



shown in the exhibit of this institution. The natural growth of the vine has 
herein been studied and conventionalized for decorative purposes in the happiest 



352 THE I XTERXATIOXAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



and most agreeable manner. W^e can wish the happy possessor ot the room 
which we have furnislied to this extent no better fortune than that the articles 
still wanting to make the place habitable may be each as excellent in their way 
as these are. 

On page 34S we illustrate a Lace Collar, exhibited in the collection of 
French manufactures in the Women's Pavilion at the Centennial. Judging from 
the general appearance ot the design as seen in the engraving, we should say 
this collar was a specimen of the needle-made lace of Alengon, the onl)' place 
in France, except Argentan, where point lace is made at the present time. 
Colbert, the celebrated minister of Louis XIY, established the Alengon industry, 
and induced Venetian lace-makers to make their home at his chateau in order 
to teach his people the stitch. But, unable to learn this, the French workmen 
invented a method and style ot their own, which has been handed down, with 
but little variation, to the point d'Alengon lace-makers of the present time. 

The subject of our illustration on page 349 is an oak Chimnev-piece and 
Wainscoting, manufactured by Messrs. Cooper & Holt, of London, and exhibited 
by them in their department in the English Court at the Centennial. The tire- 
place proper, which is but a small part of this massive construction, is faced 
with an iron front, decorated with incised scroll-work. This is set in a recess, 
lined at the back and on the sides with colored, square tiles. Over this recess 
is a cupboard, standing out some distance from the wall; and above this again 
is a shelf with a sloping back. The object of this arrangement is to imitate an 
old-fashioned fire-place, hearth and projecting chimney-piece of ample propor- 
tions. The other parts of the design harmonize with this view. On either side 
of the hearth-walls are paneled wainscotings about four feet in height. The 
curved braces of the chimney-mantle rest on the wainscot-rail and support a 
pair of lov\^, broad cupboards placed on either side of the central shelf. Over 
these cupboards are open spaces where china can be displayed, and then follows 
another shelf or roof supported by pillars. Above the central shelf the roof 
rises to double the height of the shelves on either side, with curved panels, 
rounding forward from the back. 

The general outline of this Chimney-piece would be severely plain if it 
was not for the few curved lines introduced at the several points of support 
and at the back of the central roof; and when we look at the detail of the 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



353 



work we find that it has been enriched with carving and painting. The admirable 
manner in which these ornamental and decorative accessories have been intro- 
duced is worthy ot particular notice. With such an ample and varied surface 




Brazen Salver ; Ei^'yptiaii Court, 



to treat, a decorator might readily have fallen into the fault of over-ornamen- 
tation, but this ardst was too well taught for that. The judicious choice of 
parts to be enriched, and the careful consideration of the kind of enrichment 
suitable, makes the ornamentation all the more effective. It has been well said 



354 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 

that the modern ornamentist might learn something of restraint, and be warned 
against over-ornamentation, by seeing how nature restricts her true ornaments, 
the flowers, to the most saHent and culminating points of plants, and sprinkles 
them sparingly, contrasted with the foliage. Over- ornamentation, and that 
without a proper appreciation ot the application of ornament to the various 
materials in which the design is intended to be wrought or executed, is perhaps 
the greatest fault of all ornamental work of the present time. 

Another of the important works of high art manufactured by the Messrs. 
Elkington & Co., OF Birmingham, England, expressly for our Centennial 
Exhibition, is illustrated on page 351. It is a Plaque wrought out of silver 
and steel by the repousse process — that is to say, the whole of the work in 
relief is hammered up by hand from the flat surface of the metal, and is further 
enriched with damascened tracery in gold and silver. 

The subject of the design for this exquisite work of art is Bath-Sheba at 
the bath. Bath-Sheba, the daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite, 
the woman "very beautiful to look upon," whom David saw washing herself, as 
he walked, at eventide, upon the roof of the king's house in Jerusalem. It is 
the work of that eminent metal-sculptor — the same who designed the Helicon 
Vase, the Milton Shield and the Pompeiian Toilette, already illustrated and 
described in these pages — M. Morel Ladeuil. In purity of conception, harmony 
of detail and marvelous delicacy of manipulation, this plaque forms a worthy 
addition to the artist's other works. We see here the same beauty of design, 
fulness of elaboration and mastery of technical execution that characterizes his 
previous productions. 

If the reader will give a careful consideration to the details of this com- 
position, he cannot fail to observe how perfectly the Egyptian feeling has been 
preserved in the minutest parts. Even the rich tracery of damascened work 
on the rim of the plaque is purely Egyptian. The conventionalized lotus, the 
winged globe, the frame to the central group are well known. Coming to the 
episode represented, w^e see it executed in a manner sculpturesque as opposed 
to chromatic, and treated with classic purity and simplicity. The composition 
of this design is chaste and harmonious to a degree unsurpassed in a work of 
this kind. 

And when we consider the technical execution we find the same excellen- 



IND US TRIAL AR T. 



355 



cies in every part. In the figures of Bath-Sheba and the slave, the skin-texture 
has been wonderfully well rendered. Not a flaw can be discovered in the 




Group of Bohemian Glass : y. &> L, Lobmeyr, Vienna. 



damascening. In short, the workmanship is a perfect specimen of the highest 
class of artistic labor in the manipulation of the precious metals. 



356 



THE IXTERXATIOXAL EX H I B I T 1 X, 1 8 7 6. 



The Brazen Sai.ver, illustrated on page 353, was exhibited in the Egyptian 
Court at the Centennial, as an example ot the excellence of the modern artistic 
metal-work of the Egyptians. The intricacies of the design with which the 
salver is enriched appears to have been made conspicuous by the use of niello, 
a kind of black enamel with which the engraving is covered. The enamel 
sinks into the incisions made by the graver, and the whole surface is then 
rubbed down smooth and polished. The attempt to follow the lines of the 



pattern through all 
their lab}Tinthine 
windings is bewil- 
dering, yet it will 
be seen that the 
design consists of 
units ol ornament 
distributed and in- 
terwoven over the 
surface with geo- 
metrical accuracy. 
Indeed, this com- 
bination of geo- 
metrical f o r m s 
with conventional- 
ized flowers and 
leaves and tendrils 
is exceedingly fe- 
licitous and effect- 




Kru^ jfug : Count Tkuii, Austrian Court. 



ive. In all oriental 
surface decoration 
where a regular re- 
distribution of pat- 
terns is affected, we 
will find a s\"mmet- 
rical arrangement 
in which a figure, 
often extremely 
simple in itself, is 
so agreeably inter- 
woven with geo- 
metric forms as to 
give a rich and sat- 
isfactory effect. 

The group of 
Bohemian Glass, 
manufactured by J. 

& L. LOBMEVR, OF 



\'iENNA, which we illustrate on page 355, is an excellent example of this beau- 
tiful ware. The Messrs. Lobmeyr make a specialty of the manufacture of all 
kinds of Bohemian glass, both ancient and modern, and they are particularly 
successful in reproducing the ancient forms and peculiarities of workmanship 
that made the ware famous as far back as the thirteenth century. Unlike 
Venice, where glass-making in all its branches was an established industry 
before its introduction into Bohemia, the latter state still maintains its reputa- 
tion tor producing fine and artistic glass-ware, especially the ornamental varieties. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



357 



Our illustration represents a number of articles in engraved glass, a style 
of enrichment in which the ancient Bohemian glass workmen were so skilled 
as to make the fame of their engraved ware world-wide. The examples before 
us show the excellence of the modern workmanship ; the grace, purity and 
lightness of the objects, and the elegance ol the patterns with which they are 
enriched. 

The usual method of engraving" on glass is by the use of a small copper 
disc, set in a toot-lathe. This disc being set in motion is made to revolve with 

ino-enious American in- 



great rapidity b\" the 
foot of the workman, 
\\\\o at the same time 
holds the object to be 
eno-raved against the 
edg^e of the disc, while 
he is guided in his work 
by the lines of the 
pattern to be worked, 
which has been first 
lightly traced upon the 
surface of the glass. 
Apropos to this sub- 
ject of glass-engrav- 
ing, mention may be 
made here of a very 
not informed, however, whether this invention, known as the Sand-blast, is 
adapted to the production ot very fine and delicate work. 

The Krug Jug, engraved on page 356, was one of the chefs d'oeuv7'e of 
the exhibit of Couxt Thux, of Bohemia. From his factory at Klosterle, his 
Excellency sent a varied collection containing specimens of decorated dinner- 
services, room-furniture, jardinieres, and miscellaneous articles of use. The 
ornamental objects were chiefly made of a white bisquit resembling parian, 
thouah the material was sometimes colored with a uniform tint of lieht blue or 
pink or gray. The example illustrated by us has a ground of the latter color, 
the relief-work being painted in bright and strongly-contrasted hues. The whole 




Crystal Pitcher : y. Green 6^ A'ephew, London. 



vention by which glass 
is cut or engraved by 
means of a jet of 
sharp sand beingblown 
through a small orifice 
against the surface of 
the glass. By this dis- 
covery, which is of 
comparatively recent 
date, not only glass, 
but the surface of crys- 
tals, of quartz, and even 
of diamonds, can be 
cut speedily and at a 
trifling' cost. We are 



3S8 



THE INTERXATIOXAL EXHIB ITION, iSj6. 



has afterwards been 
oflazed in die kiln. 
On die front face ot 
the body of the Krug 
is a shield bearing 
a coat-of-arnis and 
crest. This is the 
most conspicuous 
feature of the orna- 
mentation. The zone 
about the neck of the 
jug is decorated with 
arabesques of a light 
and graceful pattern. 
Beneath this is a band 
decorated with a 
scroll-work of leaves 
and flowers. The 
central zone contains 
grotesques, animals 
with griffins' heads 
and bodies coiling off 
into plant- shapes. 
At the mouth of the 
vessel, and also at the 
base of the handle, 
masks executed in 
relief are placed as 
ornaments. The one 
at the vessel's mouth 
is a female face of 
considerable beaut}' ; 
the other is the face 
of a satyr. In shape 




stained Glass Window: IV. H. ConstabU, Eiiglatid. 



and in the general 
style of the ornamen- 
tation this Krug 
bears a close resem- 
blance to antique 
models. 

The proficiency of 
English workmen in 
ornamental glass- 
making is illustrated 
by our engraving on 
page 357. This rep- 
resents a Cryst.al 
Pitcher, manufac- 
tured by iVIessrs. J. 
Green & Nephew, 
OF London, engraved 
and otherwise deco- 
rated in a manner 
befitting an object 
intended more for 
ornament than use. 
The handle of the 
vessel appears to 
be that peculiar ar- 
rangement of colored 
glasses known as fili- 
eree-work. The neck 
and upper portion 
are enameled and 
gilded, and a small 
panel in the narrow- 
est part of the neck 
contains a group of 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



359 



horsemen. The lower 
portion of the vessel 
is of pure crystal, and 
on this clear, trans- 
parent surface the 
spirited group of St. 
Georore and the 
Draofon is eno-raved 
in a hiohlv artistic 
manner. The group 
is surrounded by a 
wreath of oak-leaves, 
and a laurel wreath 
encircles the base of 
the vessel. The work- 
manship displayed in 
the manufacture of 
this pitcher, and the 
technical excellence 
with which the orna- 
mental designs have 
been rendered, are in 
ever)^ wa}' creditable 
and satisfactory. For 
some time England, 
encouraged by the 
success of her com- 
petition with Europe 
in the production of 
artistic potter^', has 
been devoting atten 
tion to the sister art 
of ornamental glass- 
making, and we have 




Stained Glass WinJow : 11', //. Constable, Emrlaiid. 



in the example before 
us satisfactory evi- 
dence ot the progress 
made in this direc- 
tion. 

On pages 358 and 
359 we illustrate ex- 
amples of Glass- 
Painting, manufac- 
tured by W. H. Con- 
stable, OF London. 
They are intended 
for use in church- 
windows, and there- 
tore the subjects 
treated are of a sa- 
cred character, being 
episodes in the life 
of our Lord. While 
each design forms a 
piece perfect in itself, 
the details and color- 
treatment of the sev- 
eral parts are the 
same in both, and 
make them suitable 
for use as a pair. In 
the first window we 
have the story of the 
Box of Precious Oint- 
ment pictorially ren- 
dered, and beneath it 
a rosette and angel, 
with the legend de- 



z6o 



THE IXTERNATIO-YAL EXHIBIT! OX, 1S76 



scriptive of the stor\-, "She hath chosen that good part." In the second window 
our Lord is represented deHvering the keys unto Peter, and below is the text, 
"Jesus saith unto him : Feed my sheep." The purely decorative enrichment in 



the two win- 
dows is Gothic 
in its character. 
This style of 
ornamentation 
has almost be- 
come tradition- 
al, owing to the 
intimate con- 
nection be- 
tween the art 
of glass-paint- 
ing and the 
progress of 
Gothic architec- 
ture. But in 
these modern 
examples we 
have a pictorial 
rendering of a 
subject alto- 
o-ether un- 
known to an- 
cient examples 
of the art. Sym- 
bolism was pri- 
marily the ob- 
jectof theartist, 



whose works 
are character- 
ized by a monu- 
mental simplici- 
ty. The new 
school of picto- 
rial art in con- 
nection with 
glass-painting is 
principally prac- 
tised at Munich, 
where many su- 
p e r b works 
have been con- 
structed. Both 
schools have 
their advocates, 
and as there is 
much to be said 
in favor of both, 
we shall not en- 
ter into a dis- 
- cussion of the 
merits of either 
in this place. 
The reader who 
is interested in 
the subject will 

find the literature of glass-painting very voluminous and lull. It is one of the 
arts that from having been regarded as lost has been revived and brought to 
a greater state of perfection, as far as technique is concerned, than ever before. 




INDUSTRIAL ART. 



361 




Carved Mirror- Frame : llaliaK Coiir 



362 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



A short description of the process employed in making a stained glass 
window may interest those who do not desire to investigate the subject 
further. 

From the colored study of the design a full-sized cartoon is drawn upon 
paper, with the addition ot the lines in which the several pieces ot glass are 
to be cut. Glass of the requisite colors having been prepared by a process of 




Bohemian Glass-ware : Austrian Court. 



Staining or melting the coloring matter into the material, separate pieces are 
laid, one at a time, on the cartoon, and cut with a diamond to the lines seen 
through the surface. The several pieces of plain colored glass are then put 
together on the cartoon, and the design traced upon them with a vitrifiable 
substance that becomes dark when heated in the oven. The shadows are painted 
in the same way, and then all the pieces are joined together by strips of 
grooved lead fitted around the edges of each piece. In some designs the glass 
is cut into geometric figures independent of the design, but the manner most 



IXDrSTRTAL ART. 



365 



generally preferred is that above described, where the lead-joints and the out- 
lines of the design harmonize as much as possible. 

On page 360 we engrave a couple of Cairngorm Brooches, from a col- 
lection of objects of the same character exhibited in the English Court. These 
unique and pleasing ornaments are made from Scotch pebbles, carved and 
chased in the manner seen in our illustration, and mounted in silver. They 
are made in a variety of shapes, but the style and the character of the orna- 
mentation plainly suggests their origin. 




Lace Shawl : French Collective Exhibit. 



The wood-carving of Italy, famous in olden times as among the most 
beautiful examples of the art, is again attracting the attention of every one 
interested in the subject by the earnest efforts on the part of several Italian 
artists of note to revive the taste of the people in this regard, and to stimu- 
late native talent to bring back to their country its ancient renown. The Italian 
Court at the Centennial Exhibition contained numerous examples of modern 
wood-carving, some in imitation of the style of the Renaissance, others fashioned 
after more ancient models, and more exemplifying the originality of the artist 



36-4 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i S 7 6. 



untramnieled by the methods of any particular school. Our readers are already 
lamiliar with several of the most noteworthy of these works, which have been 
illustrated and described at length in these pages, from which an excellent idea 
of the progress already made in the direction aimed at can be had. Of these 
the greater number have been examples of artistic carving of scroll-work, a 




Silve}' Plaque : Elkiit^ton ^ Co., Bifiuiirgham, E)igland. 



graceful interweaving of vines, conventionalized figures obtained from the study 
of the growth of plants, grotesque and natural rendering of birds and animals, 
and in one instance, a minutely exact copy of a famous ruin. Now, as an 
addition to this group, we engrave on page 361 a Mirror-Frame, in which 
the artist has essayed the highest range of sculpture, the study of the human 
figure. 

The Mirror-Frame consists of two parts — the ground-work for the orna- 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



365 



mentation and the ornamentation itself. The ground-work or back consists of 
an oval of plain, dark wood, about three feet in its longest diameter, sur- 
rounded on the outer and inner edges with a delicately carved raised moulding 
of some light-colored wood. Poised upon the upper part of this moulding, and 
clambering up the sides of the frame, is a string of little winged cupids. 




Silver Plague: Elkiiigton &> Co., Dlrmhighani, England. 



With clasped hands and dancing feet, these little fellows disport themselves, 
balancing on perilous places and in postures such as only winged cupids can 
venture. The garland of ribbon with which each little figure is provided floats 
about him in his play, giving emphasis to the airy lightness of the movements 
of the party. There are nine of these figures, yet it would be difificult to 
choose between them in point of merit ; nor, where the general effect of the 
whole group is so harmonious, so graceful and so charmingly balanced, would 



366 THE IXTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 

it be worth while to institute a comparison between its several members. At 
the base of the frame is a female bust, the breast and shoulders draped, the 
head upraised and crowned with a garland of flowers. Her hair, unconfined, 
sweeps back from her forehead in wavy masses, as if blown by the wind, and 
the upturned face wears an expression of pleased attention, as if listening to 
the happy voices of the little beings around her. Two of these have impris- 
oned her in their garlands, and with feet resting upon her shoulders, reach up 
and clasp the hands of their mates above them. In this w^ay the connection 
of all the parts of the design is established, rounding and perfecting the whole. 
The bold, free carving of the figures in this group, and the additional relief 
eiven them agfainst the dark wood of the background, makes the design sincru- 
larly effective, and the whole work a most agreeable ornament. 

In the three specimens of Bohemian Glass-ware engraved on page 362, 
we have examples of several of the various kinds of decoration with which 
glass can be enriched.' We have here, chasing or engraving, cutting, enameling 
in color, gilding, and the process of cutting through a colored enamel surface 
to the crystal beneath. In the middle tazza ot the group, the centre of the 
piece is made of the clearest crystal, while the rim is of enameled red glass. 
On the interior edge is a cord of twisted glass of the same color, enriched 
with gilding. An engraved pattern, representing swans, lilies and water-rushes, 
grouped between shell medallions, decorates the rim. The depth and shallow- 
ness of the cuttinof aive lieht and shade to the desion and roundness to the 
figures. The dish on the left hand of the trio is a beautiful piece of work, 
admirably cut and decorated in a highly artistic manner. The third piece is 
more elaborately enriched than the others, and would make a charming 
ornament suspended from the wall of an apartment, or placed among the 
bric-a-brac on the shelves of a cabinet. The well-known group which has been 
engraved as the central ornament of the dish is framed by a pattern of vine- 
leaves and berries, separated by scrolls and grotesque masks. A rope border 
surrounds the whole. In each of these examples the cutting has been done 
from beneath, so that the upper surface is smooth and polished to the touch. 

The French Collective Exhibit of Lace furnishes us with the subject of our 
illustration on page 363. This delicate piece of workmanship, one of the most 
beautiful of the many e.xamples of French skill in this branch of manufacture, 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



367 



though so elaborately wrought, can be crushed together in the hand and drawn 
through the compass of a ring. The design consists of the central pattern, a 
graceful arrangement of ferns and howers and grasses in studied confusion, and 
a border of scrolls sweeping in full, broad curves around the pattern in the 
centre, and at the lower ang;le of the shawl falling the one over the other in 
imitation of separate folds of lace. There is a suggestion ot oriental richness 
in the arrangement of these curves, which is appropriate and extremely attractive 
in a design of this kind. 

o 




Carpet : Spatiisk Court. 



From the almost inexhaustibly rich collection of ornamental metal-work 
exhibited by the Messr.s. Elkington, of Birmingham, England, we select the 
pair of Silver Plaques illustrated on pages 364 and 365. Like all the other 
examples of ornamental work in the precious metals by this firm which we 
have placed before our readers in these pages, the principal part of the orna- 
mentation is executed by the repousse or hammering-up process, although it 
seems almost impossible to believe that anything so fine and delicate as the 
lines of the groups of figures in these plaques have been produced from a flat 
metal surface by repeated blows with the hammer. 

In the Plaque first illustrated we have a group of female figures, floating. 



368 



THE I NTERNATIOXAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



like storm-wraiths, out over a desolate shore to a wind-tossed sea. It may be 
that they are powers of the air, or the Graces, conveying Venus through the 
clouds ; but whatever the subject of the design is, the fissures are charminelv 
grouped, forming a most graceful ensemble. About the margin is wrought, in 
the same repousse process, a scroll pattern ot leaves and flowers, with here and 
there a cupid, a bird, a beast of the forest, or a Psyche. 

In the second Plaque the artist has depicted a sylvan scene — a group of 
satyrs, young and old, on a glade of the forest, playing upon pipes and cymbals, 




CommTinion Vessels : Poussielgtie-Rusand, Paris, 



and a wood-nymph dancing to the music. The same excellent skill displayed 
in the composition of the former design is seen in this piece. It is a scene 
of joyous revelry and free abandonment to the pleasure of the moment. As 
a setting to this scene, the border is enriched w^ith a satyric mask and a leafy 
scroll of branches, in which infant satyrs swing and hide and chase one another. 
The oriental richness of design and the arabesque forms which we asso- 
ciate with Spanish decoration are entirely absent from the pattern of the 
Spanish Carpet illustrated on page 367. The bouquet of flowers held together 
by a ribbon, the latter floating off and interwoven with garlands of roses, which 
form frames for a repetition of the same design over the surface of the fabric, 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



369 



suggest a preference 
for and study of French 
fashions rather than an 
appreciation of the ad- 
mirable patterns for 
decorating- such mate- 
rial as this, to be found 
in the Moorish ara- 
besques and scroll- 
work. But by examin- 
ingf the flowers and the 
way they are represent- 
ed, we can detect a dif- 
ference in the decora- 
tive treatment from that 
of similar designs of 
French manufacture. In 
the first place, the flow- 
ers copied mostly are 
different from those 
seen in the carpets of 
other countries ; but 
secondly — and this 
makes a distinctive dif- 
ference in style — these 
flowers, though copied 
with sufficient accuracy 
to be recognized, are 
not imitated as exactly 
as may be, but treated 
in broad masses of 
color, with strong shad- 




Candelabra : Hart 6^ Son, London. 



ows and well-defined 
outlines. There is no 
minute veinincf or era- 
dations of tint — in other 
words, that attempt at 
pictorial effect which 
makes some carpets of 
France, and indeed of 
other countries as well, 
almost as valuable as a 
chromo, in an artistic 
way. In the important 
particular of having the 
border, which forms a 
frame to the principal 
designs, run gracefully 
and unobtrusively in 
and about the central 
patterns, harmonizing 
and connecting the 
whole design, the de- 
signer of this carpet 
has shown skill and 
excellent taste. 

Although the French 
exhibit of fine metal- 
work, especially bronze, 
was disappointing in 
that it was neither so 
laree nor so rich in 
works of a high class 
of art as the reputation 



of the nation and the importance of the industry would lead one to expect, 
there were several displays made by individual manufacturers that contained 



37° 



THE INTERNATIONAL E N H I B I T 1 N, 1 8 7 6. 



much that was choice and beautiful. Such, for example, was the collection of 
fine metal-work exhibited by M. Poussielgue-Rusand, of Paris, from which we 




have selected the Communion Vessels, illustrated on page 368, as examples. 
These vessels are made of fire-oilt metal, chased, enameled and enriched with 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



371 



jewels, so that they are very rich and brilHant in appearance. The manufac- 
ture of ecclesiastical vessels and church metal-work of various kinds is a specialty 
with M. PoussiELGUE-RusAND, and there were reproductions of several antique 
pieces in his collection. The Chalice, seen on the left of the group in our 






Ornamental Tiles : Brown, VVesthead, Moore is' Co., Staffordshire, England. 



engraving, though possibly not a reproduction, resembles similar vessels used 
in the fourteenth century. The broad plain bowl, the cruciform knob, enriched 
with jewels, the enameled stem and foot with medallion figures in relief, all are 
characteristic of that time. The other Chalice, much more elaborately enriched, 
is quite modern in its decoration, though the shape is antique. The enrich- 



372 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



ment of the bowl is never seen in ancient chalices. The flagon has an old- 
time severity of outline, with modern styles of ornamentation. But it is 
noteworthy that ecclesiastical vessels, as a rule, have yielded less to the 
universal desire for change and novelty in style than any other kind of metal- 
work. Traditional forms have been handed down to us and copied extensively, 




Screen : Royal School of Art Needle-work, 



and the most marked yielding to fashion has been the excessive enrichments 
of the vessels with enamels and precious stones. But the present art-revival 
which is perceptible throughout Europe is having its effect here as elsewhere 
in a tendency to go back again to the simplicity and severity of mediaeval 
models. 

On page 369 we engrave an illustration of a Candelabra, made entirely 
of wrought metal, which was exhibited by Messrs. Hart & Son, of London. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



373 



The desio-n for 
this fine piece 
of work is 
ver}- light and 
ofraceful and 
excellent in 
outline. The 
stem is sup- 
ported by four ~«M 
rods sloping 
out\vard to a 
broad ringr at 
the base, to 
which they are 
attached. The 
upper ends of 
these rods are 
curved around 
like tendrils, 
terminating in 
three leaves. 
The same leaf- 
pattern is in- 
troduced into 
the space be- 
tween the rods 
and stem, serv- 
inof the double 
purpose of an 
ornamental fin- 
ish and a brace 
to the several 




Lace Curtain : Ma'tsoK Blanc, Paris. 



parts. The up- 
per part of the 
Candelabra is 
more highly 
ornamented 
than the lower, 
but a variation 
of the same 



,^ leaf-pattern 



furnishes the 
enrichment. 
There are two 
rings, of four 
lights each, the 
smaller above 
the larger, 
each support- 
ed by brackets 
fastened to the 
stem, which 
ends in a single 
liofht raised a 
proportionate 
distance above 
the others. 

The central 
fio-ure of the 
group illus- 
trated on page 
370 will be rec- 



ognized by 



many of our 

readers as representing the Music and Poetry Vase, exhibited by the Messrs. 
Elkington & Co., OF BiRiMlNGHAM, ENGLAND. The vase is of silver, decorated 



374 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



wi th 7-epousse - w o rk , 
executed in such low 
relief as not to inter- 
fere with the classic 
outline of the vase 
itself. The figure on 
this side represents 




the muse of Poetry, 
a charmingly graceful 
figure, admirably exe- 
cuted. On the oppo- 
site side of the vase 
is the muse of Music, 
conceived in the same 



Necklaces, Cameos and Dfops : Af. Gerardlfie, Milan, 






Brooches and Ear-ring : M. Kruvib'iigl, Si. Petersburg: 



classic Style. Between these figures, under the handles of the vase, are winged 
geni, holding laurel and palm branches in their hands. Around the upper 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



375 



portion of the bowl and also around the neck of the vase are narrow bands 
decorated with vine-leaves and acorns. The workmanship in this fine work is 
quite equal to the beauty and elegance of the design. 

On either side of this vase are crystal and bronze Flower Stands, from 
the Austrian Court. Both are admirable works, remarkable for the beautiful 



engraved decoration on 
the glass. The stands, 
also, are w'orthy of note 
for the excellence of 
their design. The spir- 
ited drawing of the 
dragons in the one on 
the right of the group 
is particularly fine. 




yewel Casket : Austruin Court. 



The numerous uses 
to which Ornamental 
Tiles can be put has 
stimulated their manu- 
facture by the leading 
English potteries to a 
wonderful degree. Al- 
most every conceivable 
design is executed in 








jfewetry : Russian Court. 



these little squares, from an elaborate subject treated pictorially to a simple 
geometric pattern. Many of these tiles are so skillfully and artistically painted 
as to be veritable works of art, and as such we may class the examples 
illustrated by us on page 371, from the exhibit of Messrs. Brown, Westhead 
& Moore, of Staffordshire, England. 

The first and second series of tiles shown make each a connected picture, but 
the third series, though complete as a set of four, symbolizing the elements, 



376 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



can be arranged in any order or used separately for decorative purposes. 
A single choice tile, framed and hung upon the wall, makes a capital ornament 
to a room, and a series, arranged as a frieze in a cabinet or other piece of 
furniture, is always eftective. For chimne}' decoration tiles have always been 
considered the correct thing, and latterly, since it has become the fashion to 
have them decorated by experienced artists, they are in demand for jar- 





Furniittre Silk : Russian dmrt. 



dinieres, many kinds of fancy boxes, and as plaques for vessels in use on the 
table. 

On page 372 we engrav^e one of the most admired specimens in the exhibit 
of the Royal School of Art Needle-work, which was sent from London and 
arranged in a pavilion erected for the purpose in the English Court in the 
Main Building. Unfortunately the pavilion was not large enough to display all 
the beautiful things in the collection, and a portion of them had to be placed 
on separate view in the building known as the Women's Pavilion, while others 
were not even unpacked. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



377 



The Screen which we ilkistrate on page 372 was one of several designed 
and embroidered by Miss Gremmell, one of the pupils of the School. The 
ground on which the design is embroidered is Musgrave satin, against which 
the colors in the work are excellently contrasted. The amount of labor 
expended in this design must have been very great, as in parts of it — for 
example, in the plumage of the birds — the shading and gradations of color 











Carpets : French Court. 



require minute stitches. The screen is mounted in three leaves, and framed in 
ebony ornamented with carved panels. It is an admirable example of the 
progress made by the institution, in the brief time of its existence, in instructing 
women in the art of design and artistic needle-work. 

It has been well said that the characteristics of lightness and filminess of 
the texture should never be forgotten in the ornamentation of lace, which should 



378 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, iSj6. 



be essentially light, elegant and Howing ; all straight lines should be avoided, 
not only from the necessities of the manufacture, but because oraceful forms 







mmmwMm. 



mmm\-''\mmn [nv.im H \ ivirni'i m mwm 




Card-Rcceivers, Candlestick and two Jardinieres : M. Jules Houry, Paris. 

are required to pervade its ornamentation. In the appreciation of this law and 
in applying it to their designs, the French are particularly happy. Beauty of 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



379 






c'B^^y^SsL^j 



iXi£=-i^«5--irj.* 'pi 









Group of China : Brown, Westhead, Moore &• Co., Staffordshire, 



38o THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

outline and delicacy of design, with graceful curves blending into the more 
elaborate figures, makes their work elegant and attractive. 

On page 373 we illustrate a Lace Curtain, a superb example of French 
lace manufacture exhibited by the Maison Blanc, of Paris. Here the beauty 
of the curved lines, so disposed as to give extreme richness of outline with 
lightness, is seen to fine advantagfe. The balance of the design has been well 

o o o 

sustained, and a sumptuous degree of ornament is obtained without any effect 
of crowding. But it must always be remembered that a curtain ornamented in 
this manner, with a design which must be viewed in its entirety to be duly 
appreciated, should not be hung in folds. The designer has made his pattern 
for a broad fiat surface, and the curtain should hang in that way. 

The group of jewelry on page 374 includes two examples of Necklaces 
exhibited by ]\I. Gerardine, of INIilan, and a trio of Brooches and Ear-rings 
from the establishment of M. Krumbugl, of St. Petersburg. The Milanese 
jewelry is ornamented with cameos and engraved gems artistically mounted 
and hung at intervals on the chain. No more beautiful ornament can be desired 
by a person of refined and aesthetic taste than a finely engraved gem. Among 
the ancients, jewels of this kind were held in the highest esteem, and the vast 
abundance in which they are found, even at this late day, shows how univer- 
sally they were esteemed and worn by the Greeks and Romans. Nor can we 
at the present day, with all our modern appliances and discoveries, approach 
the ancient engravers in the beauty and perfectness and finish of their gem- 
engraving, and their work probably will be always studied with admiration and 
wonder. There is perhaps no study more fascinating or capable of yielding 
more pleasure to the amateur than the study of the glyptic art. By this study, 
Flaxman, Wedgwood and Stodhard in the last century opened a new field to 
English ornamentists, and brought one of the industrial arts to a perfectness 
that has not been excelled in these times. 

The Russian jewelry, here illustrated, is noteworthy for the splendor of its 
jewels, the rich red of its gold, and the brilliant contrasts of color in its 
enamels. There is always, also, something noteAvorthy in the design of the 
objects themselves, an oriental richness of ornamentation, as in the middle 
brooch of this group, or a grotesque turn, as in the double cocks in the brooch 
on the left hand. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



381 








Tiles and China Plales and Vase: Brown, Westhead, Moore &= Co., Staffordshi. 



?82 



THE IXTERXATIONAL EX H I B I TI N, 1 8 7 6. 



On pao-e 375 are several other examples of Russian jeweln,-, chiefly 
Bracelets, which are admirable examples of workmanship 
artistic and tech- 




nical excellence. P'i^^''^' ^'''^''' ^^^''^''^^^^™^ 
The finely con- 
ventionallzed 
vine and flower 
pattern with 
which one ot 
these bracelets 
is ornamented in 
colored enamels 
is a model in its 
way. Here the 
natural lines of 
the growth of 
the plant have_ 
been convention- 
alized so as to 
give us a floral 
form as artistic 
and beautiful as 
a mere imitation 
of the plant itself 
would have been 
inartistic and 
mean. Attention 
also may be di- 
rected to the two 
patterns in scroll- 
work and ara- 
besques, which 

collection of textiles displayed in the Russian Court at the 
pattern with which the fabric is enriched resembles the styles 



Carpet: TomkiHScui &= Adam, Kidderminster, Eriglaiid. 



of the highest 
are singularly 
agreeable, giving 
evidence of a 
skill in orna- 
mental designing 
of a very high 
order of excel- 
lence. 

In this group 
we have illus- 
trated a Jewel 
Casket, wrought 
in silver, which 
was exhibited in 
the Austrian 
Court. The pat- 
tern of flowers 
and leaves inter- 
woven into as 
intricate a net- 
work as nature 
herself weaves, is 
executed in high 
relief and with 
much elabora- 
tion. 

The examples 
of Furniture 
Silks on page 
■^']6 are from the 
Centennial. The 
made popular In 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



383 



France a number of years ago, and which have rarely been equaled in beauty 
of detail and richness of effect. There is, however, in these designs, less 
elaboration and delicacy of outline than in the French work, while the colors 
are more strongly contrasted and more broadly massed. 

The Fre,nch taste in the decoration of certain textiles is well shown in 
our illustration, on page 2ill^ of two specimens of Carpet, which were on view 
in the French Court. They are remarkable examples of art applied to the 




Iron Graie : Steel ^ Garland, Sheffield. 



industry, and in this particular style of decoration they are about as perfect in 
design and execution as it is possible to achieve. In the carpet on the left we 
have a design in which the artist has striven to reproduce a bunch of flowers 
and grasses, arranged with studied negligence, as nearly in imitation of nature 
as is possible with the material at his command. Regarded simply as a pic- 
torial design or a careful study of nature, the work is very well done, and such 
a perfect reproduction of the pattern in the textile is a remarkable triumph of 
mechanical skill. These bouquets of flowers are dispersed at intervals on the 
carpet, and connected by delicate garlands of flowers strewn in irregular lines 
over the surface. Bees, dragon-flies and birds are dotted down here and there 



384 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSy6. 



between the flower-garlands in a way to disguise the repeats of the pattern as 
much as possible. 

The second design is conceived in the same spirit as the above, but with 
rather more of a geometric arrangement of the several parts of the pattern. 
Several bouquets of flowers, having the same general form, but differing 
slightly in detail, are disposed over the surface of the carpet at regular inter- 




Glass Plaque: M. Lobmeyr, Vienna. 



vals, and connected together by a running vine, woven in and out between the 
other figures. 

From the display of artistic pottery, bronzes, fancy furniture, etc., made 
by M. Jules Houry, of Paris, we select the group of objects illustrated on 
page 378. M. Houry, beside being a manufacturer, is also an agent for objets 
d'art and fantaisie, and his stall therefore contained a collection of ornaments 
and articles of furniture of the most varied description. M. Houry, however, 
makes a specialty of porcelain plaques of a novel description, for mounting in 
etageres, jardinieres, etc. These plaques have figures and arabesque patterns 
modeled in very low relief, over which a transparent blue glaze is floated before 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



385 




Omninetital Tile Mantlepiece : Minion, Mollis Sf Co., London . 



386 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, iSj6. 



the second firing. The effect is to produce an even surface, under which tlie 
ornamentation is seen in shades of color varying' with the thiclcness of the 
glaze. An example of this kind in the group before us is the oblong plaque 
with rabbits, grotesquely shaped birds and scrolls. 

Below this plaque is a jardiniere, made of faience, wath masks and fanciful 
figures painted upon the surface in colors, mostly green, blue, brown, and yellow, 
like in the laience of Gien. 

The remaining objects in the group are bronzes, executed with that deli- 




Turkish Gi'£en Croihcry : TurkUh Ccurt. 



cacy of workmanship and finish for wdiich the French are celebrated. Three 
different styles of work are shown here ; as elegant as any, perhaps, being the 
one most simple in design and ornament. 

The famous Staffordshire potteries, as represented by Messrs. Brown, 
Westhead, Moore & Co., of Staffordshire, furnish the Group of Pottery 
represented on page 379. Here are several beautiful designs for jardinieres, 
fruit- and card-baskets, a cup of a novel shape, another decorated a la Russe, 
a line of tiles which this firm make in great variety, and an ornamental vase 
decorated after the manner of Bernard Palissy. This last-named object is an 
elaborately wrought work, great care having been taken with the enamel coloring, 
which is very rich and varied. In others of the group there are examples of 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



387 



fio-ure-modeling, the most noteworthy specimen of this kind being- the Httle 
fio-ure who, from the weight of the basket he is carrying aloft, may be taken 
to represent the infant Hercules. 

Still further examples of Messrs. Brown, Westhead, Moore & Co.'s manu- 
facture may be seen on page 381 The porcelain vase of ovoid shape, in the 




Carved Bedstead : Ferrie ^ Bartolozzi, Florence, 



Upper, left-hand corner of the page, attracted attention by its decoration and 
ornament as well as by the rich, even coloring of the body of the piece ; these 
latter qualities being difficult to obtain on large surfaces. The handles of the 
vase are ram's heads, modeled after nature. Between them are suspended 
garlands, so disposed as to form frames for the medallion portraits that enrich 
the sides of the vase. We have on this page, also, examples of ornamental 
tiles suitable for walls, floors and chimneys ; and in one corner is a single tile. 



388 



THE INTERXATIOXAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



painted by hand, suitable for an\- decorative purpose. The design is a simple 
one — a palm branch with a pair of parrakeets perched on one of the shoots; 



but it is so deli- 
cately painted 
and colored, and 
evinces such an 
artistic feeling in 
treatment that 
the tile mieht 
w o r t h i 1 \' be 
framed and hung 
in a room as a 
wall -ornament. 
Below this tile 
are two plaques, 
decorated with 
flower desio-ns 
after nature and 
scroll-work geo- 
metrically dis- 
posed, both of 
which illustrate 
the high class of 
talent employed 
by this firm. 

The section of 
Carpet, engrav- 
ed on page 382, 
is from the exhib- 
it made by Mes- 
srs. TOMPKINSON 
& Adam, of 







1—A ■n'i ~3r «"■ 1 s^ ijtr . 













Carpet : Tomjtkinson &f Adam, Kidderminster, lin^laiid. 



Kidderminster, 
England. Only 
a portion of the 
central pattern is 
shown in our 
illustration, but 
the design of the 
border is eiyen 
in full. It will be 
seen that this is 
quite elaborate 
in detail, and that 
the lines are so 
disposed as to 
make it a strong- 
ly marked fea- 
ture of the whole 
pattern. 

The Iron Grate, 
on page 383, was 
exhibited in the 
extensive display 
made by Steel 
& Garland, of 
Sheffield, Eng- 
land. The prin- 
cipal feature of 
the work, aside 
from the general 
design, is the 



decoration of the panels. These have been enriched with figures, executed in 
low relief, in imitation of Japanese work of a like nature. The effect is novel 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



389 




s 



and striking as well as highly ornamental, and is a creditable illustration of the 
character of work displayed by the above firm. 

The exhibit of M. Lobmeyr, of Vienna, furnishes us with another illustra- 



390 THE INTERNATIONAL EN H I B I TI N, i S j6. 

tion in the Glass Plaque engraved on page 384. The characteristics of the 
workmanship in this beautiful object are the same as have been previously 
described in connection with other art-works from the same collection. The 
Plaque consists of a rub)' red glass welded on to a transparent crystal. The 
pattern, as seen in our illustration, is then cut through trom one surface to the 
other. The effect is strikingly beautiful. Other portions of the pattern are 
afterwards worked in with oilding to increase the richness of the desig-n. As 
all the cutting has been done on the under side, the surface is perfectly smooth 
and polished; but in order to get the full effect, the Plaque should be viewed 
in transmitted light, when a prismatic effect of color is obtained, which is 
indescribably rich. 

Our illustration on page 385 represents one of the most elaborate examples 
of tile decoration exhibited at the Centennial. It is a study for an Ornamental 
Tile Mantle-piece, executed at the famous manufactory of Messrs. Minton, 
HoLLis & Co., OF London. It was undoubtedly the chef d'ceuvre of their 
exhibit then, and at the present tirrie it remains, one of the noticeable art-works, 
in the Permanent Exhibition. 

In the engraving, the size and position of the several tiles have been pur- 
posely indicated by lines, in order to show the construction of the work, but in 
the original, the junction of the parts is so" nicely adjusted as to quite escape 
notice. This must be borne in mind in studying our illustration, since the 
presence of any such strongly marked divisions would greatly mar the pictorial 
effect of the work. 

Beginning with the fireplace, which forms but a very small part of the 
whole design, we observe that its sides are inlaid with small tiles of a light 
color, decorated with simple geometric patterns. But the panels above and on 
either side of the fireplace are of quite a different character. The upper panel, 
composed of six square tiles, is enriched with a charming little picture repre- 
senting a bit of marsh land with grasses and flowers in bloom, and a pair of 
saucy little birds disputing the possession of the domain. The painting is 
vigorously executed in bright colors upon the white surface of the tiles. The 
side panels are painted in much the same manner. The surface of the tiles is 
white, and on it are delicate vine-sprays with brilliantly plumaged birds darting 
in and out between the leaves. These panels and the broad shelf above them 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



391 



make up the accessories usual to a fireplace ; but they are but a portion of 
this design. On either side, the portion of the wall usually wainscoted is 
covered with figured tiles, making a diaper pattern finished with a border or 
dado of another design, and above this the whole wall-surface up to the ceiling 
is decorated in the same manner. In the centre, above the mantle-shelf, is a 





China Plaque and Basin : French Collective Kxhibit. 



picture, some three feet wide by four feet high, framed in tiles. Unlike any 
other part of the composition, this picture is painted in sienna-brown on a 
white ground, no other colors being used. It represents the interior of a 
peasant's cottage and a group of four figures — the mother with her babe 
sleeping upon her knee, a half-grown lad leaning upon the back of her chair, 
and a younger boy seated at her feet. It is bed-time for the little fellow, but 



392 



THE IXTERNATIONAL EXHIBIT! OX, 1S76. 



he does not 
want to go, and 
the mother 
seems to be 
appealing to 
the elder bro- 
ther to set the 
little lad agood 
example and 
to go with him. 
It is a homely 
scene, such as 
might be seen 
in any cot- 
tager's home 
at eventide, but 
the artist has 
portrayed it 
with such fidel- 
ity, and made 
such an har- 
moniousgroup- 
ing of the fig- 
ures, that the 
observer can- 
not fail to be 
pleased with 
the work. 

The narrow 
upright panels, 
separated from 
this picture by 
the frame, and 
bounded on the 




^pergne : Zimvicrman — Collective E:fhidit of Germany, 



other side by 
a strip of tiles 
similar to those 
in the frame, 
are painted in 
a like style 
to the panels 
around the fire- 
place, but with 
greater bril- 
liancy of color 
and execution. 
We have here 
glimpses of a 
tropical forest 
alive with sfor- 
geous-plum- 
aged birds and 
resplendent 
butterflies. The 
artistic excel- 
lence of these 
pieces is as 
great as in any 
other part of 
the work, and 
the variety and 
richness of the 
color in them 
is astonishing, 
when we con- 
sider that all 
have to be of 
a nature ca- 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



393 



pable of withstanding 
the action of the heat in 
the firing to which they 
are subjected. 

Some curious ex- 
amples of Turkish 
Crockery are shown on 
page 386. These speci- 
mens represent a ware 
ver}' common in Turkey, 
and one which is made 
with ver)' httle variation 
of form or in the method 
of manufacture in various 
parts of the empire. The 
material is a common red 
clay, which is moulded 
and baked in the kiln 
into a porous earthen- 
ware. 

After this preliminary 
baking, the vessels are 
covered with a g-reenish- 
colored silicious glaze 
and subjected to another 
firing, which fixes the 
glaze and renders the 
vessels impervious to 
liquid. Although this 
crockery is designed for 
the commonest uses and 



-Jl^'*--::^ 



Bronze Lamp and Stand : French Col- 
lective Exhibit. 



are often exceedingly 
graceful, as, for example, 
in the group before us. 
All are hand-made, and 
for this reason each one 
is apt to have some in- 
dividual merit of its own. 
Some are ornamented 
with designs in relief 
made of strips or bits of 
clay modeled to the 
maker's fancy and stuck 
on to the surface of the 
vessel while it is green — 
that is, unbaked. Two of 
the examples in our illus- 
tration are enriched in 
this way. In the Cen- 
tennial exhibit of Turkey 
there was a case full of 
this curious ware, which 
attracted much attention, 
both on account of its 
novelty and the artistic 
merit of many of the 
pieces. Some of the 
specimens were only par- 
tially glazed, in order to 
show the quality and 
character of the material 
from which they were 
made. 



is very cheap, the forms 

To those who are interested in wood-carving, the Centennial Exhibition 
furnished valuable opportunities of studying the subject. The most noticeable 



394 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



collection was in the Italian Court, and our readers already are familiar with 
a number of the finest examples in that exhibit. On page 387 we engrave 
another one of these works, a Carved Bedstead, manufactured by Ferrie & 
Bartolozzi, of Florence. Like all the other Italian carving shown, the charac- 
teristic of this work is an extraordinary skill in the use of the chisel. The 
artist works with an ease and certainty that make it appear almost impossible 



that he is treating 
a material so hard 
as wood. To look 
at the little figures 
that adorn this bed- 
stead, one would 
almost Imaorine that 
they had been mod- 
eled in clay, so per- 
fect are they in 
outline and feature. 
In the panels, also, 
and in the enrich- 
ments of the pillars, 
the frame-work and 
the frieze to the 
head-board, we note 
the same consum- 
mate skill. The ma- 
terial from which 




Faience Vase : Italian Court. 



this superb ex- 
ample of wood- 
carving is made is 
walnut, a wood that 
is fine in grain and 
very tenacious. 
The artist has 
therefore been en- 
abled to carve in 
it designs of won- 
derful minuteness 
of detail. In the 
foot-board there is 
a medallion, sur- 
rounded by scroll- 
work and ara- 
besques, in which 
is depicted a Venus 
borne upon the 
waves, which could 



hardly be surpassed in metal for elegance and perfection ot execution. The 
same may be said of the panels in the head-board, the central one of which 
represents Cupid and Psyche, and, in a less degree, the remark applies to the 
upper panel with its armorial bearings. 

In no country in Europe was the influence of the Renaissance more keenly 
felt than in Italy, and nowhere has the present art-revival, in its restricted form 
of wood-carving, been marked with better results than in the same country. 
In the beginning of the sixteenth century the wealth and liberality of the great 



IXDUSTRIAL ART. 



395 



noblemen, such as the Medici family, gave an impulse to the study of art, and 
schools were established in many of the Italian States where the study of the old 
classic models obtained. At this time, too, the best artists ot the day gave their 
attention to wood-carving, and even worked in it themselves. Many of these 
works are still to be found in Italy, and with such models before them it is 
hardly to be wondered that the modern Italian workmen find in them instruc- 
tion and inspiration to enable them to revive the glory of the Cinquecento. 



Another example 
of Kidderminster 
Carpet, manufactur- 
ed by Messrs. Tomp- 
KiNSON & Adam, 
OF Kidderminster, 
ExGLAXD, is illus- 
trated on page 388. 
The design with 
which this carpet is 
enriched is of a dif- 
ferent nature from 
any of those appear- 
ing in the specimens 
of carpet already en- 
graved. It is neither 
a composition of fo- 
liage nor an exactly 
balanced scroll-work, 




Porcelain Vase : yapanese Court 



buta pattern suggest- 
ing the realism of the 
one and the eeomet- 
ric arrangement of 
the other. There are 
interwoven scroll 
figures, like plant- 
tendrils, distributed 
over the surface of 
the fabric at regular 
intervals ; but while 
all these scrolls have 
a general resem- 
blance, no two are 
exactly alike, and the' 
same remark is true 
of the work that fills 
up the intermediate 
spaces. Therefore 



the effect of the whole is harmonious and simple without any of the sameness 
of repetition. By making the oudine of his figures broken and indisdnct, the 
designer has given a soft, mossy appearance to his work, suggestive of a 
yielding, restful sensation to the tread. 

Carpets being of the nature of tapestry, and in olden times being made 
in much the same way, we find that the earliest designs for their decoration are 
very much in the style of tapestry designs. But it must be remembered that 
these ancient carpets, scarcely as large as a modern rug, were precious things, 



396 



THE INTERXATIOXAL EXHIBITIOX, 1S76. 







Cut Glass : y. Green 6^ Nephew, London. 



intended almost as much for display as for use, and that elaborate pictorial 
designs were therefore measurably justifiable. Almost the earliest, if not the 
very earliest use of carpets in Europe was to . spread them in the sanctuary 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



397 



of cathedrals on high festivals. There is an ancient record referred to by the 
\'ery Rev. Dr. Brock in his book on "Textiles," which states that an abbot 
Egelfic, before the year 992, gave to the church at Croyland "two large foot- 
cloths woven with lions, to be laid out before the high altar on great festivals, 
and two shorter ones, trailed all over with flowers, for the feast-days of the 
apostles." He also states that old tapestry came so to be employed, and 
mentions ''a large piece of Arras cloth, figured with the life of the duke of 
Burgundy," that was given to Exeter by Bishop Lacy, in 1420, to cover the 
floor before the altar. 




TabU-Cover : Turkish Court. 



When the famous factories of France were established, the carpets made 
lor royaltj^ vied with the tapestries in magnificence of design and artistic 
execution. The styles then in vogue have remained favorites in Europe ever 
since. Nor have they ever been surpassed, anywhere, in brilliancy of color and 
delicacy of finish. Hence we commonly see throughout Europe, in the finer 
grades of carpet, a design combining exquisite imitations of natural flowers, 
disposed in garlands and scrolls, with vases and shell forms, such as were 
affected by ornamentists of the Louis Ouartorze period. Or, again, we see 
those arabesque designs with all sorts of natural objects grafted on a central 
stalk like the stem of a candelabrum. These objects are shaded and rounded 
and brought into relief with all the skill possible. In short, the suggestion of 
flatness is avoided as much as possible. Conceding the intrinsic beauty of these 



598 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSyd. 




Screen — Aubusson Tiipesiry : French Court. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



399 



designs, the question remains, Are tliey excellent, even in an artistic sense, as 
carpet designs ? In old times when, as we have seen, carpets were more 
looked at than used, designs of flowers, or birds or beasts, or even pictorial 
representations were not out of place ; but all that is changed now : carpets 
are made for use, to be walked over, and to be partly covered and concealed 
by articles of furniture. The eye looks down upon a carpet, not across hori- 
zontally, as a tapestry or curtain, and it is never more than from four to six- 
feet above it ; therefore all these considerations should be reg-arded in devisine 
carpet designs. First of all they should be flat, because the surface on which 




Casktt : ColUctivc ExliibU of Austria. 



they are to be displayed is to be walked over. We do not wish to tread on 
birds or beasts or fishes or insects, crushing them under our feet, nor on flowers 
or vases or shells. . We want a smooth, even surface and the semblance of 
one. Secondly, since we see the pattern from such a near distance, we do not 
want a huge composition under our feet that can only be seen in entirety from 
a perch in the chandelier. And thirdly, what is quite as important as anything 
else, the pattern, both in design and color, should be unobtrusive in character. 
It should be a field for the display of the furniture and ornaments as much as 
the wall-paper should be a background for the pictures in a room. Yet how 
often do we enter an apartment in which the carpet or the wall-paper, or both, 
thrusts itself most obtrusively upon the sight. 



400 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



On page 389 we engrave an example of French sculpture — a Marble 
Chimney-Piece — shown in the French Court at the Centennial. Like all French 
ornamental stone carving, it is exceedingly elaborate and rich in detail. A lion's 
head, projecdng from the entablature above the keystone of the arch, forms 
the central ornament. This is enclosed between garlands of flowers which 
untwine from the supports on either side and distribute themselves over the 



extremities ot the 
frieze. The carving 
is in high relief with 
elaborate execution 
of detail. The tri- 
angular panels on 
either side of the 
arch are filled with 
foliated scroll-work, 
and the columns 
have their propor- 
tion ot ornament. 
All these elaborate 
enrichments serve 
to lighten the mass- 
iveness of the con- 
struction, which 
would be out of 
place in any other 
than a lar^e and 




Sliver Russian Beer yug 



nobly proportioned 
apartment. 

The illustrations 
on page 391 are 
examples of Deco- 
rated Porcelain, 
from the French 
Collective Exhibit. 
The upper figure 
represents a shal- 
low vase or dish, 
suitable for use as 
a card-receiver or 
for fruit or flowers. 
Indeed, a piece of 
this kind is con- 
stantly in demand 
for some purpose 
or other — if not for 
use, at least for 



ornament. The second figure is an ornamental plaque, elaborately enriched 
with scrolls and foliated tracery in the centre, and a beautiful border of a con- 
ventional character. The color-work in this piece is rich and brilliant, making 
it a striking ornament for a cabinet. 

A charmingly light and graceful ornament for the table is the Epergne 
illustrated on page 392. It was exhibited in the Collective Exhibit of Ger- 
many by the manufacturer, E. G. Zimmerman, of Hanau. The materials are 
silver and crystal, the silver being employed in the ornamental standard, the 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



401 



groups of cupids, etc., and the crystal for the vase and dishes. A very pretty 
feature of the design are the httle figures about the stem of the Epergne, 
standing, balanced, as if about to plunge for a bath into the basin at their feet. 
The elegant Bronze Lamp and Stand, illustrated on page 393, are from 
the French Collective Exhibit. Both pieces are complete and perfect in them- 
selves, so that they can be used separately, the lamp as a hall- or table-lamp, 
and the stand as a rest for a jardiniere, statuette or anything of a like nature. 



But the designer has 
evidently contemplated 
that the one will be used 
with the other, and has 
fashioned their lines ac- 
cordingly, making the 
outline of the two blend 
into a harmonious whole 
of classical beauty and 
elegance. 

On page 394 is illus- 
trated a Faience Vase, 
from the exhibition in 
the Italian Court at the 
Centennial, made in imi- 
tation of the ancient 
ware. The vessel is of 
ovoid shape, resting upon 
a very small base, and 




Cupid mid Psyche — Bronze : 
Italian Court. 



surmounted by a short, 
narrow neck and mouth. 
Its surface is decorated 
with one of those quaintly 
drawn pictures for which 
the old faience and ma- 
jolica are famous. For 
handles, two naked satyrs 
stand in contorted atti- 
tudes upon bacchic 
masks. 

Our next illustration, 
on page 395, is also an 
example of pottery, but 
of a vastly different na- 
ture. It is a Porcelain 
Vase of Japanese manu- 
facture. Its shape is that 
of a truncated cone, the 



outline hardly broken by light handles and rings attached to the upper part 
of the body. The greater portion of the surface of the vase is enameled of 
a light blue color, enriched with exquisitely executed sprays of flowers. There 
is a border of the peculiar key pattern common as well in oriental as in Greek 
decoration, and above this a pattern of conventionalized leaf forms. All the 
decoration is rich with brilliant colors, picked, here and there, with gold. 

The beautiful shapes that can be made in glass, as well as the exquisite 
enrichment of which it is capable, are well shown in our illustrations, on page 



402 



THE INTERN AT lOXAL EX H I B I T 1 N, 1 8 76. 



396, of Cut Glass. These examples are from the establishment ol M. J. Green, 
OF London, and may be accepted as exemplars of the technical excellence of 
the manufacture in England. Each piece is of "blown" glass, the name 
expressing the method in which it is shaped, and in this way a brilliancy and 
clearness of surface is produced which cannot be obtained by any other means. 




Ganymede — Terra Cotta : The Widow Ipseii of Copenhagen. 



After the pieces have been thus shaped, the next thing is to cut and engrave 
the surface as may be required, and we have before us four several examples 
in a finished state. The delicacy and perfectness of this work is marvelous 
when we consider that it is all done upon a wheel, and that a slip is irremedi- 
able. In the goblets the extreme thinness and transparency of the crystal 
becomes the more apparent in contrast with the engraving. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



403 



The Embroidered Table-Cover, illustrated on page 397, is an excellent 
example of Turkish decorative needle-work. It was one of the numerous 
examples of textile manufacture exhibited in the Turkish Court at the Centen- 




•a. 



nial. As we have seen heretofore, Turkish carpets and rugs usually are of 
negative shades of color, rich and full, although a little sombre, but their other 
fabrics, for garments, wall-hangings, furniture covers, etc., are of the most 



404 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



gorgeous description. In their designs for these, they exhibit the true oriental 
love for brilliant contrasts and glowing masses; the European eye is often 
bewildered with the intricacy ot the patterns ; yet a study ot these works makes 
their high artistic excellence apparent. In the example before us a favorite 
style of workmanship is shown. The cover is made up oi pieces of brightly 
colored cloths sewed together, after which the seams have been wrought over 
in broad lines of embroidery with silk thread. These lines form the outlines 
of the more marked portions of the design, the border scrolls, the leaf pattern.s, 




the central medallion, etc. The outlines and arrangement of color contrasts, 
however, make but a small portion ot the w'ork. All the intermediate spaces 
have been filled in with embroidery, with thinner threads of delicate tendrils 
and flowers and leaf-shapes, sufficiently conventionalized to harmonize with the 
geometric arrangement of the other parts. The effect of the \vhole is wonder- 
fully rich and beautiful, especially when we .study the detail and observe how 
exceedingly simple each part is in itself 

The well-known reputation of the French tapestry-workers is happily illus- 
trated in the engraving, on page 398, of an Aubusson Tapestry Screen, which 
was exhibited in the French Court at the Centennial. The design is one of 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



405 



those fanciful interweavings of scrolls, garlands and emblems of the arts into 
a light and gracefully balanced figure which French artists execute with con- 
summate skill. It is a fashion of ornamentation that found favor in the groreeous 
reigns of Louis Ouartorze and Louis Ouinze, and no where else has it since 
been brought to such perfection. Although intended simply as a setting for 
the tapestry, the carved wooden frame to this fine work should not be over- 
looked. Its ornament harmonizes with the design in the tapestry, and while 




"■^^ZS^-'SiS^ 



sufficiently elaborate to be rich and elegant, it does not obtrude itself to a first 
place in the eyes of the observer. On the lower rail ot the frame is a group 
of musical instruments, a laurel-wreath, and hanging garlands of flowers, all 
carved in full relief, yet so artistically considered in conjunction with the tapestry 
as to seem at a first glance at the illustration, a part of the tapestry itself. 

On page 399 we illustrate a Jewel Casket, from the Austrian Collective 
Exhibit at the Centennial. The box is of silver, with panels ornamented with 
designs in repoussesNorV. The richness of this ornamentation is seen in our 
illustration, which gives a front view of the case. The design is singularly 



4o6 



THE IXTERXATIOXAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



graceful and eleo-ant, and 
is executed with marvel- 
ous delicac)^ and finish. 
The other panels are 
equally artistic in design 
and execution, though not 
so elaborate as this one. 
The work as a whole is a 
fine example of Austrian 
skill in artistic work in the 
precious metals. 

Another example of art- 
istic metal-work, tliis time 
of Russian manufacture, 
is the massive Silver 
Flagon, engraved on page 
400. This piece was 
shown in the Russian 
Court among the magnifi- 
cent collection of works in 
the precious metals sent 
by Russia to the Centen- 
nial. It is a splendid 
piece of work. The de- 
sign and execution of the 
figures, wroucfht in full re- 
lief about the body of the 
flagon, is most spirited. 
Like the Russian bronzes, 
the work has a strong in- 
dividuality of its own and 
a local color. The artist 
evidently has taken for his 
theme an episode in the 



all' ■»"■ 



1 



liu 






vxMimmsm 



rM>f, 



9 



mum 



nt.y.i'-ii^iioi 









stole : Collective Exkibit of Belgium. 



life of one of the czars, 
probably Peter the Great. 

In contrast to the elabo- 
rate richness of this orna- 
mentation is the rest of 
the flagon. The kneeling 
figure of a man forms the 
knop to the lid, but witli 
this exception the vessel 
is severely plain. 

The story of Cupid and 
Psyche, one of the most 
beautiful of the Greek ro- 
mances, has been told over 
and over again both in 
prose and verse. Learned 
disquisitions have been 
written to prove that 
Psyche was typical of the 
soul, and to trace in the 
legend its preparation for 
an immortal state. To 
painters and sculptors the 
beautiful story has been 
an unfailing inspiration. 
and there is perhaps no 
episode in the narrative 
that has not been ren- 
dered by the brush or 
chisel. 

On page 401 we en- 
grave a Green Bronze 
Group, from the collection 
of bronzes in the Italian 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



407 



Court, which has this story for its theme. We may imagine that the artist has 
chosen for his subject the supreme moment when Psyche, purified through 
suffering, was taken up among the immortals and united to her beloved by 
Jove himself. 

Another classical story is told in the Terra-Cotta Group, from the collec- 
tion of the Widow Ipsen, of Copenhagen, engraved on page 402. Here we 



have Ganymede, 
the most beauti- 
ful of -mortals, 
who was carried 
off from Troy by 
the eagle of Ju- 
piter, or by the 
Thunderer him- 
self under that 




disoruise, to sue- 
ceed Hebe as the 
cup-bearer to the 
ofods. Xo one 
who saw this fine 
group of statu- 
ary in the Danish 
Court at the Cen- 
tennial will have 
forgotten how ex- 
quisite the work- 

NoRWiCH, in the English Court at the Centennial. We have here an admirable 
illustration of the manner in which natural forms may be conventionalized 
without losing any of their characteristics, while the nature of the material in 
which they are to be wrought is not forgotten. The artist has taken for his 
■ model the common sunflower, and treated it with a degree of skill worthy of 
all praise. In the whole range of designs in ornamental metal-work in the 
Exhibition, we remember no one more admirable in every way than this. 

The o-raceful Lace of Switzerland, of which several choice examples have 



Book-Binding- : M. Lortic, Paris. 



manship upon it 
was, nor how 
much the rich 
warm color of 
the terra- CO tta 
added to its ef- 
fectiveness. 

A thoroughly 
artistic and alto- 
gether satisfac- 
tory example of 
ornamental met- 
al-work is the 
example of Iron 
Railing illustrat- 
ed on page 403. 
It is from the ex- 
hibit of Messrs. 
Barnard, Bishop 
& Barnards, of 



4o8 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1 8 j 6. 



been engraved in former pages of this work, is famous for the beauty and 
variety of its designs, and we illustrate on pages 404 and 405 additional 




Lavori — Tcrra-cotta : Italian Court, 



specimens of noteworthy excellence. In both of these works there is the same 
careful study of plant-life, and an artistic appreciation of its capabilities for 
ornament evident to the observer. Without a careful observance of forms in 



IND U S TR lAL ART. 



409 




Cabinet : Cooper 6* Bolt, London. 



4IO 



THE IXTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



their natural state no artist, liowever skillful, could have wrought these beautiful 
designs. Nor is this knowledge all that is required to make the lace pattern, 
for in the Ijorder we see graceful curves interwoven with delicate geometric 




fatal, in TctTa-cotta : Andrea Boni, Milan, 



figures and these again succeeded by an edging of flowers and leaves conven 
tionalized to make an even and regular finish to the whole piece. 

From the collective e.xhibit of Belgium we take for illustration the 
Embroidered Stole, engraved on page 406. It is an astonishing piece of 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



411 



needlework, such as is rarely wrought now-a-days, aldiough in ancient times 
"when art was sdll religion" examples of equal richness and elaborateness 
were common enouoh. Each one of the six medallions, seen in the illustration, 
has been wrought in colored silks, stitch by stich, after a colored design with which 
the workers were provided. To give to the finished work the delicacy of 
expression, the soft gradations of color, in short, the picture-like effect of the 
pattern, requires a skill and nicety of execution only attainable after long practice. 



The artistic Book- 
binding of France, for 
which that nation has 
long been famous, was 
well represented at the 
Centennial by many 
beautiful examples. 
One of these, a remark- 
ably chaste and rich de- 
sign, by M. LoRTic, OF 
Paris, is shown in an 
illustration on page 
407. The border is 
composed of a foliated 
scroll-work, wrought by 
the process known as 




the medallion which is 
sunk into the middle 
of the cover. In the 
centre of each of the 
little flowers that ap- 
pear here and there 
in the design are small 
ivory dots which pro- 
ject just enough to 
protect the surface of 
the leather from abra- 
sion by other surfaces. 
One of the prettiest 
fountain designs in the 
Centennial was that 
shown in our illustra- 
tion on page 408. It 
is a terra-cotta group. 



''tOolino"*" and the same Bronze Cundelabntm: French Collective Exhibit. 

leaf-pattern is used in 
between three and four feet high, made by Andrea Boni, of Milan. Nothing 
could be more charming than the pose of these two little children, huddled 
together under the umbrella, from which drips the spray of the fountain. The 
group is not only an excellent work of art, it is a very clever adaptadon of 
a work artistic in itself to a certain use. As a lawn group it would be 
exceedingly effective, the rich red color of the terra-cotta contrasting finely with 
the green of the sward. 

On page 409, we illustrate a Cabinet, manufactured by Messrs. Cooper & 
Holt, of Londox, in which the strictest requirements of honest construction and 



412 



THE IXTERXATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSjd. 



legitimate ornamentation have been complied with. The object is interesting 
as an example of the good results to be obtained by an intelligent use of means 
of ornamentation within the abilitj" of any cabinet-maker to produce. In 



referring to this 
cabinet in this way, 
however, we must 
not be understood 
to mean that any 
cabinet- maker 
could produce its 
duplicate, for to do 
that would require 
mechanical appli- 
ances and skilled 
workmen equal to 
those commanded 
by Messrs. Cooper 
& Holt. But a 
cabinet construct- 
ed in walnut or 
oak, or in any 
suitable wood, on 
the lines of this 
one, as shown in 
our engraving, 
would be a suc- 
cess. If the maker 
could procure 
painted panels, so 
much the better, 
provided they are 




Chandeher : H-ni S' SoJi, London. 



well done. But 
enrichment of this 
kind is not neces- 
sary to produce 
the pleasing effect 
conveyed in our 
illustration. The 
beauty here is due 
solely to the grace- 
ful proportions of 
the object as a 
whole and its 
harmonious out- 
lines. Yet if the 
reader would have 
a realizing sense 
of the beauty of 
this cabinet, as it 
appeared standing 
amongf the other 
exhibits of furni- 
ture made by 
Messrs. Cooper & 
Holt, he must 
know that the 
outlines of the 
panels and the 
frame-work gener- 



ally were brought into relief and prominence by inlayings of ebony and white 
wood. This added vasd}' to its richness and made a fitting setting to the painted 
panels which were executed in the highest style of the art. To complete the 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



413 



effect, the shelves and recesses 
chosen orna- 
ments in faience, 
majolica, and 
glass, presuma- 
bly just such 
articles as would 
be placed there 
by the purchaser 
of the cabinet. 

On page4iois 
an illustration of 
a Faun, in Ter- 
ra-cotta, by 
Andrea Boni, 
OF Milan, select- 
ed from the col- 
lection of this 
artist's work, ex- 
hibited in the 
Italian Court, in 
the Main Build- 
ing, at the Cen- 
tennial. This 
collection was 
noteworthy f o r 
the excellence 
of the material 
used and for its 
uniformly good 
color. Even in 
the largest works 



cotta reproductions of metal or 
originals. We have seen some 



of the cabinet were furnished with skillfully 

there was no de- 
tect from shrink- 
age noticeable, 
the outlines ap- 
pearing as clear 
and sharply de- 
fined as in the 
model. For lawn 
and garden 
adornment there 
is nothing better 
than these works 
in terra-cotta. 
They are better 
color than mar- 
ble, and they do 
not stain and 
become dingy. 
Weather practi- 
cally has no effect 
upon them, and 
they are light 
and easily moved 
from place to 
place. Finally, 
they cost very 
much less than 
works in stone 
or metal, and 
with c a r e f u 1 
modeling, terra- 
stone statues would be little inferior to the 
excellent copies in this material of the best 




Carpet : Templeton Sf Co., Glasgow. 




Lace Curlain : Maison blanc. Paris. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



415 



specimens of antique art, tiiat could be bought at prices quite within the means 
of any one possessed of a lawn worth adorning in this way. 

On pa^e 411, we have an engraving ot a Bronze Candelabrum selected 
from the French Collective Exhibit, which is as excellent in its way as the 
Bronze Chandelier, manufactured by Messrs. Hart & Son, of London, shown 
on page 412. We speak of these two works together, because they give an 
excellent illustration, each in itself, of a proper consideration of use before 
ornament, and the adopting of the latter to that end. The Candelabrum, intended 
as a support for five candles in sockets set widely apart, has a short, strong 




Glass and Silver Centre-piece : Klkingtun (S^ Co. 

Stem resting upon a broad and firm base. The idea of strength, solidity and 
weight is conveyed by the couchant lions and the square pillar. On the other 
hand, the Chandelier, as something suspended from the ceiling, must be as light 
and graceful as possible. Observe how artistically this idea has been preserved 
in its construction. The central shaft, or tube, is no longer than is necessary 
to convey the requisite amount of gas to the four burners. These latter are 
arranged about a circle of brass, ornamented with leaves and tendrils. Even 
such delicate enrichments as those are used sparingly, to avoid any appearance 
of overloading and weight, and, in order to give an appearance of greater 
securit\' four chains, suspended from the rosette at the ceiling, are fastened 
to this band. 



4i6 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, 1876. 



The Carpet illustrated on page 413 was displayed by the manufacturers, 
Templeton & Co., OF Glasgow, in their extensive exhibit at the Centennial. The 
centre is woven in a geometric pattern of dark colors, making an excellent 
contrast with the border which is more elaborate in design and in which the colors 
are bright and clearly defined against a white or cream-colored ground. In the 
corners is a showv, ornamental finish, sug-grestive of the designs which originated 
in the great French factories and found immediate iavor and many imitators 
throughout Europe. 




G/ass and Silver Centrc-piccc : Elkington Gf Co. 



Something quite novel and striking in the way of curtain patterns is shown 
in our illustration on page 414 of a Lace Curtain, from the Maison blanc, 
Paris. Heretofore the curtains which we have illustrated have been worked with 
designs of flower and plant forms, mostly ferns, treated in a more or less 
realistic manner. Here, however, conventionalized forms obtain. On the sides 
and at the base is an elaborate composidon of scroll forms, such as French 
designers excel in inventing, but the centre of the curtain is patterned off with 
curved lines running diagonally across each other, making a sort of network. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



417 



In each compartment iormed by these Hnes is a leaf-shaped figure standing 
out in strone rehef aaainst the deUcate fabric in which it is worked. The 
curtain is an example of the astonishing fertility of invention shown by French 
designers in rcpotisse to the incessant demands ot the public for novelty. 

Two examples of the fine work produced by the Messrs. Elkington & Co., 
OF Birmingham, are illustrated on pages 415 and 416. These Centre Pieces, 
while alike in general appearance, are sufficiently unlike to make a separate 
study of each profitable. Both are admirable examples of happy invention 




Silver Salver: RUUr 6^ Co., Ilanau. 



coupled with rare technical skill in execution. In the first, two youthful Fauns 
crouch beneath the vase, which their fineers touch, as if balancine it on its 
pedestal rather than supporting its weight. The poses of these little figures 
are charmingly graceful. About the base, on the pedestal and around the bowl 
of the vase, are enrichments executed with that perfection of workmanship which 
won for the Elkington exhibit at the Centennial the encomiums of all lovers of 
artistic work in the precious metals. 

The second piece, seen on page 416, is even more elaborate than the first. 



4i8 



THE INTERXATIOXAL EXHIB IT/OX, 1S76. 



and the medallion on the pedestal of the vase is enriched with a group of 
figures in relief, represendng- the Goddess of Plenty plaxing with a cupid. 
These two superb works, — and they may be considered as a pair, one for each 
end of the table, — are wrought in solid silver, every part being of this precious 
metal, except the engraved crystal dishes which rest on the vase. 

An example of fine engraving on silver is given in the illustration on page 
417 of a Salver, manufactured by Ritter & Co., of Hanau. In the medallion 
in the centre are figures symbolizing Night and Morning, drawn with spirit and 





encrraved with areat technical skill. Beneath and above them are winged dragons 
guarding the vases, from which emerge the plant-forms that make a wreath the 
central composition. Just within the upturned rim of the salver is an engraved 
border forming a frame for the rest of the design. The design here is very 
elaborate, especially in the sides where there are groups of flowers executed 
with such minuteness and delicacy that they will bear examination through a 
magnifying-glass. 

Perhaps no better illustration of the improvement in the art of decorative 



IXD us TRIAL ART. 



419 



design in England in the last quarter of a century can be found than in a 
study of the tiles made during that period. The multitude of uses to which 
these articles are put at the present time has led to their manufacture in almost 
endless variety. And as these uses include in their range all between tiles 
designed for the commonest service and those designed purely for ornament, 




Ornamental Tiles: Minton , Hoi lilts 6^ Co., London. 



the decorative skill employed upon them includes the draughtsman of simple 
geometric figures and the artist learned in the use of pigments. 

On pages 418 and 419 are illustradons of Ornamental Tiles, selected 
from the small but choice display made by Messrs. Minton, Hollins & Co., of 
London, at the Centennial. The examples on page 418 include specimens of 
tiles suitable for wall and floor decoration, as well as finer erades, desisned for 
jardinieres, mantle ornamentation and such like purposes. One set of four tiles 



420 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENH I BITION, 1876. 



is decorated with a pretty bit of painting after nature, representing a group of 
water-lilies and grasses and a brightly plumaged bird darting down upon the 
water. 




The arrangement of the tile patterns on page 419, so as to make a pleasing- 
group, shows how kaleidoscopic, if we may be allowed the comparison, are 
the combinations which any one can make to suit his fancy. Around the 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



421 




Industrial Cup; Blkington &• Co., London. 



42: 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



specimens in the middle of die page, one 
example ot a convendonalized flower and 
hand in a dioroughly ardstic manner. 

On page 420 we illustrate a group of 
which attracted u niversal 
attention by its novelty 
and the excellence of its 
construction. The name 
by which this style of 
furniture is known 
sua-p-ests the method 
of its manufacture. A 
strong, tough-fibered 
wood like our hickory, 
is thoroughly seasoned 
and then steamed and 
bent into the required 
shape. Considerable 




of which, by the way, is an admirable 
leaf, is a frame of tiles decorated by 

BentA^^ood Furniture, from Vienn.^, 
ingenuity and construc- 
tive skill is shown in 
making the several arti- 
cles which, as is seen 
in our enoravinsf on 
page 420, are exceed- 
ingl}^ light and graceful 
appearing. Moreover 
the several pieces are 
astonishingly strong, and 
the very elasticity of the 
parts enables tliem to 
bear an amount of rousfh 
usage that would break 




Copies, in Bronze, of Antique Sto.tnjry -■ ItalLui Court. 



really stronger furniture all to pieces. This furniture is especially adapted 
to use in summer-houses, where its lightness and coolness makfe it agreeable 
to the eye and touch. 

If the Messrs. Elkington & Co., of Birmingham, England, had made no 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



423 




424 



THE IXTERXATIOXAL EXHJBITIOX, iSjd. 



other contributions to tlie Centennial than the Industrial Cup, sliown on page 
421, the beauty ot the design and the exquisite workmanship herein displayed 
would have won 
for the manufac- 



turers a first 
place among the 

art-workers i n 
the precious 
metals. Yet this 
piece was but one 
in a group of 
many others, pro- 
minent among 
whicli were the 
Helicon \ ase,the 
Milton Shield, 
and the Pom- 
peiian Toilette, 
works u n s u r - 
passed in modern 
times forgenuine 
art value. With 
many of these 
the reader is ac- 
quainted through 
the illustrations 
in these pages, 
and we now ask 
his attention to 
this Cup as equal- 
ly worthy his re- 





Tke Vikhi^ l^ase : Swedish Court. 



gard. The gene- 
ral form of the 
design may be 
described as a 
flattened sphere, 
resting upon a 
stem with bosses 
above and sur- 
rounded at the 
base with a group 
of youthful genii, 
typical of the 
arts. On either 
side of the sphere 
or bowl are 
female figures, 
guardians of the 
railway and tele- 
graph, reclining 
in such a way 
that the contour 
of their bodies 
and their uprais- 
ed wines sfive 
a gracefully har- 
monious outline 
to the upper por- 
tion of the Cup, 
which is sur- 



mounted by a globe, on which is a charmingly poised figure, representing the Genius 
of Industry'. On the body of the Cup, on either side, are large medallion-reliefs in 
repousse symbolizing the results of Industry in the advancement of the world in 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



425 



civilization and the progress of the arts and sciences. The remaining surface is 
covered with scrolls and emblems in low relief, all illustrative of the general 
design. The modeling of the detached figures, and there are seven in all, is simply- 
perfect : the two principal ones, upon the sides ot the bowl, being endowed with 




Silver ^pergn-e : Reed 6^ Barton, Taunton, Mass. 



an expression and individuality worthy of all praise. In technical execution, this 
work leaves nothing to be desired. Every detail is wrought with care and 
finish. The rendering- of the texture of the skin on the nude surface of the 
figures, the drapery, and of the feathers in the wings are admirable. To 
appreciate the delicate manipulation that produced these effects, the work should 




Silver-plated Tea Ser-oke : Reed &• Burton. Tatciton, Mass. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



427 



be studied by the aid of a magnifying-glass. In consideration of these elabo- 
rate excellencies, this Cup may well be placed with the group named in the 
beginning of this description, as one of the chefs-d'oeuvre of the Elkington 
exhibit. 

The Bronze exhibit in the Italian Court was scarcely such as the reputa- 
tion of the Italians for art-works in this metal would lead us to expect ; but 
such as it was, the collection could not fail of interest on account of the numerous 




Silver-plated Tea Service : Reed &= Barton, Taunton, Mass. 



reproductions of ancient statuary of world-wide fame which it contained. Two 
of these, which the reader will recognize as the Spinario and the Dying 
Gladiator, are engraved on page 422. They are of a size suitable for cabinet 
ornaments, and are wrought in green bronze, which many prefer to the lustrous 
copper-tinged metal. Of course it is unnecessary to speak here of the merits 
of the statues themselves. Their worth is known to every student of art, and 
in these bronzes we have a miniature reproduction of the originals, in which 
every line is preserved with scrupulous accuracy. Indeed the technical execution 



428 



THE I X TERN ATI ON AL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



of the work is one of its chief excellencies, recommending it to the attention 
of connoisseurs wherever these statuettes are seen. 

One of the most elaborate articles ot the remarkable elass exhibit of 
Messrs. Lobmeyer, of Vienna, is shown in the engraving on page 423, which 
contains several other specimens of the work of this tamous firm. The piece 
referred to is the engraved Crystal Vase, on the lett ot the page, which, together 
with the Dish in which it stands, are superb examples ot the highest art-work- 
manship in this branch of manufacture. The vase consists ot two parts, a bowl and 
cover, both covered with engraved garlands and scroll-work, charmingly designed 
and engraved with marvelous skill. The cover is surmounted by a crown and 



a pair of cupids 
holding a shield 
with the arms ot 
Austria. The fig- 
ures ot the cupids 
are of white glass, 
but the shield 
bears its appropri- 
ate colors and the 
crown blazes with 
jewels. There is 
color also in the 
radiated decora- 





Pitchers of Lavtbcili Faience : Don/ton <5^ Co. 



tion about the 
bottom of the 
bowl, and the 
raised garlands 
of flowers on the 
stem. These, in 
contrast with the 
crystal and the 
delicate engrav- 
ing, give an ex- 
tremely rich and 
splendid effect. 
Of the other 



pieces shown in the engraving on page 426, the vase on the right is interesting 
as an excellent imitation of one of those curious antique vessels in transparent 
tinted glass, enameled over its surface with arms and quaint devices in threads 
and dots of bright color. Good specimens of this old ware are rare and valuable, 
but only an expert could detect a difference from the original in one of these 
clever copies. 

The remarkable collection of artistic pottery and porcelain in the Swedish 
Court at the Centennial, attracted the admiring attention of every one interested 
in this subject. It was undoubtedly the most comprehensive exhibit of the kind 
in the exhibition, and the only one worthy of being called a representative 
display. Moreover, it was the only exhibit that contained any novelty in this 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



429 



important branch of industry. In the collection were some specimens of a ware 
manufactured by Gustafsberg, of Stockholm, called Argentina, in which silver 
had been successfully applied as a finish to porcelain. On some of the pieces 
the entire surface was covered with the metal, which was afterwards polished. 
The only indication that these articles were not solid silver was their lighter 
weight. On others the silver was used to produce a "dead" surface, for deco- 
rative purposes in conjuncdon with color, and here the beauty of the invention 
was manifest. In order to show the capabilities of the process to the best 
advantage, M. Gustafsberg had prepared an Argentina Vase, which we engrave 




Majolica Epergne : Daniel ^ Son, Loiido. 



on page 424. It is a work of the highest artistic merit, worthy of rank among 
the chefs-d' ceuvre of the Exhibition. In shape it corresponds to the ancient 
sepulchral urn of a Norse warrior ; one of that race of Vikings whose sagas 
tell of conquests beyond the seas, when the rest of Europe was ignorant of 
the existence of another continent. Around the bowl of the vase is a series 
of nineteen medallions, telling the story of the hero's life, in a quaint yet 
eloquent language, more intelligible than words. Beginning with the ceremonies 
attending his birth, we see portrayed his early life, his instruction in the use 
of implements of war, his initiation into the stern reality of war and his 



430 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, j8j6. 



departure on some voyage of conquest. Here are the scenes of rc\L-lry on 
his return, the sacrifice of thanksgiving to his gods, his marriage, and the 
homage of his followers, his death on the battle-field, his funeral pyre, and the 
monument marking his final resting-place. As handles to the vase we have the 
dragons of his mythology, and the mysterious knotted bands, and the knot of 
Thor also are introduced in the ornamentation. The dimensions of this vase 
are twenty-lour inches in height by fifteen inches diameter of bowl. In the 




Ornamental Iron Work : Swedish Court. 



decorative treatment the porcelain body is finished by the process before named, 
with a deadened silver surface. The medallions are outlined in light blue upon 
a buff around. The dragons, the bands and the other decorations are outlined 
In black or white on the buff ground, picked in here and there with vermilion. 
The contrast of color is strong, and gives strength to the design, which has 
all the vigor characteristic of the art-work of Northern Europe. But its unique 
excellence is the exquisitely soft and rich texture of the silvered surface, so 
admirably contrasting with the decoration. 



IND US TRIAL ART. 



431 




Carved Cabinet: Italian Court. 



On pages 426 and 427 we engrave a Silver-Plated Tea-Service, manu- 
factured by Reed & Barton, of Taunton, Mass. The set comprises seven 



432 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



pieces, of which the urn with its lamp and stand is the central figure. This 
service, in design and execution, is quite equal to anything of the same character 
that is produced in the solid metal. All the raised ornamentation, consisting 
of various kinds of flowers and plants, is finished with scrupulous care. There 
is hardly an inch of the whole surface of the vessels that is not thus ornamented. 
The workmanship is of the best. Each flower-petal and veined-leaf shows 
careful study, and the composition of the group evidences artistic skill of a high 
order of excellence. In short, between this service and another made of solid 




Bronze yardlni'en: : A'l. Luton, Paris. 



silver, there is no difference at all in art quality. The one is just as beautiful 
as the other, and of course, the difterence in cost is largely in favor of the 
plated ware. 

The demand for painted faience, in England, especially, but also in other 
nations, in place of tlie so-called majolica, has greatly stimulated its production, 
and we see the results of the new departure in the several wares manufactured 
by the great potters of England and France, such as Doulton and Haviland. 
Doulton's faience, which must not be confused with the Doulton ware, a totally 
different affair, was on the whole the most satisfactory indication of the progress 
of Eneland in the direcdon of true artistic feelino- and methods made in the 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



433 




Carpet: James TempUton &' Co., Glasgow, ScoUand. 



434 THE I XTER NATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

pottery exhibit from Great Britain. The plaques, platters, vases, ewers and tiles 
of painted faience exhibited by this firm were beautiful specimens of vigorous 
drawing, strong, warm color, and generally fine effects. Some of the figure- 
paintings and landscapes are simply wonderful when we consider that the artist 
was limited in his scale of colors to the few, comparatively, that would stand 
the firing necessarj' to finish the work. For it must be remembered that Doulton 
faience is glazed after the painting, a very different matter from the reverse 
process, which is about the same thing as painting on glass or any lustrous 
surface without limitation in the use of color. Undoubtedly, finer chromatic 
effects can be produced in the latter way, but the articles thus painted must 
be designed purely for ornament, as they cannot stand much handling or wear. 
Painting under the glaze, however, if properly executed, will last as long as the 
clay, on which the colors are laid, holds together. In other words, it is impervious 
to the action of water or air. On page 428 we illustrate two examples of 
Doulton faience, decorated with floral designs, painted directly on the clay. The 
work shows breadth and skill of drawing and much refinement of coloring. 
In comparison with the imitation majolica sculptured and painted work, which 
these wares are rapidly superseding, the artistic value of Doulton faience is 
infinitely superior. 

We would not, however, be understood, in the foregoing remarks, to condemn 
majolica as a vehicle for artistic expression. On the contrary, when properly 
and artistically treated, it gives most satisfactory results. Our criticism is directed 
against those cheap and meretricious ornaments, mostl)' sculptured, passing by 
the name of majolica, that were popular some years ago, because the colors 
were bright and shiny, and the sculpture more or less novel or grotesque. As 
an example of a thoroughly good design in majolica and an evidence of its 
excellence for ornamental purposes when treated in an intelligent manner, we 
illustrate on page 429 a Majolica Epergne, exhibited at the Centennial by 
the Messrs. Daniels & Son, of London, whose display for variety and choice 
specimens of the potter's art in its several higher branches, stood quite 
unrivaled. The most noticeable feature in this work, considering its artistic 
merit, is the modeling of the two figures, the Satyr and Naiad, grouped on 
either side of the stem of the dish. They are splendid in pose and expression 
and are perfectly finished, down to the minute details of features, hair, etc. The 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



435 



skin texture and the coloring are largely dependent on the technical execution 
and the skill with which the several processes — which the work undergoes after 
leavino" the hands of the artist — are conducted by the workmen. Herein, too, 





Silver Tea Sets : Christesen, Copenhagen. 



we liave evidences of skillful manipulation, and in the brilliancy of the colors 
as well as in the combination of rare tints we see to what an extent science, 
in discovering new ceramic pigments, has aided the potter. 

The Ornamental Iron Work in the Swedish Court at the Centennial, 
attracted attention, both by the excellence of the iron itself and the hio-h decree 



436 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



of artistic skill manifested in working it. Our engraving on page 430 ilkistrates 
one of the most notable examples in the display. The design for the centre 
is bold and spirited, and drawn with a free, vigorous hand. In the execution 
of the detail the same freedom ot touch and avoidance of everything useless 
and trivial is seen ; the work being done apparendy as easily as if the material 
was as soft and yielding as wood. 

The Carved Cabinet, illustrated on page 431, is another specimen of the 
fine display of artistic wood-work made by the Italian Commission in their 




Silver Casket : Zimmerman, Hanau. 



Court at the Centennial. The purely classic outline of this beautiful piece of 
furniture and the elegance of the ornamentation recommend it at once to the 
admirer of fine cabinet work. The cabinet may be described as consisting of 
two parts, the lower divided into the three principal panels, each of them orna- 
mented with carving in low relief In the central panel is a charmingly posed 
draped female figure, representing the Genius of Poetry. On to her shoulder' 
has just flown a little cupId, and, poised there, he appears to be whispering an 
inspiration in her ear. Framing this group are smaller panels ornainented by 
delicately carved scrolls and garlands. The principal ornamentation in the side 
panels are medallions, Avith finely carved busts executed in low relief In the 
central portion of the upper half of the Cabinet is a large sheet of glass, 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



43; 



placed there to expose to view the ornaments within, which it protects. On 
either side are splendid specimens of carving, representing ornamental niches 
or recesses in which stand statues typical of music and painting. The upper part 
of the Cabinet is ornamented with a frieze, bearing an escutcheon for arms, and 



the top is finished with 
an arch broken in the 
centre, to give place to 
a vase and pedestal. 

On page 432 is an 
engraving of another 
charming work, a Bronze 
Jardiniere, from the col- 
lection exhibited by M. 
Luton, of Paris. The 
vase itself is in the shape 
of an ancient cistern, or- 
namented with panels, 
enriched with scroll- 
work and medallion 
heads in relief A happy 
conceit has placed two 
winged cupids on either 
side of the vessel, bind- 
ing it about with a gar- 
land of laurel. The pose 
of these little figures is 
graceful and spirited, the 
very embodiment of glee. 
In technical execution the 



finish of this work leaves 
nothing to be desired. 

In the Scotch Carpet, 
made by James Temple- 
ton & Co., OF Glasgow, 
illustrated on page 433, 
we see the influence of 
that French taste formed 
in the splendid schools 
of decorative and orna- 
mental desio-n established 
by Corbet — the Gobelins 
and Sevres — which swept 
like a wave over Europe 
and into England. The 
love of mag-nificence and 
display in which one 
Louis exceeded another 
was ministered to in 
these great factories by 
every art that the inge- 
nuity of man could de- 
vise and money purchase. 
The people, attracted by 
the glitter and brilliancy 
of the age, threw aside the simple forms of the Renaissance and of classic 
antiquity, and sought to imitate in their humbler abodes the splendor of the 
court. Manufacturers caught the infection and strove to excel each other in 
the production of novelties that should surpass, in richness of design or elabo- 
rateness of ornament, anything previously produced. The style named after 




Silver Perfume-Box : Rltter &' Co., Hanau. 



438 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Louis Ouartorze is perhaps the highest expression of this new order of things. 
Never before had the mere enrichment of articles been carried to such an 
excess, and since tliat time various causes have contributed to its abandonment. 
The influence of the Gobehns on designs for textiles was especially marked, 
and in the foliated scroll-work, the bouquets of flowers, medallions with por- 
traits, trophies, musical instruments, etc., and the pictorial treatment of carpet 
patterns so common in all parts of the world to-day, we can trace this influence. 

In the example before us, which doubtless is an original design, the designer 
has caught the true French feeling, and giving loose to his fancy, has decorated 
the material with lavish richness. The middle ground of his carpet is strewn 
with a delicate tracery of flower-sprays interwoven with foliated scrolls. Within 
the border, which is as strongly outlined as the cornice around a ceiling, are 
garlands and heaps of flowers ; and about the outer edge, like a fringe, is a 
rope of ivy. Midway of the sides are medallions wreathed with flowers, con- 
taining groups of musical instruments. The reader can see for himself the 
varied richness of these several combinations of design which literally strew 
flowers before one's feet. 

The novel forms and the original styles of ornamentation displayed in the 
goldsmith- and silversmith-work of Denmark, made the Danish exhibit of art- 
work in the precious metals unusually interesting. On page 435 we engrave, 
as notable examples of this silversm.ith-work, two Tea Sets, made by Chris- 
TESEN, OF Copenhagen. The ornamentation of the articles in the first group is 
of very varied character. The water-urn, engraved with classical figures and 
modeled in swelling curves, is balanced between a pair of Sphynxes, drawn with 
all the severity of outline of the Egyptian originals. A swan forms the knob 
to the lid of the vessel, and is matched by similar devices in the other pieces. 
Indeed, wherever there is a point or angle, a mask or grotesque head, or some- 
thing of that kind, is placed there as a finish to the work. The same general 
remarks apply to the second service, though the enrichment of this set is even 
more elaborate than the former. The pattern on the sides of the vessel is 
different, bands and scroll-work being selected instead of figure-subjects. 

Some of the most interesting art-workmanship in the German section of 
the Exhibition came from Hanau, in Hessen-Nassau. Although the population 



I 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 439 



of the town, including the suburbs, is not more than fifteen thousand, it has 
manufactories of silk stuffs, carpet, cotton fabrics and other textiles, gold and 
silver articles, and porcelain, which are second to but few in the empire for the 
qualit}^ and artistic excellence of the work produced. A reason for this excel- 
lence can be found in the admirable schools of art-education which have longf 
been established here, supplying trained and accomplished workmen in the 
several art-industries. 

On page 436 we illustrate, as an example of Hanau silversmith-work, the 
top of a Silver Casket, made by Zimmerman, of that place. The design is 
graceful and pretty, and not over elaborate. The central panel is particularly 
excellent for its well-balanced fissure. But aside from the skill evinced in the 
design, the casket deserves attention for the fine and workmanlike manner in 
which it is made, showing a skillful use of the hammer, the chisel and the 
graver's tool. 

On page 437 we engrave another example of Hanau silversmith-work, the 
subject — a Silver Perfume-Box — being one selected from the exhibit made by 
RiTTER & Co., of that town. In shape, in decorative and ornamental treat- 
ment and in workmanship, this dainty little object is worthy of great praise. 
The reader should observe how each detail of the enrichment contributes to 
the harmony and completeness of the object as a whole, and how perfectly the 
several parts of the work are proportioned. It is an object that fills and 
satisfies the eye at the first glance, and invites a more careful examination of 
its elaborate excellencies. Each part can be studied separately: the lid of the 
box, with its admirably grouped swans ; the simple yet elegant bands sur- 
rounding the body of the vessel ; the charming litde figures who make merry 
with the cap and bells of Mirth and the mask of Tragedy; the vigorous 
modeling of the lions' heads, bound by the jaws around the stem, and the 
plain ornamentation of the foot, conveying a sense of strength by its very 
simplicity and precision of outline. 

With the peace that followed the departure of the French from Italy about 
the beginning of the sixteenth century, came the opportunity for the develop- 
ment of the Renaissance art. Its study was entered into with enthusiasm, and 
received the encouragement and patronage of the princes of the land. The 
search for classical remains brought to light many superb examples on which 



440 THE INTERNATIONAL EX II I B I TI N, i S 76. 




INDUSTRIAL ART. 



441 




(^P^Pi 







G/iiJJ Kzj^ and ^pergne : Lobmeyr, Vien7ia. 



442 



THE IXTERXATIOXAL EXHIBITIOX, 1S76. 



the styles were 
founded. The 
carved furniture 
and wood-work 
of this period 
have never been 
excelled. The 
best artists of 
the day were not 
unwilling to ex- 
ercise their skill 
in this direction, 
and the exquis- 
itely ornamented 
chests and sculp- 
tured panels of 
the cinque cento 
preserA'ed in the 
museums and 
palaces of Eu- 
rope attest to 
this day the sur- 
passing skill of 
the workmen. 

In early me- 
diseval or Gothic 
art there was a 
certain conven- 
tionality in the 
convolutions of 
foliated sculpture 
and other orna- 
mental work 
adorning furni- 











■i--^ 



Furniture Silk ; Collective Exhibit of Saxony. 



tu re, which was 
afterwards ab- 
sorbed in the 
more purely ar- 
chitectural types 
that obtained in 
the quatro cento, 
or fifteenth cen- 
tury, period. In 
the best period 
of the Renais- 
sance it does not 
appear at all ; 
but later, when 
what should have 
remained purely 
architectural fea- 
tures were im- 
parted to fur- 
niture, making 
cabinets like 
mimic temples, 
etc., which re- 
quired joinery 
construction oth- 
erwise useless 
and unnecessary 
in such articles, 
the mediceval or- 
namentation was 
revived and 
grafted on to 
arabesque orna- 
ment, which in 



I 



IND US TR lAL AR T. 



443 



turn surpassed all previous styles in the richness and variety, if not in the 
excellence, of its designs. Still later, when the decadence of art is most 
manifest, we find the several styles hopelessly confused, and articles of furniture 
in which the designer's principal aim seems to have been to get as much and 



as many varieties 
of ornament into 
a given space 
as his inofenuitv 
could devise. To 
any one tamiliar 
with the vio^or- 
ous simplicity of 
the early Gothic 
ornamentation, 
where ever)' 
line is traceable 
through the in- 
tricacies of its 
convolutions as 
having a definite 
end and purpose, 
the lavish enrich- 
ment merely for 
the sake of en- 
richment looks 
poor indeed. 

Of late years, 
however, Italy, 
like the rest of 




Cut-Glass Decanter : James Millar &' Co., Edinburgh. 



Europe, has ex- 
perienced an- 
other art-revival, 
and is seeking, by 
intelligent study 
of the best ex- 
amples, to restore 
her art-workman- 
ship to its former 
purity and excel- 
lence. To how 
well she is suc- 
ceeding in this 
endeavor, the ex- 
cellent exhibit 
made by her art- 
ists in manufac- 
tures in the Ital- 
ian Court at the 
Centennial bore 
ample testimony. 
In no one depart- 
ment of indus- 
trial art was this 
more apparent 



than in that of wood-carving. The examples sent were many of them simply 
superb works of sculpture. Our readers already are familiar with a number 
of the choicest specimens, to which list must now be added the Carved Walnut 
Cabinet, illustrated on page 440. 

The front of this cabinet consists of three panels, separated by columns 



444 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, 1876. 



wreathed with vines carved in full relief. The panels are enriched with designs 
of great elaborateness and beauty, containing cupids, trophies, scrolls, and urns 
in harmonious composition. In the frieze above the panels are sprays of vine- 
leaves exquisitely e.xact in their resemblance to nature. A curvilinear design, 
some four inches broad, is carved around the base of the cabinet, on the front 



and sides. At the 
two outer corners 
are caryatides, exe- 
cuted with a breadth 
and freedom rarely 
attained in wood- 
sculpture. In the 
ends are panels sim- 
ilar in design to 
those in the front. 
About the feet, at 
the corners of the 
frieze, and at every 
point of prominence 
in the construction 
of this superb piece 
of furnitu re, are carv- 
ings in higher or 
lower relief, and of 
greater or lesser de- 
gree of elaborate- 




Pulpit : Hart, Son &^ Pcard. London. 



ness, according to 
position. 

The art of blow- 
ing glass, brought by 
the Venetians to the 
highest state of per- 
fection, was known 
to the Egyptians and 
Phoenicians, and ex- 
tensively practised 
by the Romans. In- 
deed, the countless 
fragments of Roman 
glass that are found 
show that these last- 
named were ac- 
quainted with most 
of the methods 
known to modern 
manufacturers, and 
some of their work, 



as, for example, mosaic or mille fiori, has never been surpassed. Whether the 
famous murrhine wine-cups, believed to have the faculty of breaking if poison 
was mixed with the drink, were made of glass or from some mineral, like 
fluor-spar, has never been determined ; but there is no reason to doubt the 
statements of Latin writers describingr columns of grjass of ten and fifteen feet 
in height. The beautiful iridescent elass so common in ancient fragments, and 
so beautifully imitated in modern times, is simply the result of decomposition 
of the surface. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



44S 



With the Venetians, however, the art of glass-making was elaborated into 
numberless processes, many of which, in their details b\' which such sur- 
prisingly beautitul designs were obtained, are now unknown to us. Perhaps 
the chief beauty of Venetian glass to the art-lover is the appreciation mani- 
fested by the workmen of the true quality of the material which he manipulated. 



Worked in a fused or 
liquid state, the com- 
pound hardens by cool- 
inof into a brittle, non- 
crystalline substance. 
By blowing, a marvelous 
degree of tenuity can 
be obtained, and by the 
use of metallic oxides 
the substance can be 
colored. \'itreous enam- 
els can be fastened to 
the surface, or threads 
of color be incorpo- 
rated in the substance. 
In all these methods of 
ornamentation, the true 
nature of glass is re- 
garded, and it is only 
in more modern times 
that the attempt to cut 




Eagle Lectern : Hart. S071 6^ Peard, London. 



it in imitation of crystal 
has been resorted to. 

In the collection of 
Ornamental Glass, ex- 
hibited by M. LOBMEYR, 
OF Vienna, at the Cen- 
tennial, the visitor was 
treated to a view of a 
perfect museum of 
specimens of this beau- 
tiful art, including ex- 
amples imitatingancient 
wares, and illustrations 
of new processes dis- 
covered — or perhaps we 
should be nearer the 
truth if we said old 
processes rediscovered 
by the manufacturer. 
The famous ruby glass 
of Potsdam was rivaled 



in richness by the Splendid examples of color shown by M. Lobmeyr. His 
enamels were particularly brilliant, and his iridescent glass radiates from its 
surface all the colors of the rainbow. Wonderful skill was also shown in the 
exquisite designs either engraved by the wheel or eaten in with acid. Some 
of these engravings were on glass so thin that the marvel was how it resisted the 
pressure necessary to chase the surface. Another variety was gorgeous in 
enamels and eildincr and embossed surfaces, and it is from this class that we 
have selected the two pieces, a Vase and an Epergne, illustrated on page 441. 



446 



THE INTERN ATIOXAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



They are re- 
splendent in 
the rich ruby- 
color spoken 
of above, and 
as ornaments 
to a drawincr- 
room or din- 
ner-table could 
hardly be sur- 
passed in ef- 
fectiveness. 

On page 442 
we enofrave an 
example of 
Furniture 
Silk, from Sax- 
ony, selected 

from the Col- "^W^^f^M 
lective Exhibit ^^^Mi 
of textiles ^^W^E 
made by that 
nation at the 
Centennial — a 
collection, by 
the way, in 
every respect 



creditable, and 
particularly 
evidencing the 
artistic skill of 




Lace Curtai7i : Heyman 6^ Alexander, Xottingham. 



the Saxon arti- 
sans. The spe- 
cimen shown in 
our illustration 
treats a well- 
known method 
of design with 
vigor and 
grace, and in 
the blending 
ot color, which 
cannot be 
shown in an 
engraving, a 
most harmoni- 
ous effect has 
been obtained. 
The C u T- 
Glass Decan- 
ter, illustrated 
on page 443, is 
selected from 
the fine exhibit 
of glassware 
made by James 
Millar & Co., 
OF Edinburgh, 
in the English 
Court at the 
Cen te n n ial. 
Scotch glass is 



famous for its quality, and Scotch crystal glass especially has great clearness and 
brilliancy. The engraving with which it is decorated heightens this effect by 
contrast with the clear portions of the surface, and the angles produced by 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



447 



cutting increase the brilliancy. The form of the Decanter illustrated is particu- 
larly graceful and well proportioned. 







If any one desired a practical illustration of the results of industrial-art 
education in England, they had it in full measure at the Centennial Exhibition. 



448 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1 8 j 6. 



In the Paris Exposition England surprised the world by coming suddenly to 
the fore among the nations of Europe with her exhibit of decorative and orna- 
mental workmanship, and again at Vienna she won renown ; but her best 
achievements in these lines, taking the exhibit as a whole, were seen at the 
Centennial. Our pages have already been enriched with illustrations of the 
triumphs of English manufactures in artistic pottery, glass, metal-work, textiles, 
paper-hangings, and furniture, all traceable directly or indirectly to the influence 




Iron Bedstead : Peyton &= Peyton, London. 



of South Kensington with its superb museum and its admirable training-schools. 
Another example, showing in every line and detail of construction and enrich- 
ment the result of this education, is shown in the Pulpit manufactured by 
Hart, Son & Peard, of London, which we engrave on page 444. Simple in 
outline, admirably proportioned, the ornament in harmony with the general 
design and admirably wrought, nothing superfluous or weak in the enrichment, 
these are amone the characteristics of this excellent work. 

The Eagle Lectern, of which we give an illustration on page 445, is 
a notably fine example of the artistic and highly finished ecclesiastical fur- 
niture which the Messrs. Hart, Son & Peard make a specialty of manufac- 



IXDUSTRIAL ART. 



449 




Sevres Vases : t'leitch Court. 



450 



THE IXTERXATIOXAL EX H I B 1 Tl N, i Sy6. 



tuning. This Lectern is made of wrought metals, brass and iron, chased and 
engraved, and in artistic design and \voi'l<manhl-:e execution and finish it 
reflected the highest credit upon the manufacturers. The brass eagle standing 

outwards, \4gorously 
modeled and instinct 
with life. Devices of 
an ecclesiastical char- 
acter are introduced 
into the enrichment of 
the panels and detail- 
work of the construc- 
tion, and add to the 
ornamental effect of 
the whole. 

The excellence of 
the Lace Fabrics made 
by Messrs. Hevman & 
Alexander, of Not- 
tingham, ENGLAND,and 
exhibited at the Cen- 
tennial, worthily main- 
tained the reputation 
of that town for its 
famous "Nottingrham 
Lace." On page 446 
we engrave one of the 
specimens exhibited by 
the above-named firm, 
a Lace Curtain of a 
charmingly light and 



with outspread wings 
upon a globe, and 
crushing in its talons 
a writhing serpent, is 
the most conspicuous 
feature of the design. 
The pose of the bird 
and the position of 
its wings are arranged 
to make a convenient 
book-rest for the reader 
at the lectern. Spring- 
ing from near the top 
of the shaft that sup- 
ports the sphere and 
eagle are branching 
candle-stands of grace- 
ful foliated design. 
The small columns sur- 
rounding the central 
shaft are surmounted 
by figures of the four 
Evangelists, admirably 
conceived and exe- 
cuted. At the base 
of the columns are 
couchant lions, facing 
graceful design, prettily and tastefully disposed over the surface of the net- work 
in which it is wrought. There is a suggestion of the Pompeiian style of deco- 
ration in the vases and in the groups of conventionally treated flowers and 
ferns rising one above the other in graceful convolutions ; and these are happily 




Bronze Candelabra : Luton, Farts. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



451 



harmonized with the lattice-worlc border about which flower-garlands and vines 
are wreathed and interwoven. 

In contrast with this strong and serviceable fabric is the deHcate, web-Hke 



Lace Shawl, illustrated 
on page 447, which was 
one of the many superb 
examples of this kind 
displayed in the Collec- 
tive Exhibit of Brussels. 
Mrs. Pallisser, in her in- 
troduction to the Lace 
Catalogue of the South 
Kensington Museum, 
orives an interestinof ac- 
count of this industr)\ 
She says of Brussels lace 
that it is the most cele- 
brated of all manufac- 
tures, distinguished for 
the beauty of its ground, 
the perfection of its 
flowers, and the elegance 
of its patterns. The 
thread is of extraordinary 
fineness, made of the flax 
of Brabant. It is spun 
underground, for contact 
with the air causes it to 
break, being so fine as 
almost to escape the 
sight, — the lace-spinner 







Bronze Lamp : Litiott. Paris. 



is guided only by touch. 
Hand-spun thread costs 
sometimes as high as 
^240 per pound, and is 
consequently now but 
little used, a Scotch 
cotton thread beingf sub- 
stituted, except for the 
finest lace ; but machine- 
made thread has never 
arrived at the fineness 
of that made by hand 

The ground used in 
Brussels lace is of two 
kinds — needle-point, 
"point a I'aiguelle," and 
pillow. The needle-point 
is made in small seg- 
ments of an inch wide, 
and united by the invis- 
ible stitch called "fine 
joining." It is stronger, 
but three times more ex- 
pensive, than the pillow, 
and is rarely used except 
for royal orders. In the 
pillow-made ground two 
sides of the hexagonal 



mesh are formed by four threads plaited, and the other four by threads twisted 
together; but these beautiful and costly grounds are now, for ordinary pur- 
poses, replaced by the fine machine-made net, so well known under the name 



45: 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



of "Brussels net." The 
Brussels flowers are of 
two kinds — those made 
with the needle, "point 
a I'aiguelle," and those 
on the pillow, called 
" point plat." Both are 
made distinct from the 
erounds. In the old 
Brussels lace the flow- 
ers were worked into 
the ground ; the pil- 
low-made, or "Brussels 
plat," are sewn on 
or "applied." The 
"modes" or "fillings" 
of Brussels lace are 
peculiarly beautiful, 
and it is also cele- 
brated for the perfec- 
tion of the relief or 
cordonnet which sur- 
rounds the flowers. 
The making of this 
exquisite lace is so 
complicated that each 
process is assigned to 
a separate hand, who 
works only at her own 
department, knowing 
nothing of the gen- 
eral effect to be pro- 
duced by the whole, 
the sole responsibility 





W^"^. 





^^J 



r 'i., 



^W^ '11 




m 



Funiituye Silk : CoUecUve Exhibit of Saxony. 



of which rests with the 
head of the establish- 
ment. 

Examples of all these 
marvelous fabrics were 
shown in the Centen- 
nial collection in the 
Belgian Court, as well 
as specimens from 
other Flemish schools. 
Some of these pieces 
were of great size, as 
this shawl, for instance, 
and others, especially 
in the costliest fabrics, 
were shown in collars, 
cuffs, tan-trimming, etc. 
In many instances, the 
use of a powerful mag- 
nifying-glass was nec- 
essary to distinguish 
the minute intricacies 
of the design. 

The Iron Bedste.'\d, 
illustrated on page 448, 
is another example of 
the excellent orna- 
mental metal-work ex- 
hibited in the English 
Court at the Centen- 
nial. This bedstead 
was manufactured by 
Messrs. Peyton & Pey- 
ton, OF London, and 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



453 



illustrates a method of workmanship too little practised in this country. It is 
of wrought iron, and consequently all the light and graceful scroll ornamenta- 
tion seen in the engraving, although lighter and more open than the like style 
of metal-work common in this country, is incomparably stronger than that, 
because the latter is cast iron, one of the very worst mediums for ornamental 
purposes. Ever^^body knows how common it is to see, in any of our cities, 
fence-railings and step balustrades like this bedstead in ornamental design, 
with unsightly holes and gaps in places where they have been struck, and 





Loiret Faience : French Court. 



frequently a very slight blow is sufficient to make the damage. The trouble 
is that these elaborate designs had been cast and not wrought, and the metal 
in casting had acquired a weak, brittle quality. Wrought iron will bend, but it 
will not break under a blow, and therefore this bedstead, weak as it looks to 
people familiar only with its cast-iron counterparts, will stand any amount of 
rough handling, and if it does get battered out of shape it can always be 
hammered back again to its original proportions. We trust that the day is not 
far distant when this noble branch of metal-working will receive the attention 
it deserves in this country. 

The porcelain of Sevres, its pate tendre and pate dure, is famous the world 



454 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, 1876. 



over, the tormer es- 
peaally as the most 
beautiful and pre- 
cious porcelain ever 
produced. The man- 
ufacture of this dif- 
ficult and costly 
composition was dis- 
continued in the 
beo-innincr of this 
century, and to-day 
specimens of Sevres 
pale tendre are the 
most valued of ce- 
ramic wares. A set 
of three jardinieres, 
ot this fabrique, was 
sold a few years ago 
at auction, in Lon- 
don, for ^10,000 ! 

Sevres pate dure, 
or hard paste, has 
not the same quali- 
ties for artistic en- 
richment tliat the 
soft paste possessed, 
and it is much more 
easily made ; never- 
theless, some of the 
chefs d'ceuvre of the 
potter's art are in 
this material. The 
a Bronze Lamp and 
451. The first of 



Centennial Exhibi- 
tion was tortunate in 
having a collection 
ot specimensof these 
two kinds of Sevres 
ware entrusted to 
the French Commis- 
sion for exhibition 
only. They were ar- 
ranged in Memorial 
Hall in various parts 
of the building, 
where they attracted 
universal attention. 
Our illustration on 
page 449 gives a 
group of six of these 
pieces, showing their 
form and the style 
of decoration ; but 
the pen can no more 
than the pencil con- 
vey the marvelous 
color effects, a depth 
and richness not 
otherwise attainable 
in art, possessed by 
the pate tendre ex- 
amples. 

Two examples of 

the artistic bronzes 

of Luton, of Paris — 

a Bronze Caxdel.\brum — are illustrated on page 450 and 

these has some very fine repousse -work around the bowl 




Fvrniture Silk : Sfianish CourL 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



455 



which contains the oil, and 
is mounted on a stand or 
tripod of classical design 
and gracetul torm. The 
candelabrum is particularly 
graceful, the severity of the 
outline being relieved by 
the pendant chains con- 
necting the brackets with 
the central stem, which rests 
upon a richly ornamented 
base. 

The specimen of Furni- 
ture Silk, from the Collec- 
tive Exhibit of Saxony, 
illustrated on page 452, is 
noteworthy for the richness 
of its design. Here, as in 
many previous instances 
that we have noted, the old 
Pompeiian st\'le of ar- 
ranging vases, garlands, 
bouquets, trophies, and 
other figures in groups, 
one above the other in a 
connected sequence, is seen 
in the designer's disposition 
of this pattern. In the little 
oblong panels at the upper 
and lower end of the strip 
of silk, a bit of figure- 
drawing has been intro- 
duced in the combat of goats. Only an exuberant fancy could have suggested 
anything so novel as this is in connection with the other portions of the design. 




Lace Curiain : M. yacoby &f Co., Nottmgham. 



4S6 



THE INTERNATIONAL EX H I B I TI N, 1 8 76. 



The elegance and elaborate richness of the Loiket Faience is well illus- 
trated in the two examples engraved on page 453, from the Collective Exhibit 
in the French Court. They are essentially objects of ornament, and the artist 
and designer have free scope for their fancy in making them as rich and pleasing 
to the eye as may be. The modeling of these vases is very vigorous, and the 
decoration is rich, varied and spirited. There is charming figure-painting, too, 
of little loves and nymphs, in the broad zones around the bowls, that should 
not escape the observer's attention, as the drawing and composition are excellent. 

The Furniture Silk, shown on page 454 — an example of Spanish design. 




Cameos : Starr ^^ Marcus, New York. 



from the Collective Exhibit of Spain — is one of the most graceful and effective 
realistic treatments of plant-life that was to be seen in the whole range of 
textile desiofns at the Centennial. A close examination will show that the 
drawing is not realistic as a whole, the pattern being made up of repetitions 
of the same series of groups, which in themselves closely imitate nature; yet 
so cleverly are these combined that the general effect is that of a climbing or 
running vine, its branches and tendrils shootiuCT off with the methodical irregu- 
larity of the living plant. 

Another example of English Lace, this time taken from the exhibit of 
M, Jacoby & Co., OF Nottingham, is engraved on page 455. This too is a Lace 
Curtain, decorated with flowers and ferns gracefully arranged in festoons and 
garlands and groups. The treatment of each separate flower and leaf and 
fern spray is realistic to a minute degree, but here the imitation of nature 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 457 



ceases, the designer having disposed of diem in harmonious intervveavings so 
as to cover a surface of a given shape and size to the most advantage. A 
richly-wrought border with medalHons and an edging containing a neat and 
unobtrusive running pattern complete this elaborate piece of work. 

Three examples of the superb collection of Cameos, exhibited by Starr & 
Marcus, of New York, are engraved on page 456. These exquisite works of 
art, more precious in the estimation of many than gems, because their art- 
excellence cannot be counterfeited, were among the most attractive features of 
the display of ardcles coming within the province of the jewelers. In cut 
cameos the New York exhibit was decidedly the finest in the Exhibition, 
though the French Court contained several choice specimens. 

The part played by the love of decoration in the development of civiliza- 
tion is much greater than persons who have given the subject no attention 
imagine ; and it is no idle fancy that has given the diamond the first place 
among decorative objects. It is the most perfectly beautiful gem produced by 
nature. It has been happily described as embodied light. So far," if we except 
the minute particles claimed as diamonds produced by some European chemists, 
it has defied all efforts of man to reproduce it, although it has been closely 
imitated. Experiments to discover its nature and composition were begun long 
ago. About one hundred years since, a certain French jeweler denied that a 
diamond would burn, and in his confidence placed a magnificent jewel in coal 
in a crucible. In three hours it had disappeared. Had he known enough to 
enclose the stone from the air, he might have heated it as hot as he chose 
without injury to the gem. Indeed, diamonds are sometimes increased in bril- 
liancy by this process ; but it is not an experiment we would advise any of 
our amateur readers to attempt. How the diamond comes into existence is a 
much more interesting question than how it may be destroyed ; but though there 
are many theories on the subject, nothing is positively determined as yet. 

The largest diamonds in existence are thought to be the Braganza, in the 
crown of Portugal, and the Borneo gem, belonging to the Rajah of Mattan. 
Mr. Streeter, in his book on "Precious Stones and Gems," states that the 
Braganza weighs 1680 carats, and if it is genuine, about which there seems to 
be some doubt, it is worth nearly ^60,000,000 ; at least these are the printed 
figures. The Borneo diamond has been the occasion of many battles, and at 



458 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 




Silver F,iiry Table : Elkington ^ Co., Birmingham. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



459 



one time two men-of-war and ^150,000 were offered for it by a governor of 
Batavia, but the Rajah regards it as a tahsman, and will not sell it. It is said 
to weio-h 367 carats. It must be remembered that a diamond before it is cut 
and after it is cut is a very different thing ; and the advantages of cutting are 




Silver Fairy Plaque ( Top') : Elkington (5^ Co., BirmlnghaTn. 



not always very plain. Competent judges are of the opinion that the Koh-i-noor 
has not been increased in brilliancy to an extent sufficient to make up for the 
loss in weight by cutting. When this famous diamond was brought to England 
it weighed i86 carats, but it has since been ground down to nearly half that 
weight. It is believed that at some remote date this gem weighed within a 
fraction of 800 carats. Had the possessors of this marvelous jewel been 



460 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



content with its natunil irregularity of outline, this enormous sacrifice of weight 
and vaUie to secure regularity and symmetry would not have been made. 

In some cases, however, diamonds gain largely in worth by cutting, and 
this is especially the case with the smaller stones. No one who looked upon 
the glittering array of facetted brilliants exhibited by Starr & Marcus, of New 
York, in their Court at the Centennial, could regret the cutting and polishing 




Fre7ick Pottery : French Court. 



processes that resulted in the production of these superb jewels. In the examples 
of Diamond Jewelry from the exhibit made by this firm, which we illustrate on 
page 456, no one can be blind to the beauty of the royal stone, transfigured 
by the cunning art of the lapidary into the most sparkling brilliant. 

Among the many and important works of art metal-work exhibited by the 
Messrs. Elkington & Co., of Birmingham, at the Centennial Exhibidon, the 
Silver Fairy Table, illustrated on page 458, held a prominent place, both on 
account of its beaudful design and exquisite workmanship. The general form 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



461 




Crystal Chandelier : ya?nes Green ^ Nephew, London. 



462 THE INTERNATIONAL EX H I B I Tl O N, 1S76. 

of this beautiful ornament is a circular top with a raised and embossed border, 
supported by a baluster-shaped shaft upon a three-footed base. The entire 
surface of the table within the bounds ot the circular border is enriched with 
a charming composition representing a procession of fairies and cupids. There 
are more than twenty figures in this group, each one of which is a model of 
graceful spirit and design. Not the least meritorious part of the work is the 
admirable harmony of outline that the artist has secured in the flowing drapery 
and Sweeping curves of the limbs of his figures. The whole of this design is 
a model of happy invention and artistic skill. From the centre of the table-top 
rises a fairy statuette, modeled with rare grace and symmetry. Tlxe shaft of 
the table is covered with low relief ornamentation of a floral character. Seated 
about the base of the stand are three fiijures — a troubadour, a knight-errant 
and a page — which are wrought in an exceedingly graceful and spirited manner. 
The pose of each is admirable, and the artist has invested them with an indi- 
viduality rarely equaled in compositions of this kind. 

On page 460 we illustrate a group of French Pottery — porcelain and 
faience — which have features of special excellence. The vase on the left hand 
is one of the Sevres collection, to which reference has been already made, and 
is a beautiful illustration of the artistic and technical excellence of the products 
of the famous Sevres factory. The upper portion of the vase is decorated 
with a sacrificial scene, such as is often found illustrated on classical vessels 
and in the frescoes of rooms. The drawing of the figures is very delicate 
and subtle. The body of the vessel is enriched with a species of ornament 
which, when judiciously employed, gives very rich effects. This ornament con- 
sists of a series of twisted ovolo mouldings, which, springing from a common 
centre at the base of the vase, wind up around the bowl. These ovolos are 
of a rich turquoise blue color, with gold stars and fern patterns gilded upon 
the surface. The same rich color forms a ground for the decoration about the 
stem of the vase. Around the edge of the base is a scroll design made up 
of beautiful curves interwoven in a fanciful pattern of peculiar beauty. 

The middle object of the group is in the shape of one of those shallow 
cups having an enriched stem which were commonly made during the sixteenth 
century as decorative articles of luxury, and called Presentoirs. This vessel, it 
is true, has a cover, which Presentoirs had not, but m all other respects it has 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



463 



the characteristics of those articles. It is enriched with enamel-painting after 
the style of Limoges, a town in the south of France, which was particularly 




Carpet: Tompkinson &• Adams, Kidderminster. 



distinguished during the twelfth century for the beauty of its enamel-work. One 
of its peculiarities was the adoption of a transparent color, usually blue, 



464 THE INTERNATIONAL EN II I B I TI N, 1 S 7 6. 

enriched by small transparent globules on silver spangles, which gave a gem- 
like appearance to the work. The application of this style of enamel to a 
porcelain surface gives wonderfully rich and beautiful effects, but the process is 
one of such extreme difficulty that perfect work is rarely attained. 

The third figure of the group is one of the charming faience vases 
exhibited by Haviland, of Limoges, and painted in a style to which he has 
given the name of the town. The artistic excellence of this work- is so ereat 
that it is not impossible that the Limoges faience will have an art influence on 
our times comparable with the influence of the Limoges enamels, which we 
have spoken of above, on the fashions of their day. The characteristics of the 
Haviland artistic faience are an extraordinary breadth and vigor of drawing, 
and effective if not always harmonious color qualities. The clay of which these 
vessels are composed is of a coarse quality, but of a nature well adapted to 
decorative treatments. The forms of the objects are almost always good and 
of simple, severe outline, which we would not look for among a people who 
are so fond of rich, voluptuous curves and elaborate ornamentation. 

Although the glass-workers of Bohemia are eminent for the brilliant color- 
effects which they produce in glass, and for the exquisite grace and delicacy 
of their blown glass, in another style — the production of fine fiint and crystal, 
and a glass of almost absolute transparency as well as great brilliancy, they 
are' rivaled by the English manufacturers. The cut glass of England is especially 
famous for the perfection of the "metal," which is of almost limpid purity, and 
the heavy and refractive cutting into facet and diamond patterns, which 
increases the brilliancy of the metal, just as similar cutting affects a diamond 
or other gem. 

The largest and most important collection of glass shown by any English 
firm at the Centennial was that made by James Green & Son, of London, 
from which display we have chosen a Crystal Chandelier, engraved on page 
461, as illustrating the particular excellence, pointed out above, of English glass. 
The lustres in this chandelier are superb examples of facet-cutting, and no 
more gorgeous object can be imagined than this gracefully-shaped pendant 
when it is in use and reflecting the prismatic colors in a myriad tremulous 
scintillations of sparkling points of light. 

Another of Tompkinson & Adams's admirably designed Kidderminster 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



465 



•vMi 



L'*i*..*rf|,- 



.<ti 



^£-#v 



K 



^ 

a 






> ir 



-M/i 









^ 






£fe^ 



Sti^l 



trench Coirr^. 



Carpets is illustrated on 
page 463. The several 
patterns, whether of con- 
ventionalized flowers and 
leaves, as seen in the centre 
ground and on the broad 
stripe in the border, or of 
simpler forms in the nar- 
rower stripes, are well 
worthy of observation as 
examples of well-consid- 
ered and appropriate de- 
sign. The beauty of these 
designs in the example 
before us was enhanced by 
the careful avoidance of 
glaring and garish colors, 
and a prevalence of second- 
ary and tertiary tints and 
shades. 

In the art of tapestry- 
makinsf, which is allied to 
carpet-making, the French 
have for years excelled, es- 
pecially in the richness of 
their designs. On this page 
we illustrate two beautiful 
examples of this art se- 
lected from the exhibition 
of Tapestries in the French 
Court at the Centennial. 



m 



Tapestry : French Court. 



The patterns, which though not exactly alike, have sufficient similarity to be 
considered together, are remarkably elegant and effective. In an arched arbor, 
about which is wreathed a climbing vine, stands an antique vase filled with 



466 



THE IXTERNATWXAL EXH IB ITION, i S 7 6. 



brilliantly -colored flow- 
ers. From the garlands 
above depend long ropes 
of evergreen, from which 
are suspended bunches 
of fruit and flowers and 
vessels and trophies sug- 
gestive of the vintagfe, the 
chase and rural sports. 
In the arrangement and 
distribution of these 
groups, the influence of 
a study of the Pom- 
peiian style of wall-deco- 
ration on the part of the 
designer is plainly visible. 
A characteristic work, 
both in the object itself 
and in its enrichment, is 
the Persian Kalian, or 
water tobacco-pipe, com- 
monly called a Hookah, 
illustrated on this page. 
It consists of an earthen 
head, in which the to- 
bacco and coal are 
placed ; of a long orna- 
mented stem running 
down into the bowl 
which contains the water, 
and of the flexible stem 
made by wrapping small 
perforated wooden discs 
in a closely twisted or 



m 



Acvj/ ;;; K'diui'i : Persian Court. 



woven covering. The 
bowl in this case is of 
copper metal damas- 
cened with silver, and is 
of the shape of the an- 
cient amphorse of the 
Romans. This shape, 
although used here sim- 
ply for its beauty, was 
adopted originally in 
order that the smoker 
could stick his pipe in 
the ground anywhere 
that he chose to rest and 
enjoy the solace of the 
narcotic weed. A Ro- 
man or Greek amphora 
had a pointed shape for 
a like reason — ?. e., that 
it could be stuck upright 
in the ground anywhere. 
The tripod stand and 
hollow pedestal for hold- 
ine these vessels were 
a later invention. 

On page 467 we illus- 
trate three specimens of 
Egyptian Saddlery, 
which e.xhibit the skill 
of Egyptian workmen 
in several branches of 
industry, but especially 
in leather decoration. 
Examples of this are 



fXDUSTRIAL ART. 



467 




Harness, Two Saddles and a Bridle : Egyptian Department. 



468 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

seen in the tooled work and the gilding and color enrichments on the saddle and 
bridle shown on the preceding page, which are evidently intended to be used 
together. In the other saddle the design appears to have been stamped in the 
leather. In the ornamentation of this but little gilding or color has been used, 
strips of gilt braid supplying their place. The horn and cantel of this saddle are 
of wood, richly carved and inlaid and bound about with metal. The saddle-cloths 
are richly embroidered with gold and colored threads and adorned with gay 
trappings. The bridle is furnished with a ring-bit, an instrument of torture to 
the horse in the hands of any but horsemen accustomed to using it. But to 
go back again to a consideration of the leather-work, we find it, aside from the 
novel shapes of the saddles, the most interesting thing in these objects. It 
represents an art that dates from the most remote period. Its manufacture in 
the middle ages became an important branch of industry, and numerous imple- 
ments of war and useful and ornamental articles were made of leather. At a 
very early date, the method of ornamenting this material by impressing patterns 
on its surface was known. The process consisted of softening the leather by 
boiling, stamping it while in that condition, and then letting it dry and harden. 
The beautiful leather hangings, known as tapisseries de ciiir-dore or de cuir- 
argente, of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, now treasured in museums, 
were at one time a favorite style of wall-hangings among the wealthy classes 
of western and southern Europe. Some of these were decorated with patterns 
stamped in a mould, gilded, and afterwards burnished ; but the more costly 
hangings had the designs wrought by hand-labor, the surface of the leather 
being chased with a wooden tool and the gilding and color applied afterwards. 
Relief figures and compositions as large as the side of a room were produced 
in this way, some of them were very elaborate in design as well as artistically 
beautiful. 

The examples of wood-carving exhibited by Luigi Frullini, in the Italian 
Court at the Centennial, have been very fully illustrated in these pages. As 
specimens of artistic design and technical skill in execution they were very 
remarkable. On page 470 we engrave, as another example of this industrious 
artist's work, a Carved Cabinet, that illustrates his fine methods of ornamenta- 
tion. With him arabesque designs have again been restored to something like 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 469 



the purity and grace they possessed before the gaudy taste of the Bourbons 
stimulated the decorative artists of those times to overload their designs in this 
style with decorative convolutions, until all meaning and propriety vi^as hidden 
or lost in a wearisome intricacy of detail. 

Not the least noticeable decorative features in this cabinet are the panels 
just below the entablature. Here, the simple convolutions of the scroll take 
an elegant curve, fanciful in character, but following the lines of the antique 
vase in the centre, which is the foundation of the ornament. In the execution 
of this work, the chiseling is so fine and dexterous that the piece is a curiosity 
as well as a work of art. 

From the Collective Exhibit of Germany we illustrate, on page 471, two 
Leather Card-Cases, which exhibit in their ornamentation much skill in design 
and workmanship. The designs are not only artistic in themselves, but they are 
of a kind well adapted for the material and the use to which they are put. This 
peculiar style of ornament, called strap-work, from its resemblance to narrow 
fillets or bands crossed and folded and interlaced, originated at a very early 
period and was extensively adopted for decorative purposes in Europe, particu- 
larly in Germany, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. It is also a prevailing 
characteristic of the style of the late Renaissance, and has retained its favor 
among decorators ever since. 

Another of the fine art works of the Messrs. Elkington, of Birmingham, 
England, is seen in our illustration on page 472. This is a Bronze Statueite, 
representing the capture of the Arcadian Stag by Hercules. It is so artistically 
and technically admirable, that it may be classed as an example of the best 
skill in English art bronze work. Around the side of the pedestal are a series 
of panels, with designs executed in low relief, representing the other labors of 
the hero. 

The Ph.-eton Cup, engraved on page 473, is still another of the art objects 
in the superb collection of metal-work exhibited by the Messrs. Elkington at 
the Centennial. The cup is of silver, enriched with repotcsse-viork, chasing, and 
damascening in steel. We shall simply call the reader's attention to the several 
flowers in the ornamentation of the handles to the vase, and then leave to him 
the pleasure of discovering the elaborations of the artist's theme in the enrich- 
ment of this charming- work. 



470 



THE IN TERN A TI NA L ENHJB I TI N, 1876. 



On page 474 we engrave an illustration of the Ml'sica X'ase, obtained for 
exhibition at the Centennial by the French commissioners as an example of 
the famous Sevres porcelain. This vase is of the hard porcelain or pale dure 
variety. The quality of the material is of superlative excellence, but this very 
excellence Is a serious obstacle to its decoration. It is impossible to get in 
hard porcelain anything approaching the rich color effects that make Sevres' soft 
porcelain or pate tendre so splendid. Indeed, the colors on hard porcelain do 




Walnut Cabinet: Frullini, Milan. 



not appear to sink in at all, but rather to lie on the surface. Looking at the 
paintings one might think almost to discover their impasto. 

It is to be regretted that the collection of pottery and porcelain exhibited 
in the Chinese Court at the Centennial was not only crowded together and 
badly arranged, but that no satisfactory information regarding it could be had 
from the people in charge concerning it. In these regards it formed a marked 
contrast to the corresponding exhibit in Japan, where everything w^as in order 
and convenient of access, and the attendants were ready and qualified to give 
information concerning everything shown. The confusion in the Chinese Court 
was the more deplorable because the porcelain there contained many really fine 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



47 1 



pieces, both ancient and modern, and a large number of reproductions of early 
styles of great interest to the student. On page 475 we engrave an illustra- 
tion of a Porcelain Vase, painted in polychrome and gilded, which is a 
characteristic example of the ware made for exportation. On one side of this 




Leather Card-Cases : Collective Exhibit of Germany. 



vase we have a design in the traditional style of decoration, and on another 
a composition in which European taste is catered to. 

The much maligned Queen Anne' style of furniture is happily illustrated 
in the Table, engraved on page 476, which was manufactured by Messrs. 
Wright & Mansfield, of London. This firm made an extensive exhibit of 
furniture of various kinds; a specialty of their work, however, being objects in 
this and so-called Eastlake styles. The notable feature in this table is the 



472 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIB ITION, 1S76. 

i 



inlaying of blaciv and colored woods, called Marquetry. The medallions in the 
panels of the lower drawers are executed with considerable skill, and the 
general effect is highly artistic. 

Our engraving on page 477 illustrates Egyptian Vases and other arti- 
cles mostly exhibited by the National Museum and The Bazaar, at Cairo. 
The group contains several styles and varieties of vessels copied after old 



Egyptian pat- 
terns, in sim- 
driedand baked 
clay, with color 
and incised dec- 
orations. Some 
of the decora- 
tions are in Per- 
sian style and 
very effective. 
A pipe, of char- 
acteristic Turk- 
ish shape, is 
added to the 
group, and also 
one of the beau- 
tit ul bronze 
hanging lamps 
which are in use 




Bronze: Elklii^ton, London. 



in the mosques 
of Egypt. 

The exhibit 
ot artistic and 
decorative pot- 
tery from the 
Minton, Wor- 
cester and Coal- 
brookdale pot- 
teries made by 
their agents, the 
Messrs. A. B. 
Daniell&Son, 
OF London, at 
the Centennial, 
measurably 
supplied the 
place of sepa- 
rate exhibits by 



those famous factories, and brought togfether within the limits of their cases a 
collection of ceramic wares unsurpassed in variety and beauty by any other 
exhibitor or agent in the English or any other Court. We have already given 
our readers illustrations of many of the chefs d'cezivre of this fine collection, 
but the number is by no means exhausted. On page 478 we engrave a Fruit 
Stand, one of the decorative pieces in majolica, made by Minton to the order 
of the Messrs. Daniell. This piece is remarkable for its vigorous and artistic 
modeling, and is especially commendable for the beauty of its colors, which 
indicate a conquest of great technical difficulties and rare skill in potting. The 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



473 



finish of the work also is admirable ; all the outlines of the vessel and the 
contours of the figures being sharp and well defined. 

One of the most remarkable and precious articles shown at the Centennial 
was the Glass Hanging Lamp, exhibited by the National Museum, of Cairo, 
in the Egyptian Court, which we illustrate on page 479. It is one of the very 




Phczton Cup : Elkington &' Co., London. 



few known specimens of enameled glass lamps for mosques, some of the 
thirteenth century work, which were made by the expert glass-blowers of that 
period. In one of his lectures on "Arts Museums," delivered by Dr. Chris- 
topher Drener, in the Academy of the Fine Arts, under the auspices of the 
Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art, that gentleman made an 
interesting mention of a similar specimen to the one engraved above. 

"A most striking illustration," he said, "of the usefulness of museum 
specimens is found in the beautiful work of Brocard, of Paris. An Arabian 



474 



THE INTERNATIONAL EX H I B ITI N, iSj6. 



lamp was added a few years since to the collections of the Louvre. It was 
formed of transparent and nearly colorless glass, which was richly figured with 
characteristic ornaments traced in enamel colors and grold. It was brought, I 




"~^^lii)!l!!i,i!:!i';|i;:;;il;iili 



li'lllli'Llli'lMI 



Sevres Vase; French Court, 

believe, from a mosque in Cairo, and was thirteenth century work; a sjDecimen 
of a manufacture altogether new to Europe, and it was undoubtedly artistic. 
No sooner was it exposed in the museum than it attracted the attention and 
elicited the admiration of M. Brocard. But this man did not content himself 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



475 



with simply admiring it; he at once attempted its reproduction, and, happily, 
after many attempts, he succeeded in founding an art which is most creditable 
to France. Brocard, however, did not merely commence the manufacture of 
lamps now no longer useful, but devoted his best efforts to the production of 




Porcelain Vase: Chinese Court. 



objects calculated to meet modern wants ; and thus a new manufacture has 
arisen in France from the object of one object into the national museum." 

We are pleased to be able to make place for this note here, as it is a 
noteworthy answer to many who are disposed to underrate the present move- 
ment in this country in favor of art museums and industrial art education. 
There is no denying the fact that if the United States is to gain and maintain 
a place in the markets of the world for manufactured articles of any descrip- 



476 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



tion into which artistic design enters, that we must provide schools of art 
instruction and art museums in the sfreat commercial and manufacturinsj centres 
of the country. And the sooner our manufacturers awaken to the necessity of 
this and act accordingly, the better it will be for the community. In this city 
we have the above-mentioned Museum and School of Industrial Art now in 
active operation, and in regard to this new manufacture of Brocard, which was 
not shown at the Centennial, any one interested in the subject can see at the 




Console : Wright &• Mansfield, London. 



museum a case of his superb ware, which the museum committee have obtained 
for the use of the students. 

Recurring again to the exhibit of the Messrs. Elkington, of Birmingham, 
England, we have selected for illustration on page 480 a group of Artistic 
Metal-Work, consisting of an Iron Tazza, with silver and copper enrichments; 
a large Flower Dish with water channels between raised ornamented zones ; 
and a Silver Tazza, in repousse-work, named from the subject the "Impruden- 
tia." Each of these articles is a masterpiece in its way, and contributes to the 
great reputation of the Messrs. Elkington as artistic metal-workers. The 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



A77 




central figure of the group, 
the Flower-Dish, is charm- 
ingly ornamented around the 
outer rim with medallion 
figure-subjects symbolical of 
the months. Nothing could 
be more graceful and spirited 
than the poses of the female 
figures, nor more happily 
conceived than the manner in 
which the zodiacal signs are 
introduced, and the subject 
in its entirety treated. These 
medallions illustrate the first 
six months of the year — July 
and the remaining months 
beinof figured in a like manner 
on the other plaque which 
matches the one shown in 
our illustration. In the centre 
of the dish are a bevy of 
pretty little cupids, flower- 
wreathed and rose-crowned. 
As is the case with all of the 
Elkington's art -work, the 
delicacy of the workmanship and the fine execution 
purity and elegance of the designs. 



I 



I 






are quite equal to the 



478 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i8j6. 



A characteristic feature of the display of jewelry, gold and silver personal 
ornaments, etc., in the Italian Court at the Centennial, was the filigree work, 
principally from Genoa. This beautiful style of working the precious metals, a 
style that is of the highest antiquity, is nowhere at the present day carried to 
such a degree of perfection in delicacy and grace of treatment as in Italy. 
The Eastern nations have for ages been remarkable for their proficiency in this 
kind of metal-work, and in certain particulars the oriental filigrees excel those 



of Europe ; but the 
exquisite arabesques 
and flowers of Italian 
filigree, wrought on 
a ground of lace-like 
minuteness, have a 
beauty peculiarly 
their own. In old 
times, among the 
Italians, who revived 
this delicate art, it 
was the fashion to 
place beads upon 
wire used in form- 
ing the design, and 
hence, according to 




Fruit Stand : Daniell 6^ Son, London. 



Dr. Ure, the word 
filigrana, {rovc\.filiiin 
and £-raJi2(m, or gran- 
ulated net-work. On 
page 479 we give an 
illustration of mod- 
ern Italian filigree, in 
a Card-Case, made 
by C. Salvo & Son, 
OF Genoa, whose ex- 
hibit was particularly 
rich in this style of 
work. 

The luxurious and 
exuberant fancy of 
French designers, 



who unquestionably excel those of any other European nation as decorative 
artists, was illustrated in a thousand different ways at the Centennial, but in no 
one particular, perhaps, was it so apparent as in the designs for surface deco- 
ration, such as wall-hangings, curtains, furniture-covers, etc. Some of the latter 
were of such costly stuffs, and so elaborately enriched, that they suggested a 
return to the prodigality and extravagance of living that obtained in the gor- 
geous reign of the fourteenth Louis. Some of these examples of what the 
fertile fancy of the decorator of textiles could accomplish were removed, by the 
dignity and merit of the design, from among productions of utility to the 
sphere of the Fine Arts. On page 481 we give an engraving of one of these, 
a Furniture Silk, that is particularly admirable. It does not occur to us, in 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



479 



regarding this fine composition, to consider the durabiUty of the fabric or its 
possible subjection to wear and tear; and, indeed, in any but a palatial apart- 
ment this elaborate work would be more appropriate as a wall-fresco than as 
an ornament to a chair-back. The original, however, belongs to a set of fur- 
niture-silks, exhibited in the French Court at the Centennial, each one of which 
has its separate ornament, designed to cover a space of the shape required by 
the article of furniture to be upholstered. 




Glass Hanging Lamp : Egyptian Court. 




On page 482 we engrave a group of objects from the India collection in 
the British section of the Exhibition, illustrative of certain of the industrial 
arts obtaining in that country. Here are hats and baskets of cane and straw, 
specimens of ivory, and objects in lacquered wood. The method of lacquering, 
as described by Mr. Watson, the Director of the India Museum, is as follows : 
The object to be lacquered is turned from hard wood, usually shisham. After 
being smoothed and cleaned, it is again fixed in the turner's frame (a kind of 
lathe worked by hand), and made to rotate. The sticks of lacquer color, con- 
sisting of a mixture of lac, resin, coloring matter, and, it is said, a certain 
proportion of sulphur and bees-wax, are then applied to the rotating object ; 



48o 



THE INTERXATIOXAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 




the heat produced by friction is sufficient to soften the lacquer composition, 
which attaches itself to the wood, producing, however, a dull and streaky 
appearance. When sufficient color has been applied, the surface of the article 
is skillfully rubbed with a piece of bamboo having a fine edge, by which the 
color is evenly distributed, and a polish produced, which is finally completed 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



481 



^■^ 




Furniliirc Siik : French Court. 



482 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, iSj6. 




\ 



» 



Group of Objects from Egyptian Court. 



with oiled rags. To produce the mottled appearance so much admired, a color 
stick of a rather harder composition than that used for producing a uniform 
color is tightly pressed against the rotating object, so as to detach a point 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



483 



here and there. This is repeated with sticks of different colors, and when suf- 
ficient color has been laid on, the object is polished with bamboo edges and 
oiled rags. 

Here also are musical instruments, a horn, wind instruments, instruments 




yewel Casket : Salvo &• Co., Genoa. 




Damascened Casket: Elkwgton ^ Co.. Birmingham . 



of percussion, and a kettle-drum ; a saddle and several pieces of pottery from 
Scinde. The method of making this ware, according to the authority already 
referred to, is to shape the vessels on the wheel while the clay is clamp and 
dough-like. After the vessels have dried, they are again put on the wheel, and 



484 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, 1S76 



finished by means of an iron tool. Tlie vessels having been sun-dried, may 
then be sent to the kiln, after which the required pattern is traced on them in 
the following manner : A perforated paper pattern is placed upon the article, 
and powdered charcoal sprinkled over it. On removing the paper, the pattern 
remains on the earthenware, and is then brushed over with a solution called 
"sahree" (a paste made from a peculiar kind of clay mixed with water). When 
this is dry, glaze of the required color is prepared and poured over it, the article 
is then allowed to dry again, after which it is placed in the glazing-kiln, and 
subjected to the required amount of heat. The articles are not removed until 
the kilns are cold. 



Other objects 
in this group 
are an idol of 
carved stone, 
specimens of 
dyed matting 
and bamboo, 
and a frame 
painted in a style 
illustrative of In- 
dian architectu- 
ral decoration. 




Steel Casket ; M. E. PhiUipe, Paris. 



Another ex- 
ample of Geno- 
ese goldsmith- 
work, by Messrs. 
Salvo & Co., is 
the beautiful in- 
laid Jewel Cas- 
ket, illustrated 
on page 483. 
Our readers will 
remember the 
filieree Card- 



Case, manufactured by this firm, which we illustrated on page 479, as a specimen 
of a characteristic and favorite style of workmanship in Italian personal orna- 
ments and small objects in the precious metals ; but this casket is ornamented 
in a way, though commonly practised among oriental nations, unusual in Europe, 
and as such is noteworthy. The panels on the sides of the box, as well as 
those on the lid, are covered with delicate scroll traceries, figures and gro- 
tesques, inlaid with white metal in the bronze. This was done by first engraving 
the design to be inlaid in the surface of the bronze and cutting out the spaces 
to be inlaid. The metallic composition was then melted and poured over the 
bronze so as to fill these lines and spaces. When the metal has cooled, the 
surface is rubbed down and polished, and the sharp edges of the bronze closed 
down about the inlay, so as to make the two metals adhere closely together. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



48s 



On the same page we engrave a Casket, made by Elkington & Co., of 
Birmingham, Exgland, that, besides some beautifully modeled figures in the 
round and in repousse, is farther ornamented with work that resembles the 
inlaying described above, but which is a variety of damascening. Here the 
design is cut according to the pattern in the surface ot the metal to be deco- 




Punck-Cup : Ovchiniknff, Russia. 




Enamgled Pldi'juc : Rus^um Court. 



Enameled Antique Reproduction : Elkiitgton &= Co., Binninglwm. 



rated, after which a thin plate of gold is laid over the design, and hammered 
and burnished into it, forcing down the edges of the enclosing metal, obliter- 
ating the incisions, and restoring the original polish. The Messrs. Elkington 
exhibited several methods of damascening in their superb display of metal- 
work. Beside that just described, there were examples of damascening by 
simply gilding the surface with gold-leaf, and fixing it to the metal by bur- 
nishing. A third method was by incrustation, a process in which channels are 
cut in the metal, into which gold or silver wire is hammered and afterwards 



486 THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

rubbed down. The most artistic and elaborate of these damascenings, shown 
by the Elkingtons, are not their own \vork, but are done for them in Spain, 
by the metal-sculptor Zoloaga, who is unrivaled in this particular branch of 
his art. 

Among French goldsmiths this kind of work is largely practised, and in 
some instances with distinguished success. A particularly fine example, made 
by M. E. Phillipe, of Paris, is the Steel Casket, engraved on page 4S4. The 
tracing in this design is of the most elaborate character and exquisitely minute, 
yet each hair-stroke of the graver has its complement of gold inlay welded, so 
to speak, into the steel surface. 

On page 485 we engrave two specimens of enameled metal-work, from 
Russia — a specialty in the display of the goldsmith-work of that nation that 
attracted universal admiration. The official report on this department of the 
Exhibition says of this work that "the radiant beauty of the gem-like enameling 
upon gold and silver and gilded silver utensils in Greek, Byzantine and Russian 
taste, were such marvelous illustrations of the capabilities and truly artistic 
fancy of Russian artisans as would have awakened the enthusiasm of a Benve- 
nuto Cellini and that of the historical Palissy, the famed enameler of Limoges." 
Higher praise than this could not readily be expressed, and in truth one rarely 
finds such superlative expressions used officially. Certain it is, however, that 
the Russian enamels were exceedingly brilliant, and some of them, especially 
the translucent enamels, eoreeous in color, and often, indeed, "gfem-like" in 
effect. The artistic excellence of the designs showed that Russian artisans 
possess decided talent of an original kind, as well as the ability to design in 
the more refined, if less vigorous, styles of Western and Southern Europe. 

On pages 487 and 488 we engrave the Aurora and Crepuscule Plaques, 
made by the Messrs. Elkington & Co., of Birmingham, England, which, though 
the last of our series of illustrations of the art metal-works of this famous firm 
in the Exhibition, are deserving to rank in artistic design and skilful execution 
with the best of their more elaborate works which we have already engraved. 
The design of the plaques suggest Thorwalsden's famous "Night and Morning," 
but there is nothing more than the suggestion. The composition is original if 
the idea is not, and the modeling of the figures is exquisite. They have the 
rare proportions and matchless symmetry of classical forms, expressed with rare 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



487 



individuality and grace. One does not know which to admire tlae more — the 
bright sunHt atmosphere and animated expression in the Aurora, or the subdued 
twiHght effect, the reposeful feeling pervading the Crepuscule. It is marvelous 
to think that these forms of beauty have been beaten into shape, blow by blow, 
with a hammer — each stroke upon the snarling-iron making an indentation in 




Aurora Plaque: Elklngton &' Co., Birmingham. 



the metal which produces finally the raised design. Simple as it is in itself, we 
would direct the reader's attention to the plain steel band, studded with stars, 
around the central medallion, as one of those fine touches where the highest 
art is shown by the use of the simplest methods. The rounded rims of these 
plaques, which form a shield for the surface of the central design, are enriched 
with a damascened foliated scroll figure, sufficiently rich and graceful to make a 
harmonious setting, but not so elaborate as to distract the attention from the 
subject of which they are only the frames. 



488 



THE IXTERXATIONAL EXHIBITIOX, 1876. 



Our engraving on page 489 of Jewelry, diamonds and odier precious stones, 
set in the precious metals, from the exhibits in the United States Department 
at the Exhibition, worthily illustrates a branch of manufacture in which American 
work shows an artistic skill and excellence worthily comparable with the best 
that Europe can show. The official report certifies to the fact that "the better 




CrefuscuU Plaque : Elkington ^ Co., Birmingham. 



examples — though few — of American jewelry equaled those of any other nation 
as to display of taste, mechanical execution, or quality of material." 

The Peacock's Feather, which forms the central object of the group on 
page 489, was one of the most elaborate pieces of diamond jewelry shown in 
the Exhibition. It is intended to be worn as an ornament for the hair, and the 
back shows an elaborate net-Avork of sold, with numberless interstices through 
which the play of light may add brilliancy to the diamonds. The eye of the 
feather is formed of a single stone of peculiar brilliancy and beauty, which has 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



489. 



been long known to connoisseurs as the Brunswick yellow diamond. It was a 
favorite gem of the eccentric Duke of Brunswick, and he is said to have refused 
















Jewelry : United Slates Court, Main Building. 



twelve thousand pounds sterling for it. The color is a delicate lemon yellow, 
little unlike the brownish "off color" of the African stones that have become 



490 



THE INTERNATIONAL EX II I B I T 1 N, 1 8 7 6. 



so plentiful within the last few years. On the death of the Duke, his vast 
collection of jewels was sold at auction in Geneva, and this stone was then 
purchased by one of the house of Tiffany & Co. Immediately surrounding 
this singular gem, which weighs thirty carats, is a circlet of smaller diamonds, 
nearly like the central stone in color. The outer circle of the setting of these 
gems is of red gold with a fringe of platinum, and the effect of the combina- 
tion of colors is highly pleasing. Though the setting is heavy enough to be 




Faience: Count von Thutt. Austria. 



perfectly strong, an unusual lightness and feathery appearance is produced by 
means of numerous joints and springs which cause a quivering movement at 
the slightest vibration, and reflect the light in a myriad of scintillating, dazzling 
points. This superb jewel contains six hundred diamonds, and may well be 
regarded as a masterpiece of diamond-setting. 

Among the other specimens of jewelry on this page are a pair of perfectly 
matched diamonds, of the first water, set as solitaires for ear-rings in as deli- 
cate a manner as is consistent with security. A favorite style of jewelry at the 
present time are the flower shapes and patterns shown in our illustration. Some 
of these are exquisite, as where a diamond simulates a drop of dew upon a 
leaf, or where pearls are so set as to appear like snowdrops or berries. On 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



491 




Carpet : Tompkinson &• Adams, Kidderminster. 



one leaf is an insect, its body of gems as resplendent in color as Nature's own 
handiwork. 

On page 490 we engrave three pieces of ornamental Faience from the 
exhibit of Count von Thun, made at his potteries in Klosterie, Bohemia, and 



492 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, 1S76. 



shown in the Austrian Court at the Centennial. These works show, in several 
respects, the good influence of the Imperial Austrian Museum of Art and 
Industry, at Vienna, and are especially noteworthy for the excellence of their 



contours and the vig- 
orous modeling of the 
relief ornamentation. 
The vase on the right 
hand of this group 
was one of the most 
brilliant pieces of 
color decoration in 
the Count von Thun's 
collection, and a tri- 
umph of the potter's 
skill in this regard. 
The designs, too, are 
rich and elegantly 
conceived, and the 
handles, in the shape 
of leaf- tendrils, are 
charmingly conven- 
tionalized. 

The Kiddermin- 
ster Carpet, manu- 
factured by ToMPKiN- 
SON & Adams, shown 



m our enofravmsf on 




Cabinet : English Court. 



mental design formu- 
lated by the South 
Kensington Museum 
School and other 
places of a like na- 
ture in England, that 
a reference to some 
of these principles, as 
laid down by a writer 
of recognized author- 
ity, Gilbert R. Red- 
o-rave, who was for 
some time Inspector- 
General for Art, 
Science and Art 
Department, South 
Kensington, will be 
interesting and in- 
structive in this con- 
nection. 

In his "Manual 
of Design," a book 
which all students of 
the subject should 
carefully peruse, Mr. 
Redgrave, speaking 
of paper and other 



page 491, illustrates 
so admirably the new 
principles of orna- 
hangings, says that if the use of such materials is borne in mind, the proper deco- 
ration for them will at once be evident, since materials of this class ought to 
bear the same reladon to the objects In the room that a background does to a 
picture. In art, a background, if well designed, has its own distinctive features, 



INDUSTRIAL ART. ^ 493 



yet these are to be so far suppressed and subdued as not to invite especial 
attention ; while as a whole it ought to be entirely subservient to supporting 
and enhancing the principal figures — the subject of the picture. The decoration 
of a wall, if designed in good principles, has a like office : it is a background 
to the furniture, the objects of art, and the occupants of the apartment. This 
law applies in the same measure to carpets. The use of these fabrics suggests 
the true principle ot design for their ornamentation. Flatness should be one 
of the principles in decorating a surface continually under the feet ; therefore 
all architectural relief ornaments, and all imitations of fruit, shells, and other 
solid or hard substances, or even of flowers, strictly speaking, are the more 
improper the more imitatively they are rendered. As a field or ground for other 
objects, the attention should hardly be called to carpets by strongly marked 
forms or compartments, or by violent contrasts of light or dark, or color; but 
graduated shades of the same color, or a distribution of colors nearly equal in 
scale of light and dark, should be adopted — secondaries and tertiaries, or 
neutralized primaries, being used rather than pure tints, and lights introduced 
merely to give expression to the forms. Under such regulations as to flatness 
and contrast, either geometrical forms, or scrolls clothed with foliations in any 
stj'le, leaves, flowers or other ornament, may be used, which, with borders and 
compartment arrangements, and the use of diaper treatments, leave ample room 
for variety and for the inventive skill of the artist. The soundness of these 
principles will be manifest to all who give the subject of design proper con- 
sideration, and no better proof of the fact that, working strictly within these 
limits, beautiful things can be accomplished, is needed than the illustration before 
us. The design for this carpet answers the requirements above stated exactly, 
and every one can see for himself how satisfactory is the result. 

The American exhibit of furniture at the Centennial was especially remark- 
able for the superiority of its machine-work and the astonishing number of 
ingenious contrivances, patents, all of them, in the way of folding pieces, which, 
when not in use, looked like anything but what they really were, and often, 
indeed, answered several entirely distinct purposes. Some of the machine-made 
furniture was of a very high grade of excellence, though not equal to the hand- 
made, and in some of the latter the beauty and fitness of the carving and other 
ornaments was but little inferior to that of European nations, and more graceful 



494 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



in outline, if less cor- 
rect in form and ap- 
plication, than that 
of England. But 
where our manufac- 
turers were most 
deficient was in 
honesty and strength 
of construction, and 
in these particulars 
English furniture 
was superior to all 
other nations. Even 
in a lisfht and deli- 
cate article, like the 
Cabinet illustrated 
on page 492, the 
joinery was of the 
best, and an exami- 
nation of the con- 
struction showed 
that the work was 
done thoroughly 
throuofhout. This, 
however, is not all 
that recommends 
this particular ob- 
ject to the reader's 
attention, for it is a 
charmingly orna- 
mental piece of fur- 
niture as well, admi- 
kinds command prices 
taken many years to 



rably proportioned, 
graceful in oudine, 
and ornamented 
with taste and judg- 
ment. The panels 
in the doors of this 
cabinet are exquis- 
itely painted with 
fio-ures on a eold 
ground. This sort 
of panel -painting, 
whether on wood or 
clay, makes a very 
effective ornamenta- 
tion for furniture, 
and w-e are o-lad to 
observe that it is 
becoming popular 
in this country. 

On this page we 
engrave a Brussels 
Lace Border, chosen 
from the unrivaled 
exhibit of laces in 
the Belgian Court 
at the Centennial. 
The lace of this 
country has long 
been remarkable for 
several special ex- 
cellences in its manu- 
facture, and the finest 
that are beyond most purses. Some small articles have 
make, the worker wearing out health and eyesight in 




Lace Border: Collective Exhibit of Brussels. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



495 



accomplishing her task. But of late years machinery has been applied to this 
manufacture with great success, and so perfectly have hand-made laces been 




Lace Curtain : Jacoby, Nottingham. 



imitated that none but an expert can detect the difference. Indeed, in many 
localities hand-labor has been entirely discarded for that of machine. On 



496 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 




Cashmere Shawl: Exhibit of Saxony. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 497 



page 495 we engrave a charming design of machine-made Nottingham Lace, 
intended for a curtain, from the well-known factory of Jacoby, in Nottingham. 
Some of the patterns in these lavorite laces are of an elegance that leaves 
nothing to be desired, and not their least admirable peculiarity is their cheapness. 
The Cashmere Shawl, illustrated on page 496, differs only from a shawl 
made in Cashmere, in that it is made in Saxony and by machinery. The 
material is pershon, or shawl-wool ; that is, the downy substance growing next 
the skin and under the thick hair of the goats inhabiting Thibet and the other 
elevated regions to the north of the Himalaya Mountains ; and the pattern is 
similar to those wrought with such labor and patience in the hand-looms of 
India. Here, again, as in the case of the lace manufacture just referred to, 
the aid of machinery has been sought to imitate the labor of the hands, and 
to such perfection have shawl-making machines been brought that one who is 
not an expert cannot detect any difference in the fabrics. Doubtless many 
persons having so-called Cashmere shawls congratulate themselves on having 
a genuine hand-made chuddah that cost an astonishingly low price, when in 
truth it is one of these machine-made European imitations that has been sold 
at an excellent profit to the manufacturer. 



THE LESSON OF THE EXHIBITION. 

Among all the educational movements which have arisen in this country 
during the last decade, none has seemed to be so completely in harmony with 
the spirit of the times as education in the elements of industrial art. As wealth 
and European travel have increased, a taste for the skilled handiwork of foreign 
craftsmen has been rapidly developed among our people, and the desire to 
become the possessors of elegant objects to make home attractive has amounted 
almost to a passion. This alone is sufficient to account for the somewhat 
anomalous spectacle, that the houses of opulent and even moderately rich 
Americans are usually furnished — not merely ornamented, but furnished — with 
objects and materials of foreign product. 

In every country in the world may be found among the surroundings of 
wealthy travelers gleanings of rare or curious objects collected from other 



498 



THE INTERN ATIOXAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



countries, but these 
have a well-defined po- 
sition entirely apart 
from what we have 
referred to as the fur- 
niture of a house. 

It is questionable 
whether we could find 
in any other country so 
general a fashion as 
that which prevails 
here, of furnishingr the 
best houses, from for- 
eign sources, with all 
objects implying in 
their design and manu- 
facture the highest 
taste and the most ex- 
perienced skill in exe- 
cution. 

Such a condition of 
thinors as this is neither 
creditable to the enter- 
prise of manufacturers 
nor profitable to so- 
ciet)' from a purely 
economical point of 
view. If with a severe 
protective tariff main- 
tained for the purpose 
of excluding- foreign 
manufactures, it is still 
to be found that they 
are here, competing 




$^mm 



'MM 




S-.L-cduh Or 



cntal Iron Do, 



more than successfully 
with native products in 
industrial art, and prac- 
tically monopolizing the 
vast sums annually ex- 
pended on objects of 
use and ornament by 
the ever-increasing 
wealthy classes, there 
must be some radical 
deficiency either in our 
manufactures or our 
education which per- 
mits so remarkable a 
circumstance. 

The simplest ex- 
planation of this may 
be found in the ab- 
sence of opportunities 
for the development 
of skilled labor in 
America. Whilst other 
countries have been 
establishing schools 
and institutions for 
secondary education, 
thereby ensuring for 
their industries and 
manufactures the po- 
tent influence of skill 
and knowledge in art 
and science, we have 
been content to go on 
inventing labor-saving 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



499 



machines and pro- 
cesses, and neglecting 
the teclinical education 
of the people ; regard- 
less of the fact that in 
this rapidly progress- 
ing age, labor without 
taste or skill is a com- 
paratively worthless 
thing, and is paid for 
at the lowest price. 
On the other hand, the 
products of skilled la- 
bor are like currency 
in every- civilized coun- 
try, and are paid for 
at the highest price. 
It matters nothing 
whether they are to 
be found in Paris, 
London, Berlin, Mu- 
nich, Rome, or Japan, 
they will be sought for 
and secured at any 
price by those who 
have the taste to ap- 
preciate and the means 
to buy them. 

It is of such ideas 
as these that Inter- 
national Exhibitions 




Beauvais Tapestry. 



are the offspring. The 
world is competing 
more in the produc- 
tion of quality than 
quantity, and raw ma- 
terial in the bulk is 
getting to be a less 
precious freight than 
the triumphs of the 
studio, the furnace or 
the loom. Thoughtful 
men begin to see that 
the mere power of 
production in indus- 
trial manufactures, and 
even the exceptional 
advantage of a closely 
protected and exten- 
sive home market for 
their consumption, are 
not of themselves 
alone sufficient to defy 
competition and se- 
cure the market. They 
see what experience 
has demonstrated, that 
the possession of natu- 
ral resources is not of 
itself sufficient to en- 
sure the prosperity of 
a people under the 



conditions which modern civilization has imposed on the different races of men. 
The productiveness of the earth and the wealth of raw material require the 
transforming hand of man, skilled in the arts and sciences, to change these 



;oo 



THE IXTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION i8j6. 



rich gifts of nature into products which satisfy the needs of civilized commu- 
nities. A country which possesses abundance of the raw material of trade and 
commerce, but whose people are deficient in manufacturing skill or the taste 
which directs it, must of necessity be inferior to another country, equally blessed 
in natural resources, but whose manufactures are directed by the highest influ- 
ences that art and science can employ. From this aspect skill becomes a 
matter of the highest importance, and its general development and application 

tion of art and 



the surest mate- 
rial foundation 
for a nation's 
prosperity. 

The diffusion 
of a sound sys- 
tem of general 
education is con- 
sidered to be the 
surest safeguard 
of liberty and 
independence. 
What w^e now 
need is a de- 
velopment of 
general educa- 
tion in the direc- 




science, to place 
us on an equality 
with the older 
nations in the 
application of 
trained skill to 
the elevation of 
industrial manu- 
factures. 

We cannot ex- 
port corn and oil 
and cotton and 
pork, and import 
French bronzes, 
or German por- 
celain, or English 

carpets, without being the sufferers ; for the year's work of six men in pro- 
ducing such exports will hardly pay for the year's work of one skilled artisan 
whose imported handiwork we appreciate and buy. Just to that extent \ve are 
the losers, and with this view it would seem to be our duty to provide our 
working and productive citizens with sucli opportunities of acquiring skill as 
will place them on an equality with their compeers in other countries of the 
world, thus ensuring to them an equality of productive power and value for 
their labor to that possessed by the same classes in other countries. 

It needs but the example offered by France to convince us how great a 
strain any country can bear whose industries are fortified by skilled labor. 



Shawl : Conipagnie des Indes. 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



SOI 



Perhaps no other countr\-, with possibly one exception, could have paid the 
penalty of milliards ot money for foreign aggression, besides bearing the enor- 
mous cost of her own military operations, without becoming ruined and undone. 
Yet to-day the skilled manufactures of France are righting the country, and 
with the power of supremacy in taste she claims tribute from the whole world. 
The periodical occurrence of International Exhibitions enables us to see the 
relative progress made by different nations in the broad fields of industrial art 



and science, and 
to those who 
have been fortu- 
nate enough to 
watch this pro- 
gress from the 
first exhibition in 
London, in 1851, 
to the last in 
Philadelphia, in 
i876,thechanges 
made have been 
very great. The 
present is pre- 
eminently an age 
of revival in art 
in many of the 







Shwwl : Compagnie dcs Iiides, 



old countries, and 
the influence of 
such exhibitions 
as that we have 
enjoyed this year 
has been to en- 
courage such re- 
vivals, and create 
a general love 
of art where it is 
not an ancient 
story. 

It is not too 
much to say that 
in the exhibits 
of every country 
participating in 



these general displays, there has been evidence of a striking improvement, as 
each exhibition succeeded the last, in all the sections containing objects of 
industrial art. The example of successful manufacturers and the masterpieces 
of designers have influenced the enterprise and skill of those whose success, 
through want of sufficient skill, has not been what they desired. 

The objection which some manufacturers have raised against International 
Exhibitions, that they gave opportunities for the weak to imitate the strong, 
and placed the accumulated experience and success of the few at the service 
of the many, must be regarded as a powerful argument in favor of such 
displays, from every point of view, including that of the successful manufac- 



S02 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



turer. With a knowledge drawn trom observation of many such exhibitions, 
we do not hesitate to say that, whatever progress may have been made between 
one exhibition and another, by those who may have iound need for improve- 
ment, those who have held a leading position in any one have seldom forfeited 
it at a subsequent exhibition, except by their own consent. The general eleva- 




Cloisonne Enamel Plaque. 



tion of taste has created a higher and sounder appreciation of really good 
work, and it is as possible for those who have done good work to advance to 
better and best, as for those who have done bad work to progress into good 
and better. 

The highest success in any branch of industrial art is never the result of 
a secret that can be kept from the rest of the world by its inventor, and all 
efforts to conceal any detail or process characteristic of good work must be 
unsuccessful if the work itself is to be generally appreciated. Even in fine 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



503 



art, faith in modes and processes, as influencing- tlie production of excellent 
works, or accounting for their excellence, may be reckoned amongst the lost 
creeds. Sir Joshua Reynolds making a section of a picture by an older master, 
or successively removing each coat or painting of it, from the varnish to the 
canvas, in order to find out the processes by which it was produced, is only a 
refined imitation of the boy who made a surgical investigation within the interior 
of a pair of bellows to find out where the wind came from. The process of 




fienck Enameled Vases. 



painting had as little to do with the beauty and attractiveness of the picture as 
with the same features of Sir Joshua's own work ; and whilst the world is daily 
and hourly increasing its love for and appreciation of the pictures produced by 
the first president of the English Royal Academy, all lovers of art must regret 
the useless experiments made by him, which have resulted in the premature 
decay and destruction of many of his most beautiful works. A fruitless effort 
to discover and take advantage of a secret when there was none to be found, 
.sacrificed much of his own work which would otherwise have been equally 
permanent, and, as many would diink, equal also in beauty, to the subject of 
his inquiry. Still less can monopoly of industrial art in any of its departments 



504 THE INTERN ATIOXAL EX H I B I T 1 N, i S 7 6. 

be maintained by the nursing of imaginary secrets which exckisive or narrow- 
minded people fancy they liave discovered, nor is there any protection to be 
found on this eartli for people who wish to stand still themselves and desire 
the rest of the human race to imitate their example. 

The safeguard of the successful manufacturer, or of national pre-eminence 
in industrial art, must be the continued applicadon of the skill and foresight 
whidi achieved the success or conferred the pre-eminence. Even the world 
itself is no longer large enough for a man to hide in, and there is no hole or 
corner in it where a secret can be kept. People do not now speak ot the steel 
of Toledo or the silk of Genoa, because wherever silk or steel is required, 
with motive sufficient, it will be forthcoming. Behind this world-wide reputation 
for the production of excellent work, there was something more influential than 
good material in the possession of its producers. The skill and craftsmanship 
they were masters of constituted the open secret of their success, and conferred 
upon them a pre-eminence which could never be taken away except by superior 
workmen in their own crafts. So it is with the modern representatives of the 
ancient craftsmen, tjie manufacturers who supply our thousands and millions of 
people with the necessities, comforts or adornments of civilized life. No refusal 
to take part in an International Exhibition, for fear of having their designs or 
styles pirated or imitated, can protect them from the aggressiveness of equal 
or greater skill than their own, and less skill they do not fear. 

In the general diffusion of education, which is perhaps the marked pecu- 
liarity of the nineteenth century, and in the development of special or technical 
education in many countries, we may look for a sufficient cause why the skilled 
industries of the world are becoming more appreciated and more universal. 
Modern facilities of locomotion and transportation will eventually equalize the 
different quarters of the world, so far as the possession of raw material is 
concerned, leaving nothing as a field of competition except the application of 
scientific and artisdc skill in design and manufacture, whilst education will there- 
fore create the demand for good work, and scientific inventions have practically 
abolished the barriers of distance and advantages of locality ; there yet remains, 
as subject for competition, the pre-eminence in industrial art of a higher standard 
which a more highly educated race will require in the future. 

The modern International Exhibition of Arts and Sciences is the embodi- 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 505 



ment of a generous and peaceful rivalry in the production of the excellent, and 
a full participation in these contests indicates a healthy vitality, displaying both 
the desire to learn and the desire to teach. The world going to one school- 
house, every country to be ranked according to its attainments and merits, 
prepared to learn irom others what it does not know, and teach to others what 
it does know, committed to both by its presence at school, is, to say the least, 
a very delightful spectacle. The difference in race, climate and history of the 
people and natural products ot the several quarters of the globe must to a 
great extent in the future, as in the past, maintain a wholesome variety in their 
industries and arts, but the influence ot International Exhibitions will probably 
result in modifying many essentially national peculiarities, even if it does not 
end in the assimilation to a common standard of excellence the arts, both fine 
and industrial, ol all progressive races. Such an asshnilation need in no great 
degree destroy the piquant variety stamped on a nation's products by its indi- 
vidual genius, for so long as any nation maintains its political independence 
and cherishes its past history, caring with a loving hand for the monuments 
and masterpieces of art which its ancestors created, and handing their accumu- 
lated treasures down to a posterity for whose education in art a thoughtful 
provision is made, so long, a nation is in no danger of losing its individuality 
of character in art-work. This however is only true to the extent that its art- 
work is good, for the inevitable result of these periodical and universal 
exhibitions will be to destroy bad art-work, whether ot a national type or 
appertaining to individual effort. 

Conventions of nations peacefully competing in art will have the same 
experience as a congress of representatives of all races met to determine 
important political matters. Each delegate will be expected to state distinctly 
his own nation's views, and listen with courteous attention to the views of all 
the other representatives. If his views are simply clannish or actively offensive, 
he must expect them to be canvassed and rejected; if broad and truthful, they 
may be received and welcomed. But the fact that such a congress is held is 
an admission that every member has something to learn, and may have much 
to give up before the deliberations are completed. The public opinion of the 
world is an accomplished fact, and though different nations may accept it in a 
greater or lesser degree, they cannot wholly ignore it or set it at defiance. 



5o6 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, i8j6. 



.So in the universal exhibitions, at which may be seen the products of all 
civilized races, to be examined and studied by representatives of every con- 
tributing race, there will be formed a public opinion of the world on industrial 
art displays, which will generally be found to accept the good and reject the bad, 
wherever it comes from, and these universal verdicts will be in the main as 
correct as the judgments of any other tribunal. A simply barbarous art sub- 
jected to the critical examination of the whole world cannot survive the test, 



however remote 
may be the coun- 
try displaying it, 
or however its prac- 
tice may be cher- 
ished as the ex- 
pression of the 
people producing 
it. A bad work 
of art, picture or 
statue, exhibited in 
good faith by its 
author, who thinks 
it is a good work, 
placed side by side 
with an excellent 
work, will teach the 
producer of the 




Sevres Vase. 



latter nothing 
wrong, but its own 
author, capable of 
improvement as he 
must be, will be 
seriously benefited 
by the comparison. 
The same results 
will follow a ju- 
dicious comparison 
of the industrial 
arts of all nations. 
Tliat which is able 
to undergo the 
scrutiny of critics 
who judge from as 
many standpoints 
as the countries 



from which they come, if it establishes for itself the character of being good, 
honest and skillful work, will deserve the reputadon it secures, and will confer 
a benefit on the producers of work which is inferior to it in character. On 
the other hand, no fictitious reputation nor long-established custom can hide 
from a universal jury the defects which a bad work has, and the detection of 
its meretricious character, judged by itself or as compared with work recog- 
nized to be good, is as certain to result and to be of as great a service to art 
in its own way as is the recognition of excellence. By this action the provin- 
cialisms of the world displayed by nations will eventually be made to disappear, 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



507 



and its skill and taste become an universal possession. To this the artistic nations 
mi^ht object (as the selfish manufacturers rejoicing in a temporary superiority _ 
micrht object) that when the whole world is skillful, the value of skill will dis- 
appear, and that what is the property of every country will be of no particular 
advantage to any one. In reply we should say that some things are so precious 
and so necessary to perfect human happiness that the mere thought of monopo- 
lizing them is a crime against the human race, whilst the more completely they 



are possessed and 
enjoyed by one, 
the more freely are 
they available to 
every human crea- 
ture. If every coun- 
try' in the world 
were free from des- 
potism, would lib- 
erty be less enjoy- 
able to the English 
race ? Who but a 
knave could rejoice 
in his personal 
freedom and love 
to hear the clank- 
ing of his neigh- 
bor's fetters ? Is 




"^^ 
^^^ 



Jim. ■■■ iii..!iilliliL..ii ^^ 

Sevres Vase 



health and strength 
the perquisite of 
a few who would 
value it less if all 
were healthy and 
strong? Is there not 
sunshine enough to 
rejoice our hearts 
and go all round 
the world without 
depreciating the 
value of sunshine ? 
And in the same 
manner that as 
liberty, health and 
sunlight exist for 
the whole world, 
and can be univer- 



sally enjoyed without decreasing their value to any individual, so good art may 
be the common possession of all peoples without a single country or a solitary 
individual being injured thereby. 

Let it therefore be acknowledg-ed that the general elevation of industrial 
art wnll be of universal benefit, and that the objectors thereto must be like 
those who would monopolize liberty, health and sunshine, and other common 
enjoyments, and we shall become reconciled to International Exhibitions, and 
display the charity which, besides being a good thing in itself, is said, on excel- 
lent authority, to cover a multitude of sins. 



5o8 



THE I NTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



The great division of the art department of these exhibitions into the fine 
and the industrial, enables us to compare the resources and modes of expression 
peculiar to each. This display of work in each division has been the result 
of development, for there was no fine art section in the Exhibition of 1S51. 



In Paris, in 1855, 
the field was more 
comprehensive; in 
London, in 1862, 
the fine art sec- 
tion was quite im- 
portant, whilst 
again in Paris, in 
1867, there was 
not only fine art 
but antiquities. In 
Vienna, in 1S73, 
the educational 
department was 
developed into a 
prominent place, 
and the Philadel- 
phia display left 
out nothing that 
other exhibitions 
embraced, and 
added many origi- 
nal features. 

The general dis- 
tinofuishine char- 




Cut- G/iiss Decanter. 



acteristic of the 
Centennial Exhi- 
bition was the ex- 
cellence of its 
industrial depart- 
ment, very far 
surpassing the col- 
lection of works 
in the fine art 
section. This was 
a natural result 
of the contrary 
views taken of the 
whole scheme, by 
this country on 
the one hand, and 
by the rest of the 
world on the 
other. 

Outside of the 
United States the 
project presented 
itself as intended 
to develop trade 
alone, and so we 



found that only one European Government went beyond this commercial view 
and sent a national collection of fine art works. It should not be forgotten 
that England alone, through its Government, participated with America in 
regarding its Centennial Exhibition not onlv as a trade speculation, but as a 
celebration of the greatest event in its history. There is, indeed, something 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



509 



like poetry in this tact that, one hundred years after 1776, the descendants ot 
the men who lost and the men who won an empire should join together in 
true brotherly regard in celebrating the event. The rest of the world had 
nothing to celebrate and much to sell, and the picture-galleries which were 
filled by others than America and England were only bazaars for the sale of 
pictures. None of the treasures of the Louvre or the Vatican found their way 
to Philadelphia, though the British Royal Academy sent of its best. But all 
the world had its manufactures to display, and knew the extent of the market 




Chinese Porcelain Vases. 



to be secured by its successful industries. We saw, therefore, as a consequence 
of this way of regarding the Exhibition by the world, a strong industrial and 
weak artistic competition among the works of foreign countries, and the reverse 
in the American department. This gives the subject of industrial art as there 
displayed an interest greater than it has had in any but the first of International 
Exhibitions. 

To appreciate the character of the works, and estimate the positions held 
by the different nations, it is necessary that we should consider for awhile the 
peculiar domains of the two phases of art — fine and industrial — and see to 
what extent they employ a common language, and in what they are entirely 
different. It has been the fashion of very modern times to believe that no 
dividing-line can be drawn between the functions or language of the two, and 



5IO THE INTERNATIOXAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



that between the lowest efforts of industrial and the highest attainments of fine 
art is alone to be found a radical difference of capacity and purpose. The 
advocates of this view instance a vase by Cellini, or the Milton Shield by 
Ladeuil — both objects of use, yet displaying in their ornamentation the highest 
kind of fine art — and represent that a line which attempted to separate fine 
and industrial art would be covered by such objects as these, which belong 
equally to both, and therefore to neither alone. There appears to be a confu- 
sion of ideas in this view, resulting from selection by the artists of utilitarian 
objects upon which to display their capacity for and power in fine art. It is a 
question not yet decided whether the examples of even the greatest masters 
justifies the employment of the highest art as ornament for merely useful 
objects, and this is apart from the still more disputed question of whether the 
human figure is properly employed in ornamentation at all. The lovely basso- 
relievo chasings of Ladeuil or Flaxman might as well have been worked on 
tablets, to be framed like pictures, as upon shields, and the question to be 
settled is whether the heroic sentiment associated with the name and the con- 
venient form of a shield is ample apology for its use as the basis for a work 
of fine art. By the name alone could the beautiful work of art called the 
Milton Shield be mistaken for an industrial object ; and one of the lessons to 
be learned from such a work is, that if it becomes a sacrilege to use an object 
for that purpose which its name implies — /. e., when a shield intended for the 
protection of the human body becomes a shrine at which the soul worships — 
then the true province of ornamentation has been abandoned, and the realm 
of fine art attained. By the union of the two branches of art in one object 
results a confusion of thought concerning the functions of both. Yet though 
this confusion has existed and does exist in the minds of some, it by no means 
establishes the principle that there is no distinction between the scope and 
language of the two, but only demonstrates the necessity for a discriminating 
analysis. If for instance we see that in the great art epochs a clearly distinct 
line was drawn between the scope and methods of fine and industrial art, and 
that in the worst periods of art the line was indistinct or obliterated ; if the 
works produced by the men who recognized this line of demarcation remain to 
testify in all their perennial beauty that art had allied itself to the spirit of 
Nature, and expressed eternal principles; and if the works of men who ignored 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 511 



this line appear only at long intervals attractive, and then but to those who 
judge by sensation rather than sense, and if the basis of the existence of such 
works be only the caprice of fashion or the affectation of popularity, coming 
and going without reason if not without law, then we must arrive at a definite 
conclusion that there is a principle underlying this question which exists through 
all the aofes, whether we o-uess at it, find it or ignore it ; and that in the world 
of art, as in the physical world, accident is impossible and law reigns. What we 
call accident is only law misunderstood or disobeyed ; what we call beauty in 
art is but the co-ordination of men's works with God's works, the expression 
of the perennial character of created things, and displaying the law by which 
they exist, as contrasted with the exceptional or temporary nature of a par- 
ticular instance of His work, the individual rendering of a law under special 
circumstances. Thus the Venus of MIlo female type of beauty will never go 
out of fashion, and the world will never change its opinion about the statue as 
a work of art, because the artist only displayed in his ideal the permanent 
t}'pe of his subject, which will last as long as men and women are alive to 
see it. But the way in which the back-hair of the lady is looped up, being 
only a human arrangement, passes away and reappears alternately on the head 
of the modern Venus of flesh and blood, coming into fashion apparently about 
twice or thrice in a century — less frequendy, perhaps, or it may be more often ; 
and whether one or the other, our appreciation of the statue of the goddess 
is never affected by it, for the Venus is perennial though fashion dies. 

The same principle may be applied to ornamentation as to fine art. The 
design which is permanendy acceptable to cultivated taste is that which is based 
on nature as a foundation, and true to all time, which generalizes the charac- 
teristics of nature, and adapts them to increase man's enjoyment without sacri- 
ficing his convenience. So long as the nature upon which this design is based 
exists for men to see, so long will each explain the other, the origin and the 
application ; but just to the extent that the natural basis and conventional 
arrangement are departed from, displaced by mere imitation, or temporary or 
local fashion, so will the appreciation of such work be short-lived or limited to 
the vulgar taste it was intended to gratify. 

When we see the same general principles of design adhered to in all the 
great epochs of ornament, and see them departed from in the periods of 



512 



THE INTERNATIONAL ENHIBITION, iSj6. 



debasement, it is not difficult to see the reason for the distinction between good 
and bad ; and that is undoubtedly the case. The three great styles of orna- 
mental design, during the periods of their purest development, very plainly 
displayed the same features ot conventionalization, geometrical arrangement of 
natural forms, their adaptation to ornament an object without injuring its useful- 
ness, and avoided the direct imitation oi nature for design. These are the 
characteristics of Greek, Gothic and Renaissance ornament at their best, and 
when these features became less prominent, the styles decayed, ending in the 




Hindoo Bronze i'ase. 



barbarous efforts at ornamentation that come of imitation without thought. 
For let it be remembered that design is not the mere imitadon of details of 
the physical world, but adaptation and arrangement of them. Imitation may be 
seen in the lookine-elass, but the elass can hardlv be said to design • so a man 
who reproduces the accidental grouping of natural lorms to ornament a carpet 
or a wall-paper only imperfectly represents the phenomenon of the mirror, with 
as little thoucrht, the same skill in design, and with less reflection. 

The broad clear line, then, which history teaches us to draw between design 
applied to industrial and fiiie art, divides the ornamental from the pictorial, the 
conventional from the natural adaptation from imitation, the geometrical from 
perspective effects. 

When either branch of design deserts its own characteristics and employs 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



513 



the language of the other, the result will be final debasement, however beautiful 
at first sight may be the form in which the error is displayed ; though perma- 
nently beautiful, it will not be held. Accepting these general principles, it is 
not impossible to formulate, or at any rate to indicate, the necessary elements 
of good taste in design for industrial purposes. 

Before going into details concerning the application of design to special 




Hindoo Bronze Vase. 



branches of industry, let us examine for awhile the bearing of the dividing-line 
drawn above, and see whether it explains the exceptional beauty of styles which 
recognized its existence. It is sometimes convenient, for the sake of illustra- 
tion, to put cases in their most exaggerated forms, in order that those who 
are unaccustomed to make nice distinctions between right and wrong may see 
the truth when the blackest and whitest are placed side by side. Even those 
who are unable to make a comparison may be reached by a contrast, just as 
those who never had the blessing of a musical education may be deaf to the 



514 THE INTERN ATI OXAL EXHIBITION, iSj6. 



mild agony of an intentional discord, but would be exasperated and gesticulant 
over the clanging and horrors of half a dozen brass bands playing that number 
of tunes at the same time, under the windows. In reasonine, when there is 
danger of missing conviction by traveling towards the positive, the reasoner 
obtains the result he wants by going towards the negative pole, and by the 
process of j'ediictio ad absiirdam, proves conclusively what a thing is not — the 
first step towards proving what a thing is. Let us take this step in order to 
arrive at some definite conclusions regarding ornamental art, the fruition of 
industrial design. 

The point stated is, that design of ornament for objects of use should be 
adapted, not imitated, from nature, or from accepted types of good historic 
ornament ; that to fine art belongs the imitative and natural, to industrial art 
-' the adaptive and conventional. When this is reversed, let us see what happens. 
A man made wealthy beyond all counting of monej', by oil-wells discovered on 
the Avilderness in which he kept cattle, was determined to have an up-town 
mansion in the metropolis most elegantly furnished — not in the style approved 
of by the quiet gentlemen who work for nodiing in the great universities, and 
dispense Greek thoughts and create the love of Greek art at a slight advance 
on starvation, for the love of art, but in the grand smashing way of a bank- 
president who only means to enjoy it for a year, and then seek permanent 
seclusion in some country which has no extradition treaty with the United 
States. Feeling the burden of untold millions accidentally his own, the instruc- 
tions to the upholsterer are always in the same key — "Spare no expense; 
make it lively and cheerful ; don't have nothing in the house but the most 
splendid stuff you can get." 

House-furnishers are human, but they measure men and women as well as 
rooms and windows. They are also sometimes skilled in judgment, and will 
measure a man for his furniture with as much precision as the boot-maker 
measures his foot for a pair of boots, and will fit him as well. So when Mr. 
Kerosene Croesus eives an order for the furnishing of Shoddoleth Mansion, the 
upholsterer takes the gentleman's measure of taste, and in order to fit him 
furnishes somewhat as follows : — 

The carpet in the reception-room is ornamented by enormous groups of 
the largest kinds of flowers, spread widely apart, so that the inquiring visitor, 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 515 



interested in art, has to move two chairs and a table before he can get a clear 
view of any one bouquet. Tlie primar}^ colors predominate as a rule in flowers, 
and so the floor has a very lively appearance, according to order. The impa- 
tient visitor waiting to be received must have his attention engaged, and so the 
walls are covered by an elaborate paper-hanging, on which frequent and per- 
sistent humming-birds and birds of Paradise, in all the gorgeous plumage of 
the Orient, relentlessly pursue prismatic insects, who, in the flutter and excite- 
ment resulting from this attack of handsome savages on them, seek a hopeless 
refuge among wreaths of roses and lilies and amaranth, suspended on the 
bronze frame-work of the out-of-doors scenery. The ceiling, emblematic of 
heaven, is an elaborate imitation of the effect of sunlight on clouds and vapor, 
which display the whole register of aerial effects, from the blazing reflection of 
golden rays of direct light, through the mild tenderness of the divine azure to 
the sombre tones of atmospheric shadow before the storm breaks to clear the 
firmament of its impurity. That is the background. Disporting themselves on 
this elaborate heaven are cherubs and seraphs, who, regardless of all scientific 
laws of motion, have all their motive power behind, and the weight to be pro- 
pelled in front of the power, a putting of the cart before the horse, to which 
age has given a fictitious authority. These subordinate spirits are dancing 
attendance, or, more properly, flitting attendance, on a human deity symbolic 
of love, drawn in a three-ton golden car by several doves harnessed to the 
vehicle with blue ribbons, all of which is supposed to be a human reflection 
of the ideal common sense of the Almighty, under the name of romantic com- 
position, above the perceptions of ordinary men. Though there is no open 
fireplace in the room, the ghost of its ancestors remains in the shape of a 
mantlepiece and a blind grate. On this mantle are placed costly porcelains 
from France, hideous bronze grotesques from Japan, and a vase of artificial 
flowers, made in moulds, of wax material, but colored to imitate natural 
flowers — flowers which never grew, never can decay, and never really existed. 
A few engravings might be seen on the walls, if the flashing colors of the 
humming-birds, roses and lightning-bugs did not so completely kill all modest 
effects of mere lisfht and shade. 

But this is only the porch to the temple. The intention so far has 
been to impress on the visitor how fortunate it would be for him to be intro- 



516 



THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 



duced to die holy of holies which Mr. Croesus, with a farmer's vocabulary, 
calls his parlor. 

Let us now see the triumphs of the highest moneyed taste. The carpet 
here is the best imitation of a landscape-painting that can be woven in dyed 
wool, the subject embracing a vast extent of country in a poetical region, like 
one of Turner's day-dreams in color, displaying miles of fertile valley, a majestic 
river flowing through it, upon one of whose banks rises as charming a piece 



of architecture as ever 
adorned a bride-cake. 
Farther away a broken 
range of mountains, and 
farther still the peaceful 
blue sky, checkered only 
with cloudlets of fleecy 
whiteness and purity. 
Let us walk across this 
carpeted floor and keep 
count of what we shall 
tread upon. The first 
step places us in the 
centre of a herd of deer 
browsing in the valley, 
all of one's head and 
part of another's body 
being thus hidden by a 




No. 10 boot; the next 
step is into the most 
graceful curve of the 
river at its deepest part, 
then on to the top of 
the moated castle, thence 
to the centre of a forest 
in the mid -distance, 
thence to the highest 
elevation of an Alpine 
mountain, and lastly 
upon the heavens them- 
selves. Arriving at the 
sham fireplace, we step 
on a hearth-rug, the 
design for which is a 
monarch of the glen 
rising in a stately 
manner from his native heath, an excellent copy from one of Landseer's most 
striking pictures of stag-life. 

Retracing our steps, of course everything is seen the wrong way. The 
trees appear to grow down, and the river to run up; the highest part of the 
castle is the ditch round the foundations, and the lowest its turrets and pin- 
nacles ; even the red deer stand on their heads and graze with their hoofs ; 
and whilst this all occurs to the details of the landscape, the general effect is 
so changed that the heavens are beneath and the earth above, which, taken 
altogether, may be described as a triumph of distorted taste. 




Hindoo Water-Boitie. 



IiVDUSTRIAL ART. 



517 



Not to dwell too long upon so unlovely a theme, this misdirection, which 
is seen so plainly in a landscape carpet, may be detected in almost every other 
object of use to which ornament can be applied. On the breakfast-table the 
boiled eggs are to be found in a porcelain basket which is the model of a 
setting hen, as though half-hatched eggs were delicacies, and when Mr. CrcEsus 
requires some cream for his coffee, he seizes the rampant tail of an earthen- 
ware brown cow, and swinging the whole animal in the air, forces the cream 



through her mouth — 
cream which has been 
previously introduced 
into her body through 
a skylight in her back. 
There is also a tragic 
side to this demorali- 
zation of taste, for in a 
private sanctum, where 
memorials of the past 
are preserved to re- 
mind Mr. CrcEsus of his 
early struggles, and to 
enhance the value by 
contrast of present 
wealth, are two candle- 
sticks of sea-green 
glass, which are models 




Hindoo Water-Bottle. 



of the Crucifixion; the 
bowed head of the Sa- 
viour and his out- 
stretched arms forming 
the handle by which it 
is to be carried ; and 
that great historic scene 
which was complete 
when the dying Saviour 
cried in mortal agony, 
"It is finished!" is em- 
ployed to furnish the 
ornament of a stick 
with which to hold a 
tallow candle — the 
crown of thorns to 
catch the grease as it 
Sfutters over, and the 



pierced side of Christ to be clasped in the hand whenever Bridget takes this 
candlestick into the cellar to light her when fetching a hodful of coals. 

All this happens when designers forget the limits by which ornamental art 
for industrial purposes should be bounded, and, overstepping these lines, invade 
the domain or employ the language of fine art, by imitation rather than adap- 
tation. The same mistakes occur, though in the opposite direction, when the 
designer of a picture or a statue abandons the truth and beauty of nature, or 
neglects to imitate her best types, or treats them in an ornamental spirit. Then 
results either a conventional, academic manner, stiff and formal, or madly 



Si8 THE I.VTERNATIOXAL EXHIB/TIOY, 1876. 



eccentric in its individuality, wliich, being only a crazy fashion and not a truth, 
becomes as temporary in its existence or appreciation as the fashionable absurdi- 
ties in dress. It is true that many imperfectly educated artists fall into this 
miserable style of work from want of knowledge and lack of power; it is not 
so much chosen wickedness on their parts, as an unfortunate imbecility, pro- 
duced by a morbid belief that the highest success in art is more the result of 
training the heart than the head, a thing of the emodons rather than a matter 
of intellect. It is a fact having a very definite meaning, and which ought to 
have much influence upon all schemes of educadon for professional artists, that 
all great artists have been men of great intellectual powers and attainments ; 
and the ignoring of this historical fact has led many men to infer that science 
has no necessary place in the education of an artist ; yet both Leonardo da 
Vinci and Michael Ancjelo must have devoted as much time and care to the 
study of science as of art. Now, if we compare their works with those of 
other artists deficient in scientific knowledge, we find those of the former have 
a knack of being right, whilst the latter display the habit of being wrong in 
matters pertaining to form. Color is so much a question of individual percep- 
tion or appreciation, and so little of exact knowledge, that it is not so possible 
to apply close standards of right or wrong (even if they existed) in judging 
the works of artists as to color. Not so of form, or light and shade, which 
are subject to the most stringent scientific laws, and outrages of these laws are 
therefore easy to detect. Viewed in this light, the pictures of painters who 
ignore science are nothing but elaborate mosaics of lies, no one detail of which 
can possibly be true, for their authors possessed no accurate knowledge of the 
appearance of natural phenomena by which these details could be tested and 
judged. If we find in an elaborate composition a detail of architecture, of 
exact geometric form, drawn under the influence of light and shade, both the 
form and effect of chiaroscuro are capable of absolute test and demonstration 
of beine either rieht or wrone- The man who is ignorant of the scientific 

O ITS O t-5 

rules and basis of art will draw these wrongly all the time, unless about once 
in a hundred times he gets the form and effect right by accident. Now, if we 
apply this test to a simple detail whose accuracy can be demonstrated, and find 
the painter has drawn it wrongly, why should we trust his version of a face 
or a landscape which require infinitely higher powers of observation .? If we 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



S19 



cannot trust a man with a penny, why entrust him with a pound ? and what 
sane man would do so? A man notoriously dishonest about cents will steal 
dollars when he has de- 
veloped his talent and the 
opportunity comes, and a 
semi-blind man who cannot 
see a leaf with sufficient 
perception to draw it accu- 
rately need never be relied 
upon to draw the whole 
tree from which it has been 
plucked. 

It is no answer to this 
argument to sav that the 
inspired artist feels when 
he is right, for that is only 
a sentimental opinion of 
his own work, which may 
be entirely wrong without 
his knowing it, and true 
perception or feeling is 
based on our capacities to 
see accurately and test our 
knowledge. This, which is 
true of fine art, is equally 
true of desisfn for Indus- 
trial art. We had too many 
lamentable illustrations of 
this truth in the works of 
half-educated artists in the 
Centennial Exhibition to 
doubt it, and there were not wanting many examples of the types of bad taste 
already described to show that errors exist on both sides of that line which 
divides fine art from industrial art. 




520 THE INTERNATIONAL EX H I D I T 1 N, i S 7 6. 

If we turn from these and examine works of industrial art which are 
accepted as types of good design, we find precisely the opposite ot such a 
spirit as that referred to, and a recognition of the dividing-line. Consistency 
and simplicity are the necessary characteristics of good ornamental art, and all 
great schools have recognized it. Inconsistency, over-elaboration and sham have 
marked the ephemeral products of those schools or epochs which have never 
been nor will ever be considered great. Let us see, for instance, how the 
Greeks looked at design for industrial purposes. There are not more than 
twelve distinct forms of ornament used for the decoration of all their industrial 
products, but these were well chosen and well adapted, and invariably increase 
the beauty of the object ornamented without detracting from its use and con- 
venience. Not one of these forms makes more than a slight approach to the 
imitation of nature ; in only a few does this extend to the ignoring ot sym- 
metry as an element of conventionalism, and in none at all is this last feature 
entirely departed from. This much of ornament. 

It is to be remembered, however, that design for useful objects includes 
both their construction and ornamentation, and the first is to be attended to 
first, before any consideration of the second is necessary. Faithful service well 
performed is what human nature requires of its servants, for that cannot be 
dispensed with as an ideal, however much of this ideal service is lost in the 
actual performance through want of skill ; and then comes the soul's longing 
for graceful service added to faithful service. Satisfying the whole need of both 
body and soul is the function of good design, whilst beautifying the necessity 
is the province of ornamentation. So the canons of criticism upon which 
industrial art may be judged are not past the comprehension of very ordinarily 
educated people, always supposing that they have common sense as human 
creatures, and some modesty and refinement of thought. For just as most 
people are fair judges of good workmanship so far as serviceableness goes, 
thus far they are competent critics of more than one-half of the quality of 
useful objects, their adaptation to the utilitarian purposes for which they were 
designed. Then there is the second half of the capacity to criticise — viz., 
judging of the purity of taste and skill of workmanship displayed, which is 
necessarily a matter either of education or observation, another form of educa- 
tion. The knowledge of the expert includes not only these two branches, but 



INDUSTRIAL ART. 



521 



also a close acquaintance with the materials of the arts, and intimacy with 
processes of manufacture ; for not only must good design be on right general 
principles of taste, but it must recognize the peculiarities of the raw material 
in which the design has to be produced, as well as the process by which it 
will be manufactured. Such a comprehensive knowledge as that is not neces- 
sary for the ordinary person aspiring to possess good taste, for all will never 
become experts, but if they did, even then there would be no experts left. 

Seldom has there been, even if ever, so complete an opportunity for the 
cultivation of good taste and sound ideas concerning industrial art as the 
Centennial Exhibition afforded. With some definite and catholic opinions on 
what constitutes good taste, and a clear perception of the difference in function 
between industrial and fine art, then it becomes a simple matter to estimate 
the language of each by whatever tongue it is spoken. Art is the one universal 
language, and national types are but accents or dialects of the same. Here in 
this Catalogue is the permanent echo of the Centennial Exhibition, wherein the 
objects most conspicuous for their beauty, or in the technical skill displayed in 
their construction, are offered for the appreciation of the world and of future ages. 

Living men who remember with pride the year of celebration when the 
nation became a century old, may here see reminders of much that was enjoy- 
able, admirable and wonderful at Philadelphia. Men who are yet unborn will 
recognize in this permanent record of a national triumph the evidence that, 
though one hundred years had somewhat changed the character of their ances- 
tors, time had in no wise eliminated from the national heart a thoughtful care 
for posterity.